References: E through J

References E-J used for Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.

[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

As a single listing

A through D

K through O

P through S

T through Z




EAMP See Under the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit.

Earle, W. Hubert (1980) Cacti of the Southwest. Revised.

Easterlin, Malcolm (1941) Scribner’s Commentator 11: 77–82. “Peyote – Indian Problem #1.”

Echeverría, Javier & Hermann M. Niemeyer (2012) Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 11 (4): 341–344. “Phenylethylamines from Browningia candelaris (Cactaceae).”

Eger, Susan (with Peter R. Collings) (1978) “Huichol Women’s Art.” in Kathleen Berrin (ed.) Art of the Huichol Indians. Harry N. Abrams: New York.

Eggli, Urs (1985) Bradleya, 3 “A Bibliography of Succulent Plant Periodicals.” Also; supplementary material is at Eggli et al. 1987 Bradleya, 5: & 1989 Bradleya, 7: [from]

Eggli, Urs & Leonard E. Newton (2004) Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names. Springer, 266 pages

Ehrlich, Felix & P. Pietschimuka (1912) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 45 (2): 2428–2437. “Synthesen des Tyrosols und seine Umwandlung in Hordenin.”

El Finti, A. et al. (2013) Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7 (35): 2574–2583. “Assessment of some agro-technological parameters of cactus pear fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) in Morocco cultivars.” (Aissam El Finti, Rachida El Bouillani, Mohamed Fallah, Fouad Msanda & Abdelhamid El Mousadik)

El-Kossori, R.L. et al. (1998) Plant Foods & Human Nutrition, 52 (3): 263–270. “Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).” (El Kossori RL, Villaume C, El Boustani E, Sauvaire Y, Méjean L.)

El-Moghazy, A.M. et al. (1982) Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 23: 247–254. “A Phytochemical Study of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. Cultivated in Egypt.” (A.M. El-Moghazy, S.M El-Sayyad, A.M, Abdel-Baky, & E.Y. Bechait)

El-Seedi, H.R. et al. (2005) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101: 238–242. “Prehistoric peyote use: Alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.” (Hesham R. El-Seedi, Peter A.G.M. De Smet, Olof Beck, Göran Possnert & Jan G. Bruhn)

El-Shazly, Assem & Michael Wink (2008) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, C 58 (7–8): 477–480. “Tetrahydroisoquinoline and β-carboline alkaloids from Haloxylon articulatum (Cav.) Bunge (Chenopodiaceae).”

Eleusis: Piante e Composti Psicoattivi/ Journal of Psychedelic Plants and Compounds. New Series 1998 onward (Giorgio Samorini; editor) subscriptions:

Elgar, Frank (1963) The Rock Paintings of Tassili. World Publishing: Cleveland.

Ellis, C.H. (1965) Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 154: 26.

Ellis, Havelock (1897) The Lancet, 75 (1): 1540–1542. “A Note on the Phenomeon of Mescal Intoxication.”

Ellis, Havelock (1898) Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1898: 537–548. “Mescal a New Artificial Paradise.”

Ellis, Havelock (1898) Contemporary Review, 73 (1-6): 130–141. “Mescal: A new artificial paradise.”

Ellis, Havelock (1902) Popular Science Monthly, 61: 52–71. “Mescal: A Study of a Divine Plant.”

Ellis, Havelock (1971) Dynamische Psychiatrie, 17–22. “Zum Phänomen der Meskalin-Intoxikation.”

Emboden, William (1972) Narcotic Plants. The Macmillan Company, New York.

Encyclopedia Brittanica; pp. 228–232: “Pharmacological cults.”

Endo, K. (1952) Folio psychiatrica neurotica japonica, 6: 104–113. “Experimental Study of mescaline intoxication on relation between clinical picture and EEG in man.”

Engelbrecht, J.A. (1936) The Korana. Cape Town. [From Hargreaves 1998]

Engelmann, George (1852) American Journal of Science and Arts, 2nd series., 14: 1–5. “Notes on the Cereus Giganteus of South Eastern California and some other Californian Cactaceae.”

Engelmann, George (1852–1857) Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 3: 259–314, 345–346. “Synopsis of the Cactaceae of the Territory of the United States and Adjacent Regions.”

Engelmann, George (1859) Report of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 2: 1–78 “Cactaceae of the Boundary.”

Engstad, J.E. (1890) Therapeutic Gazette, 3 (6): 606–607. “Cactus grandiflorus in Heart-disease.” (from Hobschette 1929)

Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) (1998) 7 (3): 70–71 & 7 (4): 99–100. [David Aardvark: editor; K. Trout: technical editor; beginning with Volume 7 (1998)] ISSN 1066-1913. $25/yr (quarterly) The Entheogen Review, POB 19820, Box 808, Sacramento, CA 95819

Epstein, D. et al. (1932) Journal of Physiology, 76 (2): 224–246. “The action of some amines related to adrenaline: I. Methoxy- phenylethylamines.” (D. Epstein, J. A Gunn & C.J. Virden)

Er, H.M. et al. (2007) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113 (3): 448–456. “Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).” (Er Hui Meng, En-Hsiang Cheng & Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan)

Erdoes, Richard (1971) Crow Dog’s Paradise. Songs of the Sioux. [Album EKS-74091; includes album notes and photos] Elektra: New York.

Erhardt, P.A. & T.O. Soine (1975) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 64 (1): 53–62. “Stereochemical preferences for curarimimetic neuromuscular junction blockade I: enantiomeric monoquaternary amines as probes.” (Carnegine)

Erne, M. & F. Ramirez (1950) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 33: 912–916. “Über die Reduktion von β-Nitrostyrolen mit Lithiumaluminumhydrid.”

Ernst, E. (2000) Perfusion, 13: 4–15 [i.e. 4–6, 8–15]. “Possible interactions between synthetic and herbal medicinal products. Part 1: a systematic review of the indirect evidence.”

