References T-Z used for Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.


[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

As a single listing

A through D

E through J

K through O

P through S





Takagi, S. et al. (1979) Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 33 (1): 35–37. “Isolation of Synephrine from Evodia Fruits.” (Text is in Japanese) (Shigekazu Takagi, Takeshi Kinoshita, Mieko Sameshima, Toshiyuki Akiyama, Shigeo Kobayashi and Ushio Sankawa)

Takahashi (in the literature) see as Kinoshita

Takahashi & Brossi 1982 Heterocycles, 19: 691

Takido, M. et al. (1970) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59 (2): 271–273. “New synthesis of rac. Anhalonidine and rac. Pellotine” (M. Takido, K.L. Khanna & A.G. Paul)

Takizawa, T. et al. (1993) Journal of Natural Products, 56 (12): 2183–2185. “A New Type of Triterpene from Trichocereus pachanoi.” (Takaomi Takizawa, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kitotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo, Hiroshi Yuasa & Ken-Ichi Kawai)

Tampier, L. et al. (1977) Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, 17: 731–734. “Influences of catecholamine-derivated alkaloids and β-adrenergic blocking agents on stereospecific binding of 3H-naloxone.” (L. Tampier, H.S. Alpers & V.E. Davis) ,

Tamuara, K. et al. (1974) Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 47: 2682.

Tan, M.L. et al. (2005) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 96: 287–294. “Methanolic extract of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) induces apoptosis in breast carcinoma, T47-D cell line.” (M.L. Tan, S.F. Sulaiman, N. Najimuddin, M.R. Samian & T.S. Tengku Muhammad)

Tan, R.X. & W.X. Zou (2001) Nat. Prod. Rep., 18: 448–459. “Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites.” [from Wu et al. 2008]

Tani et al. (1978) YZ, 98: 1658.

Taniguchi, K. et al. (1964) J. Lab. Clin. Med. 64: 469. (K. Taniguchi Y. Kakimoto and M.D. Armstrong)

Tank, A. et al. (1976) Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 273: 219–226. “Ethanol induced alterations of dopamine metabolism in rat liver.” (A. Tank, H. Weiner and J.A. Thurman)

Tarsitano, F. (1945) Bolletino della società italiana di biologia sperimentale, 20: 762–763. “La ricerca tossicologica della mescalina.” [CA (1946) 40: 66646.] [“Toxicological studies on mescaline.”]

Tarsitano, F. (1947) Folia Medica, 30: 340–344

Tayleur-Stockings, G. (1940) Journal of Mental Science, 86: 29–47. “A clinical study of the mescaline psychosis with special reference to the mechanism of the genesis of schizophrenia and other psychotic states.”

Taylor, Walter R. (1956) Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society, 27: 215–234. “Some Implications of the Carbon-14 dates from a cave in Coahuila, Mexico.”

Teirich, H. (1954) Psyche (Stuttgart) 7: 637–640. “Ueber eine Meskalinschädigung.”

Teitel et al. (1972) J. Med. Chem. 15: 845

Teitel et al. (1974) J. Med. Chem. 17: 134 (S.Teitel, J. O’Brien, W. Pool & A. Brossi)

Telang, Sadanand Anant (1973) Phytochemistry, 12: 2059. “2-Hydroxymethyl-4-Methoxy-α-Pyrone From Opuntia polyacantha.”

Teles, F. et al. (1984) Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, 35: 421–425. “Amino and organic acids of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L.).” (F. Teles, J. Stull, W. Brown & F. Whitting)

Tello, Julio César (1929) Antiguo Peru. Primera epoca. Lima

Tello, Julio César (1940) Primeros indicios de una cultura megalitica semjante a la de Chavin en la region central de Peru. Lima.

Tello, Julio César (1947) Paginas Escogidas. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Peru

Tello, Julio César (1960) Chavin. Cultura Matriz de la Civilización Andina. Primera Parte. Imprenta de la Universidad de San Marcos. Lima.

Terry, Martin Kilman (2005) PhD Dissertation; Texas A&M University. A Tale of Two Cacti: Studies in Astrophytum asterias and Lophophora Williamsii. 178 pages.

Terry, Martin (2007) “Button, button, who’s got the button? Commerce, Religion, Drug Regulation and Conservation in the Current Peyote Trade of the Texas Borderlands.” [A talk presented to the Center for Big Bend Studies, November 2007.]

Terry, Martin (2007) Cactus Conservation in the US-Mexico Borderlands: Case Studies. []

Terry, Martin (2009)b. Cactus & Succulent Society Journal, Volume 80. “Stalking the Wild Lophophora.”
4: 181–186. “Part 1 Chihuahua and Coahuila”
5: 222–228. Part 2 Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas”
6: 310–317. “Part 3 San Luis Potosí (central), Querétaro, and Mexico City”

Terry, Martin (2011) Phytologia, 93 (3): 330–340. “Regeneration of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae) following mummification of its crown by natural freezing events, and some observations on multiple stem formation.“

Terry, Martin & James E. Mauseth (2006) Sida, 22 (1): 1565–592. “Root-shoot anatomy and post-harvest vegetative clonal development in Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae: Cacteae) Implications for conservation.”

Terry, Martin et al. (2006) Journal of Archaeological Science, 20: 1–5. “Lower Pecos and Coahuila peyote: new radiocarbon dates.” (Martin Terry, Karen L. Steelman, Tom Guilderson, Phil Dering & Marvin W. Rowe) [Interestingly, using his power as a peer reviewer for Nature, Juan Adovasio was able to thwart the first attempt to publish this paper which had corrected flaws in Adovasio’s work.]