Ernst, E. (2003) Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 19: 818–27. “Cardiovascular adverse effect of herbal medicines: a systematic review of the recent literature.”

Erowid website [] Excellent information resource.

Erspamer, V. (1959) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 82 (2): 431–438. “Isolation of leptodactyline (m-hydroxyphenylethyltrimethyl-ammonium) from extracts of Leptodactylus skin.”

Erspamer V. (1984) Comp Biochem Physiol C. 79 (1): 1–7. “Half a century of comparative research on biogenic amines and active peptides in amphibian skin and molluscan tissues.”

Erspamer, V. & G. Boretti (1951) Experientia, 7 (7): 271-273. “Substances of a phenolic and indolic nature present in acetone extracts of the posterior salivary glands of octopoda (Octopus vulgaris, Octopus macropus and Eledone moschata.)”

Erspamer. V & G. Falconieri (1952) Naturwissenschaften, 39 (18): 431–432. “Papierchromatographische Untersuchungen über die Hydroxyphenylalkylamine der Gerstenkeimlinge.”

Erspamer, V. & A. Glässer (1960) British Journal of Pharmacology, 15: 14–22. “The Pharmacological Actions of (m-Hydroxyphenethyl)-trimethylammonium

Erspamer, V. & M. Vialli (1952) Ric.sci., 22: 1420. [From Erspamer & Glässer 1960]

Erspamer, V. et al. (1963a) Experientia, 19: 346–347. “Occurrences
of new imidazolealkylamines (spinaceamin and 6-methylspinaceamine) in skin extracts of Leptodactylus pentadactylus labyrinthicus.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & I.M. Cei) [This reference is cited in the literature but I believe that Erspamer et al 1963b is what was actually intended.]

Erspamer, V. et al. (1963b) Life Sciences, 2 (11): 825–827. “Occurrence of candicine (p-hydroxyphenylethyltrimethylammonium) in extracts of the skin of Leptodactylus pentadactylus pentadactylus.” (V. Erspamer, J.M. Cei & M. Roseghini)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1964) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 105: 620–629. “The identification of New Histamine Derivatives in the Skin of Leptodactylus.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1964) Biochemical Pharmacology, 13 (7): 1083–1093. “Indole-, imidazole-, and phenyl-alkylamines in the skin of thirteen Leptodactylus species.” (V. Erspamer, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1965) Experientia, 21: 504. “5-Methoxy- and 5-Hydroxy-Indolealkylamines in the Skin of Bufo alvarius.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1967) Biochemical Pharmacology, 16 (7): 1149–1164. “5-Methoxy- and 5-Hydroxyindoles in the Skin of Bufo alvarius.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Esquivel, P. et al. (2007) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, [C]. 62 (9-10): 636–644. “Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.” (Patricia Esquivel, Florian C. Stintzing & Reinhold Carle)

European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit. (EAMP) (1999) “Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. Selenicereus grandiflorus. Summary Report.” []

Evans, A. Don (1989) “The Purpose and Meaning of Peyote as a Sacred Material for Native Americans.” pp. 20–35 in George P. Horse Capture (ed.) The Concept of Sacred Materials and Their Place in the World. The Plains Indians Museum: Cody, Wyoming

Evans, C.S. et al.(1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 565–570. “Free Amino Acids in the Seeds of Acacia Species.” (Christine S. Evans, M. Yasin Qureshi & E. Arthur Bell)

Evans, Philip (1979) National Cactus & Succulent Journal, 34 (1): 14–16. “Hallucinogenic Cacti.”

Ewell, Ervin E. (1896) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 18 (7): 624–638. “The Chemistry of the Cactaceae.”

Excerpta Medica, VIII, Subsection 58, New York: Excerpta Medica Foundation [Unable to locate in the work with this name; from Usdin & Efron]

Ey, H. & M. Rancoulle (1938) Encéphale, 33 ( pt. II): 1-25. “Hallucinations mescaliniques et troubles psychosensoriels de l’encéphalite épidémique chronique.”

Fabing, Howard D. (1955) Science, 121 (3137): 208–210. “New Blocking Agent against the Development of LSD-25 Psychosis.”

Fairbairn, J.W. & G. Wassel (1964) Phytochemistry, 3: 253–258. “The alkaloids of Papaver somniferum L. — I. Evidence for a rapid turnover of the major alkaloids.”

Faiveley, J. (1920) PhD thesis, Paris. “Contribution à l’étude des Cactées Opuntiées.” (from Hobschette 1929)

Falco, Federico & Sebastian Hilburg (1946/1947) Revista. Facultad de Química Industrial y Agricola. Universidad Nacional del Litoral (Santa Fé, Argentina) 15/16 (26): 71–73 “Investigation of alkaloids in Opuntia cacti.” [CA (1949) 43: 1530i-1531a.]

Fales, H.M. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 91 (13): 3682–3685. “Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Complex Molecules” (H.M. Fales, G.W.A. Milne and Marvin L. Vestal)

Farbsystem DIN 6164 (source of Ritter’s color specifications)

Farmilo, Charles G. & Klaus Genest (1961) “Alkaloids and Related Bases: Identification.” pp. 209–595 , (Chapter 7) in: C.P. Stewart & A. Stolman (eds.) Toxicology. Mechanisms and Analytical Methods. Volume II. Academic Press: New York and London. (Includes many drawings of microcrystalline forms for comparison.)

Farwell, Oliver Atkins (1924) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 13 (3): p 211-?. (from Hobschette 1929)

Faurbye, A. & K. Pind (1964) Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 40: 240.

Favilli, M. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici, 26: 191-212. “Sull’alcune modificazioni psichiche da intossicazione mescalinica.”

Favilli, M. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici, 26: 191-212. “Sull’alcune modificazioni psichiche da intossicazione mescalinica.”

Feeney, Kevin (undated) Peyote, Conservation, & Indian Rights, 12 page manuscript

Feigen, George A. & Gordon A. Alles (1955) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology and Quarterly Review of Psychiatry and Neurology, 16 (3): 167–178. “Physiological Concomitants of mescaline intoxication. A study of the effects upon normal subjects tested with submaximal doses.”

Felger, Richard Stephen & Mary Beck Moser (1991) People of the Desert and Sea: Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. ISBN-10: 0816512671; ISBN-13: 978-0816512676. 435 pages.

Feller, D.R. et al. (1975) Biochemical Pharmacology, 24: 1357–1359. “Comparative actions of the trimetoquinol, tetrahydropapaveroline and salsolinol isomers in β-adrenoceptor systems.” (D.F. Feller, R. Venkataraman & D.D. Miller) [from Deitrich & Erwin 1980] 

Feng, P.C. et al. (1961) Nature, 191: 1108. “High Concentration of (-)-Noradrenaline in Portulaca oleracea.” (P.C. Feng, L.J. Haynes & K.E. Magnus)

Feng, Z. et al. (1993) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 76: 2547–2552. “Biosynthesis of the irregular C12-terpenoid dehydrogeosmin in flower heads of Rebutia marsoneri Werd. (Cactaceae).” (Z. Feng, U. Huber & W. Boland ) [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Ferguson, George G. & William J. Keller (1975) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 64 (8): 1431–1432. “Monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity of a series of (±)-4-Methoxy-b-hydroxyphenethylamines”

Fernandez Distel, A. (1980) Estudios Arqueologicos. (Universidad de Chile, Antofagasta) 5: 55–79. “Hallazgo de pipas en complejos preceramicos del borde de la Puna Jujena (Republica Argentina) y el empleo de alucinógenos por parte de las mismas culturas.”

Fernandez Distel, Alicia (1984) Proceedings 44 International Congress of Americanists, BAR International Series 194. “Contemporary and Archaeological Evidence of Llipta Elaboration from the cactus Trichocereus pasacana in Northwest Argentina.”

Fernández-López JA, & L. Almela (2001) Journal of Chromatography A. 913 (1-2): 415–420. “Application of high-performance liquid chromatography to the characterization of the betalain pigments in prickly pear fruits.”

Fernandez, V. (1890) Monografías mexicanas de matéria médica, 173–190. “Análysis qualitiva y cuantitativa del mezcal.”

Fernberger, Samuel W. (1923) American Journal of Psychology, 34: 267–270, 616. “Observations on Taking Peyote. (Anhalonium Lewinii).”

Fernberger, Samuel W. (1932) Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 26 (4): 367–378. “Further Observations on Peyote Intoxication.”

Ferrigni & McLaughlin 1981; Unpublished results cited in Mata & McLaughlin 1982. See as Ferrigni et al. 1982

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1982) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 5: 359–364. “Cactus Alkaloids XLVIII. Nα,Nα-Dimethylhistamine, A Hypotensive Component of Echinocereus triglochidiatus.” (Nelson R. Ferrigni, David E. Nichols, Jerry L. McLaughlin & Robert A. Bye, Jr.)

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1984) Journal of Natural Products, 47 (5): 839–845. “Identification of New Cactus Alkaloids in Backebergia militaris by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” (N.R. Ferrigni, S.A. Sweetana, J.L. McLaughlin, K.E. Singleton & R.G. Cooks.)

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1984) Revista Latinoamericana Quimica, l4: 131–133. “Cactus Alkaloids. LVI. l3C and lH NMR of the Imidazoles, Na,Na-Dimethylhistamine and Dolichotheline.” [Chemical Abstracts 101: 23790a] (N.R. Ferrigni, B.N. Meyer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Fester, Uncle (1991) Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, Second edition (3rd edition is said to be out but I have not seen it) Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-070-0.

Fester, Uncle (1997) Practical LSD Manufacture Revised and Expanded Second Edition. Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-161-8.

Fester, Uncle (1998) Advanced Techniques of Clandestine Psychedelic & Amphetamine Maanufacture. Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-174-X.

Festi, Francesco & Giorgio Samorini (1994) (1996) Actas. II Congreso Internacional para el Estudio de los Estados Modificados de la Consciencia: celebrado en Lleida (España), el mes de octubre de 1994. (Etnobotanica, farmacologia y Quimica). [Lectures. II International Congress for the Study of the Modified States of Consciousness held in Lleida (Spain), october 1994. (Ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry].” pp. 62–71. “Ayahuasca-like” effects obtained with Italian Plants.” Also available as reprint through Rosetta with an additional 1 page charted representation of Fabio Calligris’ HPLC analysis of some European Phalaris species.

Festi, Francesco & Giorgio Samorini (1995) Eleusis, 2: 28–34. “Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Brown in Phillips (Fico degli Ottentotto / Hottentots Fig).”

Fetrow, Charles W. & Juan R. Avila (1999) Professional’s handbook of complementary & alternative medicines.

Fikes, Jay Courtney (1993) Carlos Castaneda, Academic Opportunism, and the Psychedelic Sixties. Millenia Press (Bookworld Series.) ISBN 0-9696960-0-0. 313 pages.

Fimbres P.Y. & R. García (1998) XXX Congreso Nacional de Microbiología. México. Abril 2-4. “Evaluación del efecto fungicida y bactericida de la mezcla de cactáceas Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum (cardón) y Lophocereus schottii (músaro).“ [From Garza Padrón 2010]

Fischer, Nikolaus & André S. Dreiding (1972) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 55 (2): 649–658. “Biosynthesis of Betalaines. On the Cleavage of the Aromatic Ring durng the Enzymatic Transformation of Dopa in Betalamic Acid.”

Fischer, P. & J. Lecomte (1950) Arch. Intern. Physiol. 57: 277. [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Fischer, Roland (1946) Schweitzerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie,  5: 308–313. “Selbst-beobachtungen im Mezkalinrausch.”