Terry, Martin et al. (2011) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 5 (2): 661–675. “Limitations to natural production of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae) I. Regrowth and survivorship two years post harvest in a South Texas population.” [Martin Terry, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams, Teodoso Herrera & Norma Fowler]

Terry, M. et al. (2012) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 6 (2): 567–577. “Limitations to natural production of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae) II. Effects of repeated harvesting at two-year intervals in a South Texas population.” (Martin K. Terry, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams, Teodoso Herrera & Norma Fowler)

Tesoriere, L. (2005) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 53 (20): 7851–7855. “Biothiols, taurine, and lipid-soluble antioxidants in the edible pulp of Sicilian cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits and changes of bioactive juice components upon industrial processing.” (Tesoriere L, Fazzari M, Allegra M, Livrea MA.) [from PubMed]

Texas Department of Public Safety. Peyote sales totals and distributors of Texas. Unpublished data available to the public on a walk-in basis.

Thale, T. et al. (1950) American Journal of Psychiatry, 106 (9): 686–691. “Hallucination and Imagery Induced by Mescaline.” (Interesting in spite of the fact they used psychiatric patients as guinea pigs.) (Thomas Thale, Beverly Wescott Gabrio and Kurt Salomon)

Thevet, André (1574) Histoire du Mexique.

Thompson, Charles Henry (1898) Annual Report of the Missouri. Botanical. Gardens, 9: 127–135. “The species of cacti commonly cultivated under the generic name Anhalonium.”

Thord-Gray, Ivor (1955) TARAHUMARA – ENGLISH ENGLISH – TARAHUMARA DICTIONARY, University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida, 1170 pages with map.

Thuillier, J. (1956) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 150: 1150–1151. “Suppression par la chlorpromazine des contractions utérines provoquées par la mescaline.”

Titelar, M. et al. (1988) Psychopharmacology 94(2): 213–216. “Radioligand binding evidence implicates the brain 5-HT2 receptor as a site of action for LSD and phenylisopropylamne hallucinogens.”

Tjio, J.H. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Medical Association, 210: 849. “LSD and chromosomes: A controlled experiment.” (Joe-Hin Tjio, Walter N. Pahnke & Albert A. Kurland) [Does not cause damage]

Tocher, R.D. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 1161

Todd, James S. (1969) Lloydia, 32 (3): 395–398. “Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of Mexican populations of Lophophora (Cactaceae).”

Tomaso (1934) La Chimica, 10: 408

Tomina, L.D. et al. (1971) Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 10:2181. “Separation of racemic phenyl-α- and β-dialkylamino alcohols into optical isomers.” (L.D. Tomina, E.I. Klabunovskii, I. Yu, L.A. Kretova, N.L. Kholdyakov, T.A. Antonova and E.M. Cherkasova) [from Ranieri & McLaughlin 1977]

Tomita et al. (1963) Chem Pharm bull 11: 1477, 1484

Tomita et al. (1963) Tetrahedron Letters, 3: 127–130. “The Structure of Isopilocereine.” (M. Tomita, T. Kichuchi & K. Bessho)

Tomita, M & Y. Takano (1959) Yakugaku Zasshi, 79: 1331. From Patel 1968. [Unable to confirm. Our copies start with 1960.]

Tomita, M. & J. Kunitomo (1960) Yakugaku Zasshi, 80: 1300. [Also CA (1961) 55: 3641d.]

Tomko, J. et al. (1967) Lloydia, 30: 231.

Tonge, Sally R. & B.E. Leonard (1969) Life Sciences 8, part 1 (15): 805–814. “The Effects of Some Hallucinogenic Drugs Upon the Metabolism of 5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine in the Brain.”

Topchiev (1933) J. Appl. Chem., USSR 6: 529 [1934 CA 28: 2718]

Toro, Alfonso (1930) Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Congress of Americanists (Held at New York, September 17–22, 1928) 101–121. “Las plantas sagradas de los Aztecas y su influencia sobre el arte precortesiano.”

Torres, Constantino Manuel (1996) Ann. Mus. civ. Roverto 11 (1995): 291–326. “Archaeological Evidence for the Antiquity of Psychoactive Plant Use in the Central Andes.”

Torres, Donna & Manuel Torres (1995) “San Pedro in the Pressure Pot.” pp. 283–284 in: Rätsch & Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedizin und Bewußtseinsforschung. Issue #4.

Torres-Castillo J.A. et al. (2009) Phytochemistry, 70 (11–12): 1374–1381. “Characterization of a highly stable trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of Opuntia streptacantha (O. streptacantha Lemaire).” (J.A. Torres-Castillo, C. Mondragón Jacobo & A. Blanco-Labra) [from PubMed]

Towle, Margaret Ashley (1961) The Ethnobotany of Pre-Columbian Peru. [Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology No. 30. Aldine Publications, Chicago.]

Tranzer, J. P. & Thoenen, H. (1967) Experientia, 23: 743–745. “Electron microscopic localization of 5-hydroxydopamine (3,4,5-trihydroxy-phenyl-ethylamine), a new ”false” sympathetic transmitter.”

Trebach, Arnold S. (1987) The Great Drug War and Radical Proposals that Could Make America Safe Again. Macmillan Co.: New York.

Trejo-Gonzalez, A. et al. (1996) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 55: 27–33. A purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fulginosa) controls experimentally induced diabetes
in rats.” (A. Trejo-Gonzalez, G. Gabriel-Ortiz, A.M.
Puebla-Perez, M.D. Huizar-Contreras, M.R. Munguia-
Mazarigos & C.E. Mejia-Arreguins,)

Trout, K. (1998) Trout’s Notes on Tryptamines from Higher Plants. [TN# FS-X0] Better Days Publishing; Austin, TX.