Fischer, Roland (1953) Mschr. Psychiatr. Neurol. 126: 315. [from Fischer 1958]

Fischer, Roland (1954) Journal of Mental Science, 100 (420): 623–631. “Factors Involved in Drug-Produced Model Psychoses.” [for pKb: citing private communication from E. Rothlin]

Fischer, Roland (1955) Experientia, 11(4): 162–163. “Possible Biosynthesis of D-lysergic Acid Diethylamide-like Compounds from Mescaline.” ]

Fischer, Roland (1958) Revue Canadienne de Biologie, 17 (3): 389–409. “Pharmacology and Metabolism of Mescaline.”

Fischer, Roland & Neil Agnew (1954) Naturwissenschaften, 41 (18): 431–432. “On Drug-produced Experimental Psychoses.”

Fischer, Roland et al. (1951) Schweitzerische medizinische Wochenschrift, 81: 817–819, 837–840. “Psychophysische Korrelationen, VIII. Modellversuchen zum Schizophrenieproblem, Lysergsäurediäthylamid und Mezcalin.” (Roland Fischer, F. Georgi & R. Weber)

Fischer, R. et al. (1958) (in the literature) meant Pellerin et al. 1958

Fish, F. & P.G. Waterman (1971) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 23 (Suppl.): 132S-135S. “Alkaloids from two Nigerian species of Fagara.”

Fish, F. & P.G. Waterman (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 3007–3014. “Methanol-soluble quaternary alkaloids from African Fagara species.

Fish, F. et al. (1975a) Lloydia, 38 (3): 268–270. “Alkaloids and coumarins from North American Zanthoxylum species.” (F. Fish, A.I. Gray & P.G. Waterman)

Fish, F. et al. (1975b) Phytochemistry, 14 (3): 841–842. “Coumarin, alkaloid and flavonoid constituents from the root and stem barks of Zanthoxylum avicennae.” (F. Fish, A.I. Gray & P.G. Waterman)

Fitzgerald, J.S. (1964a) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 17: 160–162. “Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae. III. The Occurrence of Phenylethylamine Derivatives in Acacia Species.”

Flath, Robert A. & Juan M. Takahashi (1978) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 26 (4): 835–837. “Volatile Constituents of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. de Castilla Variety).”

Flattery, David & J. Pierce (1965) Peyote. Berkeley Press, Berkeley

Flores G., José (2000) “Estudio Químico del cactus San Pedro (Echinopsis pachanoi Britton & Rose).” Thesis para optar el título profesional de Licenciado en Ciencias con Mencion en Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Facultad de Ciencias, December 2000. 103 pages. [from Reyna & Flores 2001]

Flores Ortiz, C.M. et al. (2003) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 31 (6): 581–585. “Alkaloids from Neobuxbaumia species (Cactaceae).” (C.M. Flores Ortiz, P. Dávila & L. B. H. Portilla)

Fobe, Friedrich (1907) Monatsschrifte für Kakteenkunde, 17: 53–55. “Zur Praxis der Pfropfungen.” [Briefly mentions Cereus hempelianus Bauer on page 55.]

Fodor et al. (1951) Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hung. 1: 395. [CA (1958) 49: 897.]

Foerster, E. (1930) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 127 (1-2): 1–14. “Selbst-experiment im Mescalinrausch.” [elsewhere given as “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin”]

Fogleman, James C. & Phillip B. Danielson (2001) Integrative and Comparative Biology, 41 (4): 877–889. “Chemical Interactions in the Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert.”

Folkers, Karl & Frank Koniuszy (1939) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 61: 1232–1235. “Erythrina Alkaloids. III. Isolation and Characterization of a New Alkaloid Erythramine.”

Follas, W.D. et al. (1977) Phytochemistry, 16 (9): 1459–1460. “Phenethylamines from the cactus genus Lobivia” (W.D. Follas, J.M. Cassady & J.L. McLaughlin)

Fong, H.H.S. et al. (1972) Lloydia, 35 (2): 117–149. “Alkaloid Screening. II” (H.H.S. Fong, M. Trojánkova, J. Trojánek & N.R. Farnsworth)

Font Query, P. (1979) Plantas Medicinales el Dioscorides Renovado. 5th Ed. Editorial Labor, S.A. Barcelona.

Forbes, T.D.A. et al. (1993) S. African J. Anim. Sci., 23: 196–200. “Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female angora goats.” (T.David A. Forbes, D.R. Tolleson, C.M. Hensarling & R.D. Randel) [from Clement et al. 1998]

Forbes, T.D.A et al. (1995) Journal of Arid Environments, 30: 403–415. “Seasonal variation in two phenolic amines in Acacia berlandieri.” (T. David A. Forbes, I.J. Pemberton, G.R. Smith & C.M. Hensarling.)

Förster, C.F. (1846) Handbuch der Cacteenkunde, 285: 519. [Second edition was in 1885]

Förster, C.F. (1861) Hamburger Garten- und Blumenzeitung, 164–165. “15. Cereus Lagenaeformis Förster”

Förster, C.F. & T. Rümpler (1885) See Rümpler 1886

Forster, E. (1919) Zeitschrifte für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 46 “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin.”

Förster, E. (1930) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 127 (1-2): 1–14. “Selbst-experiment im Mescalinrausch.” [elsewhere given as “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin”]

Forte, Robert (1997) Entheogens and the Future of Religion. Council on Spiritual Practices. ISBN 1-889725-01-3

Foster, Frank Pierce (ed.) (1897) Reference-book of Practical Therapeutics, Volume 2. D. Appleton & Co New York.

Fournier, Paul-Victor (1954) Les Cactées et las plantes grasses. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

Foy, J.M. & J.R. Parratt (1960) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 12 (6): 360–364. “A Note on the Presence of Noradrenaline and 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Plantain (Musa sapientum, var. paradisiaca).”

Franck, B. et al. (1965) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 685: 207–217. “Synthese von Isopilocerein und Pilocerein.” (Burchard Franck, Gottfried Blaschke and Klaus Lewejohann)

Frank, Gerhardt (1960) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 11(11): 168–170. [as Toumeya krainzianus]

Frank, Gerhardt & Alfred Lau (1979) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 30 (1): 6–7. [Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus ssp. flaviflorus]

Franke, G. (1934) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 150: 427–433. “Variierte Serienversuche mit Meskalin.”

Frank, M. et al. (1990) Equine Vet. J. 22 437–441. “Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects in the horse.”

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica (Mexico),. 20 (4): 321–325. [Hypoglycemic action of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire: study using raw extracts.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, R. Altamirano-Bustamante, N. Rodríguez-Bárcenas, R. Ariza-Andraca & R. López-Ledesma)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1988) Diabetes Care, 11 (1): 63–66. “Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.” (A.C. Frati-Munari, B.E. Gordillo, P. Altamirano & C.R. Ariza)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 20 (2): 197–201. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, L.M. Del Valle-Martínez, C.R. Ariza-Andraca, S. Islas-Andrade & A. Chávez-Negrete)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 20 (4): 297–300. [Duration of the hypoglycemic action of Opuntia streptacantha Lem.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, U. Ríos Gil, C.R. Ariza-Andraca, S. Islas Andrade & R. López Ledesma)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1990) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 21 (2): 99–102. [Activity of Opuntia streptacantha in healthy individuals with induced hyperglycemia] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, R. Licona-Quesada, C.R. Araiza-Andraca, R. López-Ledesma & A. Chávez-Negrete)

Frederic, A.C. (1902) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 21 [Cereus bolivianus] [From Britton & Rose] This is actually a reference to Schumann 1902 and is a mere mention of the name.

“Fredericus, C. & P. De Martius (1967 reprint)”
See as Schumann 1896.

Frederking, Walter (1953) Psyche (Stuttgart), 7: 342–364. “Ueber die Verwendung von Rauschdrogen (Meskalin and Lysergsäurediäthylamid) in der Psychotherapie.”

Frederking, Walter (1954) Monatsspiegel, 3: 5–57. “Meskalin in der Psychotherapie.”

Frederking, Walter (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 121 (3): 262–266. “Intoxicant Drugs (Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) in Psychotherapy.”

Freedman, Daniel X. & George K. Aghajanian (1959) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 18: 390.

Freedman, Daniel X. et al. (1958) Science, 127: 1173–1174. “Patterns of Tolerance to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mescaline in Rats.” (Daniel X. Freedman, George K. Aghajanian, Edward M. Ornitz and B.S. Rosner)

Freedman, Daniel X. et al. (1970) Biochemical Pharmacology, 19: 1181–1188. “Psychotomimetic Drugs and Brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine Metabolism.” (Daniel X. Freedman, Richard Gottlieb & Richard A. Lovell)

Freire, S.M.deF. et al. (1996) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 48: 624–628. “Sympathomimetic Effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and Catecholamines Isolated from Plant Extracts.” (Sonia Maria De Farias Freire, Luce Maria Brandão Torres, Caden Souccar and Antonio José Lapa)

Freise, F.W. (1935) Pharmazeutische Zentralblatte, 76: 704. “Das Vorkommen von Koffein in brasilianischen Heilpflanzen”

Freise, F.W. (1935) Pharmazeutische Zentralhalle Deutschlands, 76: 704. “Vorkommen von Koffein in brasilianischen Heilpflanzen.”

Frič, Alberto Vojtěch (1925) Kaktusová příloha, Život v přírodě, 8: 25–28. “Rod Anhalonium Lem.” [Grym gives as pp 23–28]

Fridericus, C. & P. De Martius (1967 reprint) refers to Carolus Fridericus Philippus De Martius’ Flora Brasiliensis. See under Martius.

Friedberg, Claudine (1959) Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquées, 6 (8-9): 439–450. “Rapport sommaire sur une mission au Pérou. (effectuée de novembre 1958 à juillet 1959)” Some list this as 6 (8-9):1

Friedberg, Claudine (1960) Comptes Rendus de la Société de Biogéographie, 324: 46–56. “Ethnobotanique péruvienne : répartition des espèces utilisées par l’homme dans la médecine et la magie, et ses rapports avec les zones floristiques.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1963) Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquées, 10 (1-9): 33–52, 245–258 & 344–386 : illustr. with 8 plates. “Mission au Pérou, mai 1961 – mars 1962.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1964) Sixth International Congress of Anthropology and Ethnological Sciences [Actes du VIème Congrès International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Paris, 1960] (Paris: Musée de l’Homme, Palais de Chaillot) 2 (2): 21-26. “Utilisation d’un cactus à mescaline au nord du Pérou. (Trichocereus pachanoï Brit. et Rose)” [also given as 1960] Also reprinted in 1979 Succulentes 2nd series, 1: 11–15

Friedberg, Claudine (1965) Travaux de l’Institut Français d’Etudes Andines, 7: 65–94. “Rapport sur une mission au Perou. Description du matériel recueilli, exposé sommaire des recherches entreprises.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1979) Actes du XLIIème Congrès International des Américanistes. Paris, 2–9 sept. 1976 [Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac] p. 427–443. “L’Imaginaire dans les thérapeutiques populaires: proposition de quelques thèmes de réflexion à travers l’exemple du complexe thérapeutique huancabambin (sierra de Piura au nord du Pérou).” Republished in Spanish as Friedberg 1980.

Friedberg, Claudine (1980) Medicina Traditional, 3 (9): 29–44. “Lo imaginario en las terapias populares.”

Friedhoff, Arnold J. & Menek Goldstein (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 5–13. “New Developments in metabolism of mescaline and related amines.”

Friedhoff, Arnold J. & Leo H. Hollister (1966) Biochemical Pharmacology, 15 (3): 269–273. “Comparison of the Metabolism of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine and Mescaline in Humans.”