Trout, K. (1999)a Trout’s Notes on Cactus Chemistry By Species. [TN#C-10a] Better Days Publishing; Austin, TX.

Trout, K. (1999)b Trout’s Notes on Sacred Cacti. Second Edition. [TN#SC2] Better Days Publishing; Austin, TX. [First edition 1997 by Narayan Publications; Sedona, AZ]]

Trout, Keeper & Burnt Norton (2010) Peyote in the Wilds of Texas. (

Trulson, M.E. et al. (1983) European Journal of Pharmacology, 96 (1-2): 151–154. “Mescaline elicits behavioral effects in cats by an action at both serotonin and dopamine receptors.” (M.E. Trulson, T. Crisp & L.J. Henderson)

Tsa Toke, Monroe (Huntinghorse) (1957) Visions and Descriptions of the Peyote Ritual. Grabhorn Press

Tsao, Makepeace U. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 5495–5496. “A new synthesis of Mescaline.”

Tullar, J. (1948) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 70: 2067.

Turner, D.M. (1998) Comment made in correspondence during 1995 (Posthumously published: Entheogen Review 7 (1): 18.)

Turner, D.M. (Joseph Vivian) (1994) The Essential Psychedelics Guide. Panther Press; San Francisco. ISBN: 0-9642636-1-0. 112 pages.

Turner, William J. & Jack J. Heyman (1960) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 25: 2250–2251. “The Presence of Mescaline in Opuntia cylindrica.”

Tursch, B. et al. (1965) Tetrahedron Letters, 47: 4161–4166. “Structure de l’acide mesembryanthemoidigenique, triterpene nouveau des cactacees.” (B. Tursch, J. Leclercq & G. Chiurdoglu)

Udenfriend, S. & J.R. Cooper (1952) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 196 (1): 227–223. “The chemical estimation of tyrosine and tyramine.”

Udenfriend, S. et al. (1959) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 85 (2): 487–490. “Physiologically active amines in common fruits and vegetables.” (Sidney Udenfriend, Walter Lovenberg & Albert Sjoerdsma)

Ulett, George A. (1953) American Journal of Psychiatry, 109 (10): 741–748. “Preliminary observations on convulsive and subconvulsive treatments induced by intermittent photic stimulation.”

Umberger, C.J. (1954) in T.A. Gonzales, M. Vance, M. Halpern & C.J. Umberger (eds.) Legal Medicine, Pathology and Toxicology. 2nd Edition. Appleton-Century-Crofts: New York.

Underhill, Ruth (1952) Proceedings of the XXXth International Congress of Americanists, 143–148. “Peyote.”

Underhill, Ruth (1957) Ann. Am. Acad. Political and Social Sciences, 311: 127–136. “Religion Among American Indians.”

Unger, S.E. et al. (1980) Journal of Natural Products, 43 (2): 288–293. “Chemotaxonomy of Columnar Mexican Cacti by Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry” (S.E. Unger, R.G. Cooks, R. Mata & J.L. McLaughlin)

Unger, Sanford M. (1963)a LSD, Mescaline, Psilocybin and Psychotherapy: An Annotated Chronology. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health

Unger, Sanford M. (1963)b Psychiatry. Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes. 26 (2): 111–125. “Mescaline, LSD, Psilocybin and Personality Change: A Review.”

Unger, Sanford M. (1965) LSD and Psychotherapy: A Bibliography of the English-Language Literature. pp. 241–248 in The Psychedelic Reader (Weil, G.M. et al. Editors).

United Nations (1989) Recommended methods for testing peyote cactus (mescale buttons) and mescaline and Psilocybe mushrooms/psilocybin. Manual for use by national narcotic laboratories. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; NewYork. (United Nation’s publication ST/NAR/19 — st-nar-19.pdf)

United Nations (2006) Multilingual Dictionary of Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances Under International Control. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. NewYork. (UN publication ST/NAR/1/Rev.2)

Uphof, J.C. Th. (1968) Dictionary of economic plants. 2nd edition. J. Cramer.

Urbina, Manuel (1900) Anales del Museo Nacional de México, 7: 26–48. “El Peyote y el Ololiuhqui.”

US Army (1974) Tactical Land Clearing, [US Army Field Manual 5-164 (FM 5-164)] Chapter Three: “Clearing methods and techniques.”

Usdin & Usdin (1961) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 108: 461.

Usdin, Earl & Daniel H. Efron (1979) Psychotropic Drugs and Related Compounds. Second Edition. Pergamon Press. 791 pp. ISBN# 0 08 025510 8. [First edition was published in 1972 by the US HEW]

USFWS (2001) AESO/SE 2-21-01-F-189. (Formal U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service consultation for the Pleasant Valley Allotment.) Prepared for John C. Bedell, 30 November, 2001. [Posted online at:]

Uyeno, Edward T. (1966) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 55 (2): 215–216. “Inhibition of Isolation-Induced Attack Behavior of Mice by Drugs.” [Mescaline inhibited but less so than LSD]

Valadez, Mariano & Valadez, Susana (1992) Huichol Indian Sacred Rituals. Dharma (Amber Lotus): Oakland. 111 pages. ISBN 0-945798-80-6.

Valcárcel, Luis Eduardo (1938) Cuadernos de Arte Antiguo del Perú. Issue No. 6 [Lima. Imprenta del Museo Nacional].