Friedhoff, A.J. & E. Van Winkle (1962) Nature, 194: 897. “Isolation and characterization of a compound from the urine of schizophrenics”

Friedhoff, A.J. et al. (1972) Nature, 237: 454–455. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and N-Acetylmescaline by Mammalian Liver.” (Arnold J. Friedhoff, Jack W. Schweitzer & Jeanette Miller)

Friedhoff, A.J. et al. (1977) Biol. Psychiatry, 12: 643

Friedman et al. (1963) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 6: 227–229. CHECK. DELETE if not including synth of β-OH

Friedman, Milton & Thomas Szasz (1992) On Liberty and Drugs.

Friedrich, Heimo (1974) IOS Bulletin, 3(3): 79–93. “Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Echinopsidinae (Trichocereinae)”

Friedrich, Heimo (1974)b Kakteen und andere Sukk. 25: 50, 80

Friedrich, H. & W. Glaetzle (1983) Bradleya, 1: 91–104 “Seed morphology as an aid to classifying the genus Echinopsis Zucc.”

Friedrich, Heimo & Gordon Douglas Rowley (1974) I.O.S. Bull. 3: 97. [From Madsen 1989] This should be referenced as Rowley 1974. It is a simple name reassignment list]

Frigerio, Bianca Maria (1974–1975) PhD Thesis, Università degli Studi di Bologna. “Il peyote: sua importanza nel mondo indigeno precolombiano e postcolombiano.”

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1930), German Patent. 545,853 July 3, 1930; [CA (1932) 26: 3521.] [Patent for “α-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-β-aminoethane”.]

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1931) Austrian Patent 125,694, July 15, 1931. [CA (1932) 26: 1302] [Patent for “mescaline”]

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1932) Chemisches Zentralblatt, 1-2: 2867. “Darstellung von β-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-β-aminoethan.”

Frohne, D. (1977) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 102 (22): 849. “Pharmacologisch wirksame Substanzen aus Cactaceen.”

Fugh-Berman, Adriane (2000) Lancet 355: 134–38. “Herb-drug interactions”.

Fujita, M. et al. (1972) Yakugaku Zasshi, [J. Pharm. Soc. Japan ] 92 (4): 482–489. “On the Cactus-Alkaloids of Lophophora Williamsii var. caespitosa (Kobuki-ubadama).” (Mitiiti Fujita, Hideji Itokawa, Junko Inouse (née Oka), Yoshimasa Nozu, Natsue Goto & Kazuko Hasegawa)

Fung Pineda, Rose (1969) Dédalo, 5 (9-10): 5–207. “Las Aldas: su ibicación dentro del proceso historico del Perú antiguo.”

Furst, Peter T. (1965) Antropológica, 15: 29–80. “West Mexican Tomb Art as Evidence for Shamanism in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.”

Furst, Peter T. (1969) Verhandlungen des XXXVIII. Internationalen Amerikanistenkongresses, 2: 385–399. “A Possible Symbolic Manifestation of Funerary Endo-Cannibalism in Mexico.”

Furst, Peter T. (1971) Economic Botany, 25: 182–187. “Ariocarpus retusus, the “False Peyote” of Huichol tradition.”

Furst, Peter T. (ed.) (1972) Flesh of the Gods. The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens. Praeger, New York. [Revised 1990 Waveland Press. ISBN 0-88133-477-4.]

Furst, Peter T. (1972) “Symbolism and psychopharmacology: The toad as earth mother in Indian America.” pp. 61–68 in: XII Mesa RedondaReligión en Mesoamérica” Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología: Mexico

Furst, Peter T. (1974) “Hallucinogens in Precolumbian Art”, pages 55–101 in: King & Traylor 1974

Furst, Peter T. (1981) “Peyote und die Huichol-Indianer in Mexico” pp. 468–475 in G. Völger (ed.) Rausch und Realität Volume 2. Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum: Köln.

Furst, Peter (1989) American Ethnologist, 16: 386–387. “Book Review of Peyote Religion: A History, by Omer C. Stewart.”

Furst, Peter T. (1994) “Introduction: An Overview of Shamanism” in Gary Seaman & Jane S. Day (eds.) Ancient Traditions: Shamanism in Central Asia and the Americas. University of Colorado Press: Niwot, Colorado.

Furst, Peter T. & M. Anguino (1977) “To Fly as Birds: Myth and Ritual as Agents of Enculturation Among Huichol Indians of Mexico.” pp 95–181 in Wilbert (ed.) Enculturation in Latin America: An Anthology. UCLA Latin American Center Publications: Los Angeles.

Furst, Peter T. & Salomón Nahmed (1972) Mitos y arte huicholes. SepSetentas: Mexico.

Gabermann = Habermann

Gaebel, G. Otto (1906) Archiv der Pharmazie, 244 (6-7): 435–441. “Über das Hordenin. Vorläufige Mitteilung.”.

Gairaud, Catherine B. & Gerald R. Lappin (1953) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 18: 1–3. “The Synthesis of ω-Nitrostyrenes.”

Galati, E.M. et al. (2001) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76: 1–9. “Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study.” (E.M. Galati, M.T. Monforte, M.M. Tripodo, A. d’Aquino & M.R. Mondello)

Galati, E.M. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (17): 4903–4908. “Chemical Characterization and Biological effects of Sicilian Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. Fruit Juice: Antioxidant and Antiulcerogenic activity.” (Enza Maria Galati, Maria Rita Mondello, Daniele Giuffrida, Giacomo Dugo, Natalizia Miceli, Simona Pergolizzi & Maria Fernanda Taviano)

Gambelunghe, C. et al. (2013) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58 (1):270–278. “GC-MS and GC-MSMS in PCI Mode Determination of Mescaline in Peyote Tea and in Biological Matrices.” (Cristiana Gambelunghe, Remo Marsili, Kyriaki Aroni, Mauro Bacci & Riccardo Rossi)

Ganders, Fred R. (1975) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 47: 155–156. “The Identity of Echinocactus rapa.”

Ganguly, A.K. et al. (1965) Tetrahedron 21: 93–99. “Structure of Opuntiol, a Constituent of Opuntia elatior.” (A.K. Ganguly, T.R. Govindachari & P.A. Mohamed)

Garattini, S. & V. Ghetti (eds.) (1957) Psychotropic Drugs. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Psychotropic Drugs, Milan, 1957.

García, Jorge (1760) Manual para administrar los santos: Sacramentos, etc. Mexico City.

García, Jorge Meyrán (1973) Guia Botanica de Cactaceas y otras Suculentas del Valle de Tehuacán. (Sociedad Mexicana de Cactología.) An amazing book with a wealth of color photos. Excellent seed and propagation tips.

García Pantaleón, D.M. et al. (2009) J. PACD, 11: 45–52. “Chemical, biochemical, and fatty acids composition of seeds of Opuntia boldinghii Britton et Rose.”

Gardenerville Record-Courier (Nevada) (1938) 21 October. “Washoe Indians Are Still Using a Drug Known as Peodi.”

Gardner, R.L. et al. (1967) Phytochemistry, 6: 417.

Garforth, B. et al. (1935) J. Chem. Soc. 489 (synth)

Gartz, Jochen (1995) Integration, 6: 45. “Ein früher Versuch der Kommerzialisierung von Peyotl in Deutschland.”

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Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia (2005) Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. “Respuesta in vitro y determinación de compuestos químicos de Acanthocereus occidentalis (Britton and Rose) y Stenocereus gummosus (Engelm.) Gibson y Horak.” [from Garza Padrón 2010]

Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia (2010) PhD Thesis, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León. “Análisis Fitoquímico y Actividad Biológica de los Extractos de Tallos y Tejido in vitro de Astrophytum myriostigma (Lemaire, 1839) y Astrophytum capricorne (Dietrich, 1922) Fam. Cactaceae.”

Gasparic, Jiri & Jaroslav Churacek (1978) Laboratory Handbook of Paper and Thin-Layer Chromatography.

Gbahou, F. et al. (2006) British Journal of Pharmacology, 147 (7): 744–754. “Compared pharmacology of human histamine H3 and H4 receptors: structure-activity relationships of histamine derivatives.” (F. Gbahou, L. Vincent, M. Humbert-Claude, J. Tardivel-Lacombe, C. Chabret & J.M. Arrang)

Geber, William F. (1967) Science, 158: 265–266. “Congenital Malformations Induced by Mescaline, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, and Bromolysergic Acid in the Hamster.”

Geber, William F. (1969) Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 130 (4): 1168–1170. “Comparative Teratogenicity of Isoproteronol and Trypan Blue in the Fetal Hamster.”

Geesink, A. & W.A. den Hartog Jager (1939) Archives néerlandaises de physiologie, 24: 79–82. “Influence de la mescaline (triméthoxy-b-phényl-éthylamine) et de a diméthoxy-b-phényl-éthylamine sur la tension artérielle.” [CA (1939) 33: 79012.]

Gelfand, M. et al. (1985) The Traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe. His principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. (page 108) Mambo Press: Gweru. [M. Gelfand, S. Mavi, R.B. Drummond & B. Ndemera] [From DeSmet 1996]

Gellhorn, E. (1953) Physiological Foundations of Neurology and Psychiatry. University of Minnesota Press 1953

Genest, Klaus & D.W. Hughes (1968) Analyst, 93 (1109): 485–489. “Chromatographic Methods for the Identification of the New Hallucinogen, 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine, and Related Drugs.”

Gennaro, M.C. et al. (1996) Analytical Letters, 29(13): 2399–2409. “Determination of Mescaline in Hallucinogenic Cactaceae by Ion-Interaction HPLC.” (M.C. Gennaro, E. Gioannini, D. Giacosa & D. Siccardi)

Georgi, F. et al. (1949)a Schweitzerische medizinische Wochenschrift, 79: 121–123. “Psychophysische Korrelationen, 6. Modellversuche zum Schizophrenieproblem, Mescalinintoxikose und Leberfunktion.” (F. Georgi, R. Fischer and R. Weber) [see also (1949)b Excerpta Medica, sect. 8, 2: 951.]

Gerber, Peter (1980) Die Peyote-Religion. Völkerkundemuseum der Universität: Zurich.

German, V.F. (1971) J. Pharm. Sci. 60: 495

Gewitz, H.-S. & W. Völker (1961) Z. Naturforsch. 16b: 559.

Geyer, M.A. et al. (1978) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 207: 837–847. “The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline derived hallucinogens on sensory-integrative function: tactile startle.” (M.A. Geyer, L.R. Peterson, G.L. Rose, D.D. Horwitt, R.K. Light, L.M. Adams, J.A. Zook, R.L. Hawkins & A.J. Mandell)

Ghansah, E. et al. (1993) Neuropharmacology 32 (2): 169–174. “Effects of mescaline and some of its analogs on cholinergic neuromuscular transmission.” (E. Ghansah, P. Kopsombut, M.A, Malleque & A. Brossi)

Ghosal, S. & P.K. Banerjee (1969) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 22: 2029–2031. “Alkaloids of the Roots of Desmodium gangeticum.”

Ghosal, Shibnath & S.K. Bhattacharya (1972) Planta Medica, 22 (4): 434–440. “Desmodium alkaloids part II. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluations of D. gangeticum.”

Ghosal, Shibnath & Rakesh Mehta (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 1628–1629. “β-Phenethylamine and tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids of Desmodium cephalotes.”

Ghosal, S. & R.S. Srivastava (1973)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 62 (9): 1555–1558. “Chemical Investigation of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv.: β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids”

Ghosal, S. & R.S. Srivastava (1973)b Phytochemistry, 12: 193–197. “β-Phenethylamine, Tetrahydroisoquinoline and Indole Alkaloids of Desmodium tiliaefolium.”