Valente, L.M.M. et al. (2007) Pharmacognosy Magazine 3: 167–172. “Evaluation of the antitumor and trypanocidal activities and alkaloid profile in species of Brazilian Cactaceae.” (L.M.M. Valente, L.A. Scheinvar, G.C. da Silva, A.P. Antunes, F.A.L. dos Santos, T.F. Oliveira, M.R.R. Tappin, F.R. Aquino Neto, A.S. Pereira,S.F. Carvalhaes, A.C. Siani, R.R. dos Santos, R.O.A. Soares, E.F. Ferreira, M. Bozza, C. Stutz & D. Gibaldi)

Van Den Berg, J.H (1951) Folia Psychiat. (Amst.) 54 (6): 385–406, “Ein Beitrag zur Psychopathogie des Meskalinrausches.” Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1952), Vol. 5, No. 8; entry #3306.

van den Berg, Maria Elisabeth (1984) “Ver-o-Peso: The Ethnobotany of an Amazonian Market.” Pages 140–149 in: Ghillean T. Prance & Jacquelyn A. Kallunki (eds.) Ethnobotany in the Neotropics. Proceedings in the Neotropics Symposium Society for Economic Botany, 13–14 June, 1983. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.] [aka Advances in Economic Botany, 1: 140–149]

Vanderveen, R.L. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13 (5): 866–867. “N-Methyltyramine from Opuntia clavata.” (Randall L. Vanderveen, Leslie G. West & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Van der Walt, S.J. & D.G. Steyn (1940) Onderstepoorte Journal of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Industry, 15: 261–277. “Recent Investigations Into the Toxicity of Known and Unknown Plants of the Union of South Africa.” (From Watt 1967)

Van Praag, H.M. (1982) Lancet, ii: 1259

Van Vunakis, H. et al. (1969) Biochemical Pharmacology, 18: 393–404. “Production and Specificity of Antibodies Directed Towards 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenethylamine, 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine and 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine.” (Helen Van Vunakis, Hilda Bradvica, Phillipe Benda and Lawrence Levine.)

Van Welsum, R.A. (1973) Journal of Chromatography, 78: 237–240. “A simplified procedure for the identification of drugs from the illicit street market by thin-layer chromatography.”

Vanderveen, R.L. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13 (5): 866–867. “N-Methyltyramine from Opuntia clavata.” (Randall L. Vanderveen, Leslie G. West & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Vargas, Plutarco Naranjo (1959) Revista. Confederacion Medica Panamericana, 6: 1–8 [CA (1959) 53: 19151f-g.] [“Comparative study of harmine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and mescaline.”] (said by CA to include 33 references.)

Vaupel, Friedrich (1916) Monatsschrifte für Kakteenkunde, 26: 120–125. “Neue südamerikanische Kakteen.” [Pages 122–123: II. Cereus tacaquirensis Vaupel spec. nov.]

Vazquez-Cruz, M.A. et al. (2012) Journal of Food Science, 77 (4): C366-C373. “Effect of maturity stage and storage on flavor compounds and sensory description of berrycactus (Myrtillocactus geometrizans).” (Moises Alejandro Vazquez-Cruz, Sandra Neli Jimenez-Garcia, Irineo Torres-Pacheco, Salvador Horacio Guzman-Maldonado, Ramon Gerardo Guevara-Gonzalez, & Rita Miranda-Lopez)

Vecsey, Christopher (ed.) (1991) Handbook of American Indian Religious Freedom. New York: Crossroad. 176 pages. ISBN 0-8245-1067–4

Vellozo, Fr. Jose Mariano da Conceição [a Conceptione] (1823) Florae Fluminensis, vol 5, plate 18. “Icosandria Mongynia Cactus hexagonus.”

Verdeax, G. (1950) [Cited by Deniker 1957 but not listed among his references. Said to have shown that the alpha rhythm is blocked at the moment hallucinations begin.] The closest reference I can locate is Delay, Baruk, Verdeaux & Verdeaux.

Verpoorte, R. & A. Baerheim Svensen (1983) Chromatography
of Alkaloids. Part B. gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography
. Journal of Chromatography,
Library– volume 23A. Elsevier. ISBN 0-444-42265-X..

Vignon, M.R. et al. (2004) Carbohydrate Research, 339: 123–131. “Arabinan–cellulose composite in Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear spines.” (M. R. Vignon, L. Heux, M.-E. Malaininea & M. Mahrouz)

Vigueras, A. L. & L. Portillo (2001) Florida Entomologist, 84:493–498. “Uses of Opuntia species and the potential impact of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico.”

Vilcapoma, Graciela (2000) Quepo, 14: 59- “Frutas Silvestres de la Cuenca del Rio Chillón (Cactáceas).”

Viloria-Matos, A.J. et al. (2002) Rev. Fac. Agron., LUZ, 19: 324–331. “Estabilidad de betalaínas en pulpa de tuna (Opuntia boldinghii Britt. et Rose) sometidas a un proceso de liofilización.” (A.J. Viloria-Matos, D. Corbelli-Moreno, M.J. Moreno-Álvarez & D.R. Belén-Camacho) [from García Pantaleón et al. 2009]

Vinson, J.A. & J.E. Hooyman (1975) Journal of Chromatography, 105 (2): 415–417. “A universal thin-layer chromatographic visualization reagent for drugs.”

Vistoli, G. (1955) Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico, 94: 133-?. “Application of a color reaction to the photometric determination of sympathomimetic amines of pharmaceutical importance.”

Vitalis, Daniel (2009a) “Ever Tried This PsychoActive Cactus?” [Online article at]

Vitalis, Daniel (2009b) “The Psychedelic Suguaro Cactus.” []

Vivanco Hidalgo, Eliana (2001) “El San Pedro entre ‘el bien y el mal: prácticas, discursos y conflictos en torno asu consumo en el Valle de Vilcabamba, Ecuador.” Artículo presentado en el Congreso Internacional de LASA 2001. Washington D.C, Septiembre, 6–8, 2001-08-20 (

Vivanco Hidalgo, Eliana (2000) “Vilcabamba: Conflictos culturales, prácticas y discursos en torno de uso del San Pedro.” Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias humanas, Departamento de Antropología. Disertación previa a la obtención de la Licenciatura en Antropología, Quito. 122 pages. [Cited in Glass Coffin 2010 as Vivanco, Eliana 2000 ‘‘Vilcabamba: conflictos culturales, pra´cticas y discursos en torno al uso del San Pedro. Thesis, Quito: PUCE.] Thusfar this document has been unobtainable via any available channels. [from Vivanco Hidalgo 2001 and also

Vogel, J.H. et al. (2005) Journal of the American College of
46 (1): 184–221. “Integrating
Complementary Medicine Into Cardiovascular Medicine. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents.”
(J.H. Vogel, S.F. Bolling, R.B. Costello, E.M. Guarneri, M.W. Krucoff, J.C. Longhurst, B. Olshansky, K.R. Pelletier, C.M. Tracy, R.A. Vogel, R.A. Vogel, J. Abrams, J.L. Anderson, E.R. Bates, B.R. Brodie, C.L. Grines, P.G. Danias, G. Gregoratos, M.A. Hlatky, J.S. Hochman, S. Kaul, R.C. Lichtenberg, J.R. Lindner, R.A. O’Rourke, G.M. Pohost, R.S. Schofield, S.J. Shubrooks, C.M. Tracy & W.L. Winters, Jr)(Downloadable from
Why is it that anything containing the words “Consensus” with regards to the process of scientific inquiry is increasingly causing me to be cautious about trusting its results?

Vogel, W.H. (1970) Biochem. Pharm. 19: 2663.

Vogel, W.H. et al. (1967) Int. J. Neuropsychiatry, 3: 292.

Vogel, W.H. et al. (1973) Psychopharmacologia, 30: 145–151. “Macromerine, Normacromerine and Bisnormacromerine: Non-Psychoactive Methylated Derivatives of Norepinephrine.” (W.H. Vogel, B.D. Evans, E.M. Bonnem, J.F. Fischer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Vogt, M. (1935) Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 178: 560–576. “Die Verteilung von Arneneitstoffen auf verschiedene Regionen des Zentralnervensystems, Zugleich ein Betrag Zu Ihrer quantitativen Mikrobestimmung im Gewerbe Chinin und Mezkalin.”

Vollenweider, F. X. (2001) Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 3: 265–279. “Brain mechanisms of hallucinogens and entactogens. “

Vollenweider, Franz X. & Michael Kometer (2010) Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11: 642–651 “The Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs.”

Von Euler, Ulf S. (1955) Noradrenaline. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ilinois.

Von Euler, U. S. & S. Hellner (1951) Acta Physiologica
, 22 (2-3): 161–167. “Excretion of noradrenaline,
adrenaline and hydroxytyramine in urine.”

von Euler, U.S. & F. Lishajko (1961) Acta Physiologica
, 51: 348–355. “Improved technique for the fluorimetric estimation of catecholamines.”

von Kamienski, Elard Stein (1957) Planta, 50: 315–330. “Untersuchungen über die flüchtigen amine der pflanzen. II. Mitteilung. Die amine von blüttenpflanzen und moosen.”

von Ladenberg, B. (1893) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde. 3: 70- . “Die Kakteen und Sukkulenten auf der internationalen Ausstellung in Gent.” [This includes the oldest photograph of a macrogonus that I can presently locate. See page 71.]

von Martius See as Martius

Von Reis Altschul, Siri (1973) Drugs and Foods from Little-Known Plants. Notes in Harvard University Herbaria. Harvard University Press. (Second printing in 1975.) ISBN 0-674-21676-8.

Von Studnitz (1968) Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 21: 333 [CA 70: 1799] “Urinary excretion of methoxy catechol amines in neuroblastoma.” (from Crosby & McLaughlin 1973)

Voogelbreinder, Snu 1999 & 2000 (personal communication)

Voogelbreinder, Snu (2009) Garden of Eden: The Shamanic Use of Psychoactive Flora and Fauna, and the Study of Consciousness. Snu Voogelbreinder.

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Walter, William Gray (1953) The Living Brain. Duckworth, 1953. [Also W.W. Norton, NewYork 1953.]

Walters, G.C. & P.D. Cooper (1968) Nature, 218: 298–300. “Alicyclic Analogue of Mescaline.”

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Waser, E. & H. Sommer (1923b) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 6: 1797. (from Neme et al. 1977)

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Wasson, R. Gordon (1968) SOMA: Divine Mushroom of Immortality. Mouton & Co.

Wasson, R. Gordon (1970)a Bulletin on Narcotics, 22 (3): 25–30. “Soma of the Aryans: An ancient hallucinogen?”

Wasson, R. Gordon (1970)b Indo-Iranian Journal, 12 (4): 286–298. “Soma: Comments inspired by Professor Kuiper’s review.”

Wasson, R. Gordon (1971) Journal of the American Oriental Society, 91 (2): 169–187. “The Soma of the Rig Veda: What was it?”

Wasson, R. Gordon (1972) Soma and the Fly-Agaric: Mr. Wasson’s Rejoinder to Professor Brough. Botanical Museum of Harvard University.

Wasson, R. Gordon (1978) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 26 (6): 211–223. “Soma brought up-to-date.”

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Wasson, R. Gordon et al. (1986) Persephone’s Quest. Entheogens and the Origins of Religion. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05266-9. 257 pages. (R. Gordon Wasson, Stella Kramrisch, Jonathan Ott & Carl A.P. Ruck) [See also as (1996) La Búsqueda de Perséfone. Fondo de Cultura Económica. 339 pp. ISBN 968-16-3695-3.]

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Watt, John Mitchell & Maria Gerdina Breyer-Brandwijk (1962) The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Second Edition. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. 1457 pp.

Watt, John Mitchell (1967) Lloydia, 30 (1): 1–22. “African Plants Potentially Useful in Mental Health.”

Weber (1902) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 21 [Cereus bolivianus] [From Britton & Rose] See as Schumann 1902

Webster (1972) Webster’s English Dictionary, Pyramid Communications, Inc.

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Weil-Malherbe, H. & L.B. Bigelow (1968) Anal. Biochem. 22: 321–334.

Weil, Andrew & Winifred Rosen (1983) Chocolate to Morphine. Understanding Mind-Active Drugs. Houghton Mifflin Co, ISBN 0-395-33108-0/ 0-395-33190-0 (pbk.)

Weiner, C.D. & M.A. Collins (1978) Biochemical Pharmacology, 27: 2699–2703. “Tetrahydroisoquinolines derived from catecholamines or DOPA: Effects on brain tyrosine hydroxylase activity.”

Weiner, H. (1980) Substance & Alcohol Actions/Misuse, 1 (3): 317–322. “Estimation of the in vivo concentration of salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline in rat brain after the administration of ethanol.”

Weiner, N. (1980b) “Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and the sympathomimetic amines.” pages 138–175 in, A.G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman & A. Gilman (eds.) Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (6th Ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Weiner H. (1981) Federation Proceedings, 40 (7): 2082–2085. “Possible steady-state concentrations of tetrahydroisoquinolines in brain after the consumption of ethanol.”

Weiner, N. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 137: 47–55. “The Ability of Tyramine to Liberate Catecholamines IN VIVO” (N. Weiner, P.R. Draskóczy and W.R. Burack)

Weir Mitchell, S. (1896) British Medical Journal, 2: 1625–1629. “Notes upon the Effects of Anhelonium [sic] Lewinii (The Mescal Button).”

Weisenborn 1978 (in the literature) apparently refers to J. Weisenborn (Unpublished data)

Weisenborn, J. (Unpublished data). Kapadia et al. 1970c mentions that Dr. Weisenborn (at Squibb) first presented this in a discussion during the 5th Ann. Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, June 22–25, 1964 (Pittsburgh, PA) and that it was planned for publication submission. Appears cited numerous places but apparently either no details were ever published for the isolation or the structural determination of Tehuanine or it was published under the name of a different lead author.

Welch, A.S. & B.L. Welch (1969) Anal. Biochem. 30: 161–179.

Wellman, Klaus F. (1978a) Journal of the American Medical Association, 239 (15): 1524–1527. “North American Indian Rock Art and Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

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Weltman [sp?] and associates (1968) Journal of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, 26: 187. [from Aboul-Enein 1973]

Weniger, Del (1984) Cacti of Texas and Neighboring States. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Werdermann, Erich (1931) pages 73, 101 in Backeberg Neue Kakteeen

Werdermann, Erich (1934) Kakteenkunde, 9: 176. [as Thelocactus lophophoroides]

Werdermann 1931 See within Backeberg Neue Kakteeen

Werdermann, Erich (1933) Brasilien und seine Säulenkakteen. [Werdermann correctly assigns identity to what Glazious mistook for Cereus macrogonus but fails to acknowledge Schumann’s corrections.]

Werfel, Franz (1976) Star of the Unborn. Bantam: NY. 627 pages. [First published in 1946 by Viking: NY. 645 pp.]

Wertham, Frederick (1952)a Atlantic Monthly, 189 (March): 52–55. “A study of pain.” [mescaline and pain]

Wertham, Frederick (1952)b “A psychosomatic study of myself.” pp. 102–118 in Max Pinner & Benjamin F. Miller (eds.) When Doctors Are Patients. NewYork: Norton. [mescaline and pain]

Wertham, Frederick & Manfred Beuler (1932) Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 28: “Inconstancy of the Formal Structure of the Personality: Experimental Study of the Influence of Mescaline on the Rorschach Test.”

West, Leslie G. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1973) Lloydia, 36 (3): 346–348. “Cactus Alkaloids. XVIII. Phenolic β-Phenethylamines from Mammillaria elongata.”

West, Leslie G. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1977) Lloydia, 40 (5): 499–504. “Triterpenes from the Button Cactus, Epithelantha micromeris.

West, L.G. et al. (1974)a Phytochemistry, 13 (3): 665–666. “β-Phenethylamines from the Genus Gymnocactus.” (L.G. West, R.L. Vanderveen & J.L. McLaughlin)

West, L.G. et al. (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 291–292. “Pilocereine from Lophocereus schotti Formae Monstrosus and Mieckleyanus.” (Leslie G. West, Jerry L. McLaughlin & W. Hubert Earle)

Westlund, Derek in Adam Gottlieb (1997) Peyote and Other Psychoactive Cacti.

Whaley, W.M. & T.R. Govindachari (1951) Organic Reactions, 6: 151–190. “The Pictet-Spengler synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines and related compounds.”

Wheatley, M.D. & F.W. Schueler (1950) Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 2: 226. “A synergism between mescaline and rhythmic stimulation by light.” [Abstract of paper presented at the meeting of the Southern Electroencephalographic Society, Nov. 30, 1949, New Orleans, Louisiana.] [Showed low doses of mescaline, too low to produce visual effects were “adequate for the production of striking visual effects when these subjects were placed, with eyes closed, in front of a flashing light of frequency approximating that of the normal alpha rhythm.”]

Wheaton, T.A. & Ivan Stewart (1970) Lloydia, 32 (2): 244–254. “The Distribution of Tyramine, N-Methyltyramine, Hordenine, Octopamine, and Synephrine in Higher Plants.” Page 247

Whitby, L.G. et al. (1961) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 132: 193–201. “The fate of H3[sic]-norepinephrine in animals.” (L.G. Whitby, J. Axelrod & H. Weil-Malherbe)

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White, E.P. (1954) New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 35, Sec. B; 6: 451–455. “Alkaloids of the Leguminosae. Part XXIII.- The Occurrence of N-Methyl-β-phenethylamine in Acacia prominens A. Cunn..”

White, E.P. (1957) New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 38, Sec. B; 7: 718–725. “Part XXVI: Examination of Further Legumes, Mainly Lupinus and Acacia species for Alkaloids.”

White, E.P. (1970) New Zealand Journal of Science, 13: 359.

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Wiedman, Dennis (1985) American Indian Art Magazine, 10 (3): 38–45. “Staff, Fan, Rattle and Drum: Spiritual and Artistic Expressions of Oklahoma Peyotists.”

Wiedman, Dennis & Candace Green (1985) American Indian Art Magazine, 13 (4): 32–41. “Early Kiowa Peyote Ritual and Symbolism: The 1891 Drawing Books of Silverhorn (Huangooah).”

Wijeratne, E.M.K. et al. (2006) Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 14: 7917–7923. “A new dihydroxanthenone from a plant-associated strain of the fungus Chaetomium globosum demonstrates anticancer activity.” (E. M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, Thomas J. Turbyville, Anne Fritz, Luke Whitesell & A. A. Leslie Gunatilaka)

Wikler, Abraham (1952) American Journal of Psychiatry, 108 (8): 590–599. “Mechanisms of action of drugs which modify personality functions.”

Wikler, Abraham (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 120 (3–4): 157–175. “Clinical and electroencephalographic studies on the effects of Mescaline, N-allylnormorphine and morphine in man.”

Wikler, Abraham (1957) The Relation of Psychiatry to Pharmacology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. [Summary of psychiatric and pharmacological work on mescaline.]

Wilcox, R.W. (1898) New York Lancet, p. 81. “Pellotine.”

Wild, H. (1953) A Southern Rhodesian Botanical Dictionary of Native and English Plant Names. Salisbury, Rhodesia. (From Watt 1967)

Willaman 1961 (in the literature) meant Willaman & Schubert 1961

Willaman, J.J. & Bernice G. Schubert (1961) Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. USDA Technical Bulletin No. 1234. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1961.

William (1967) (in the literature) meant Geber, William F. (1967)

Willner, P. (1983) Brain Res. Rev. 6: 211

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Winters, J.C. (1971) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 178: 625–630. “Tolerance to a behavioral effect of lysergic acid diethylamide and cross-tolerance to mescaline in the rat: absence of a metabolic component.”

Winter, Hildegard (1956) H. WINTER Kakteen Cacti Cactées Samen — seed — semence FRANKFURT A.M – FECHENHEIM. 36 pages

Winter, Hildegard (1957) H. WINTER Kakteen Cacti Cactées Samen — seed — semence FRANKFURT A.M – FECHENHEIM. 36 pages

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Wisser, H & D. Stamm (1969) Zeit. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 7: 631–648.

Witkiewicz, Stefan L. (1932) Nikotyna-alcohol-kokaina-peyotl-eter. Warsaw.

Witt, P.N. (1951) Experientia, 7: 310–311. “d-Lysergsäure-diäthylamid (LSD 25) im Spinnentest.” [Also discusses mescaline.]

Witt, Peter N. (1956) Arzneimittel-Forschung, 6 (10): 628-635. “Der Netzbau der Spinne als Test zur Prüfing zentralnervös angreifender Substanzen.”

Witt, P.N. & R. Weber (1956) Monatsschrift fur Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 132: 193–207. “Biologische Prüfung des Urins von drei Kranken mit akut psychotischen Zustandsbildern auf pathogene Substanzen mit dem Spinnentest.”

Wohlpart, A. (1967) Dissertation. University of Texas at Austin. [From Wohlpart & Mabry 1968]

Wohlpart, A. & T.J. Mabry (1968) Taxon, 17: 148–152. “The Distribution and Phylogenetic Significance of the Betalains With Respect to the Centrospermae.”

Wolbach, A.B. et al. (1962)a Psychopharmacologia, 3 (1): 1–14. “Cross-tolerance between mescaline and LSD-25, with a comparison of the mescaline and LSD reactions.” (A.B. Wolbach Jr., Harris Isbell & E.J. Miner)

Wolbach, A.B. et al. (1962)b Psychopharmacologia, 3 (3): 219–223. “Comparison of Psilocin with Psilocybin, Mescaline and LSD-25.” (A.B. Wolbach Jr., E.J. Miner & Harris Isbell)

Wolf, R. (1952) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 77 (6): 168–170. “Das Raum- und Zeiterleben unter abnormaler Bedingungen, besonders im Meskalinrausch.” [also see Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1952), Vol. 5, No. 8; entry #3307.]

Wollenweber, Eckhard & Marion Dörr (1995) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 23 (5): 577. “Wax Composition of the Two Cacti Hylocereus purpusii and Stenocereus benecki.”

Wong, D. L. (2003) Endocrine Pathology, 14(1): 25–36. “Why is the adrenal adrenergic?”

Wood, Richard: Wooden Penny Trading Post; 409–297-8953, FAX 409-265-6813. [Literature obtained at the Intertribal Pow-wow.]

Woodard, R.W. et al. (1978) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, B, 32 (8): 619–623. “The absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid (-)-calipamine” (Ronald Woodard, J. Cymerman Craig and Jan G. Bruhn)

Woods, L.A. et al. (1951) J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 101: 205. (in the literature) meant Cochin et al. 1951

Woods, L.A. et al. (1951) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 101 (2): 188–199. “Estimation of amines in biological materials with critical data for cocaine and mescaline.”

Woodward, Hope Draper (1991) M.A. Thesis University of Texas at Austin. “Ashaninca Shamanic Healing Ritual and Song.”

Woolley, D.W. & E. Shaw (1954) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (Washington, DC) 40: 228–231. “A biochemical and pharmacological suggestion about certain mental disorders.”

Wright, Jon (1994) Peyote in Sanskrit. Naked Bums. 98 pages. 0-9643358-0-8 [? No idea what this is. It is listed in Books-In-Print.]

Wu, G. et al. (1994) Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 33: 718–723. “Improved Alkaline Oxidation Process for the Production of Aldehydes (Vanillin and Syringaldehyde) from Steam-Explosion Hardwood Lignin.” (Guoxiong Wu, Michele Heitz, & Esteban Chornet)

Wu, J. et al. (1980) Journal of Natural Products, 43 (2): 270–277. “Alkaloids of Thalictrum. XXXII. Isolation and Identification of Alkaloids From Thalictrum revolutum DC. Fruit.” (Jinn Wu, Jack L. Beal, Wu-Nan Wu & Raymond W. Doskotch)

Wu, S.H. et al. (2008) Journal of Basic Microbiology 48: 140–142. “A new spiroketal from Aspergillus terreus, an endophytic fungus in Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.” (Shao-Hua Wu, You-Wei Chen, Sheng Qin & Rong Huang)

Wu, W.-N. et al. (1980) Journal of Natural Products, 43 (1): 143–150. “Alkaloids of Thalictrum XXX. Eleven Minor Alkaloids From Thalictrum rugosum.” (Wu-Nan Wu, Jack L. Beal & Raymond W. Doskotch)

Wu, X. et al. (2011) J Asian Nat Prod Res. 13 (8): 728–733. “Three new glycosides from Hylocereus undatus.” (X. Wu, Y. Wang, X.J. Huang, C.L. Fan, G.C. Wang, X.Q. Zhang, Q.W. Zhang & WC. Ye)

Wybraniec, Sławomir & Yosef Mizrahi (2002) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50 (21): 6086–6089. “Fruit Flesh Betacyanin Pigments in Hylocereus Cacti”

Wybraniec, Sławomir & Barbara Nowak-Wydra (2007) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55 (20): 8138–8143. “Mammillarinin: A New Malonylated Betacyanin from Fruits of Mammillaria.”

Wybraniec, S. et al. (2001) Phytochemistry, 58 (8): 1209–1212. “Betacyanins from vine cactus Hylocereus polyrhizus.” (Sławomir Wybranieca, Itzhak Platzner, Shimona Geresh, Hugo E. Gottlieb, Marcela Haimberg, Michael Mogilnitzki & Yosef Mizrahi)

Wybraniec, S. et al. (2007) Phytochemistry, 68: 251–259. “Minor betalains in fruits of Hylocereus species.” (Sławomir Wybraniec, Barbara Nowak-Wydra, Katarzyna Mitka, Piotr Kowalski & Yosef Mizrahi)

Wybraniec, S. et al. (2009) Journal of Chromatography, A, 1216 (41): 6890–6899. “Separation of polar betalain pigments from cacti fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.” (S. Wybraniec, P. Stalica G. Jerz, B. Klose, N. Gebers, P. Winterhalter, A. Spórna, M. Szaleniec & Y. Mizrahi)

Wyler 1979 should read Wyler & Meuer 1979

Wyler, Hugo & Ursula Meuer (1979) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 62 (4): 1330–1339. “Zur Biogenese der Betacyane: Versuche mit [2-14C]-Dopaxanthin.“

Wynd, F.L. (1944) The American Midland Naturalist, 200–235. “Geological and Physiographic Background of the Soils in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas.”

Wysong, E. et al. (1994) Social Problems, 41 (3): 448–472. “Truth and DARE: Tracking Drug Education to Graduation and as Symbolic Politics.” (Earl Wysong, Richard Aniskiewicz & David Wright)

Yácovleff, Eugenio & Fortunato L. Herrera (1934) Revista del Museo Nacional. Lima 3 (3): 243–322. “El Mundo Vegetal de Los Antigous Peruanos.” [References are in Yácovleff & Herrera 1935]

Yácovleff, Eugenio & Fortunato L. Herrera (1935) Revista del Museo Nacional. Lima 4 (1): 31–102. “El Mundo Vegetal de Los Antigous Peruanos.”

Yamada et al. (1981) Tetrahedron Letters, 22: 3869

Yamamoto 1972 See as Palomino Yamamoto 1972

Yamanaka, Yasumitsu (1971) Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 883–836. “Effect of salsolinol on rat brain and liver monoamine oxidase.”

Yamanaka, Y. et al. (1970) Nature, 227: 1143–1144. “Salsolinol, an alkaloid derivative of dopamine formed in vitro during alcohol metabolism.” (Yasumitsu Yamanaka, Michael J. Walsh and Virginia E. Davis)

Yang, T.-H. & C.M. Chen 1970 J. Chin. Chem Soc (Taipei) 17: 235–242; (CA 73: 99072s & 74: 100254g

Yang, T.-H. & G.J.H. Fan (1966) T’ai-Wan Yao Hsueh Tsa Chih, 18 (1): 33–36. [CA (1970) 72: 136333e.]

Yang, T.-H. et al. (1962) Yakugaku Zasshi, 82: 811. [CA 58: 7991]

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