Ghosal, S. et al. (1970)b Phytochemistry, 9: 429–433. “A General Method for the Isolation of Naturally Occurring Water Soluble Bases.” (S. Ghosal, P.K. Banerjee & S.K. Banerjee)

Ghosal, S. et al. (1972)d Planta Medica, 23 (4): 321–329. “Desmodium Alkaloids. IV. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of D. triflorum.” (S. Ghosal, R.S. Srivastava, S.K. Bhattacharya, and P.K. Debnath)

Ghosal et al* (1972)e “Alkaloids of Desmodium gangeticum DC.: Chemistry and Pharmacology.” pp. 107–111 in: Mothes et al. (eds.) (1972) “4. Internationales Symposium. Biochemie und Physiologie der Alkaloide. Halle (Saale), 25. bis 28. Juni 1969” Akademie-Verlag. Berlin 1972 (Kurt Mothes, Klaus Schreiber & Horst Robert Schütter (eds.) [* S.Ghosal, P.K.Banerjee, R.S.Rathore & S.K.Bhattacharya)

Ghosal, S. et al. (1974) Planta Medica, 26 (4): 318–326. “The active principles of Alhagi pseudalhagi: β-phenethylamine and tetrahydroisoquinoline bases” (S. Ghosal, R.S. Srivastava, S.K. Bhattacharya and P.K. Debnath)

Giacomelli, S. et al. (1998) Life Sciences 63 (3): 215–222. “Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs in vitro.” (S. Giacomelli, M. Palmery, L. Romanelli, C.Y. Cheng & B. Silvestrini)

Giarman, Nicholas J. & Daniel X. Freedman (1965) Pharmacological Reviews, 17 (1): 1-25. “Biochemical Aspects of the actions of psychotomimetic drugs.”

Gibson, Arthur C. & Karl E. Horak (1978) Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 65 (4): 999–1057. “Systematic Anatomy and Phylogeny of Mexican Columnar Cacti.” [K.G. Horak is a typo]

Gibson, Arthur C. & Park S. Nobel (1986) The Cactus Primer. Harvard University Press. 286 pages. ISBN# 0-674-08990-1.

Giese, Claudius Cristobal (1989)a Curare 12 (2): 81–87. “Die Diagnosemethode eines nordperuanischen Heilers” [From Rätsch 1998]

Giese, Claudius Cristobal (1989)b ‘Curanderos’: Traditionelle Heiler in Nord-Peru (Küste und Hochland) Hohenschäftlarn: Klaus Renner Verlag (Münchner Beiträge zur Amerikanistik, Bd. 20) [From Rätsch 1998 we have been unable to locate a copy of this book via interlibrary loan, or book search services or when directly contacting the publisher that Ratsch cited.]

Giesecke, J. (1976) Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B., 32: 2337

Gillespie, Allesia M. (1969) Analytical Letters, 2 (11): 609–622. “A Spectrofluorometric Study of Selected Hallucinogens.”

Gillin, John P. (1945) Moche: A Peruvian Coastal Community. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Institute of Social Anthropology Pub #3. 26 photo plates. 166p. ISBN-13: 9780020778851; ISBN: 0020778856.

Giral, F. & C.S. Alvarez (1943) Ciencia (Mexico), 4: 66. “Vitamin C content of Mexican legumes and other vegetables.” [From Meyer & McLaughlin 1982]

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1960) Clinical Research, 8: 365. “Metabolism
of dl-β-H3[sic]-norepinephrine in the human subject.” (Stanley E. Gitlow, Milton Mendlowitz, E. Gall, R.L. Wolf & N.E. Naftchi)

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1961) “The dynamics of norepinephrine metabolism.” In A.N. Brest & J.H. Moyer (eds) The Second Hahnemann Symposium on Hypertensive Disease. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. 335–342. (S.E. Gitlow, M.
Mendlowitz, A. Smith, E. Gall, R.L. Wolf & N.E. Naftchi)

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1971) Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50 (4): 859–865. “Human Norepinephrine Metabolism. Its Evaluation by Administration of Tritiated Norepinephrine.” (Stanley E. Gitlow, Milton Mendlowitz, Laura M. Bertani, Sherwin Wilk & Elizabeth K. Wilk)

Glaetzle. See Friedrich & Glaetzle

Glass-Coffin, Bonnie (1998) The Gift of Life. Female Spirituality and Healing in Northern Peru. University of New Mexico: Albuquerque. 246 page. ISBN 0-8263-1892-4 (hard.); 0-8263-1893-2 (paper)

Glass, Charles & Robert Foster (1977) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 49 (4): 161–176. “A Revision of the Genus Turbinicarpus (Backbg.) Buxb. & Backbg.”

Glennon, Richard A. (1987) “Psychoactive Phenylisopropylamines” pp. 1627–1634 (Chapter 175), in: Herbert Y. Meltzer (ed.) Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Raven Press, New York.

Glennon, Richard A. et al. (1978) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 21: 822–825. “Serotonin Receptor Binding Affinities of Several Hallucinogenic Phenylalkylamine and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Analogues.”

Glennon, Richard A. et al. (1980) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 23: 294–299 “Serotonin Receptor Affinities of Psychoactive Phenalkylamine Analogues.”

Glennon, R.A. et al. (1982) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 25: 1163–1168. “Behavioral and Serotonin Receptor Properties of 4-Substituted Derivatives of the Hallucinogen 1-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane.”

Glennon, R.A. et al. (1988) Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 29 (3): 443–449. “Stimulus Properties of 1-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-Aminopropane (MDA) Analogs” (Richard A. Glennon, Mamoun Yousif & Graham Patrick)

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Goh, K.L. (2002) Malaysian herbaceous plants. Malaysia: Advanco Press. [from Sim et al. 2010]

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Goldman, Edward Alphonso (1916) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 16 Issue 14. “Plant Records of an Expedition to Lower California.”
Washington, US Government Printing Office.

Goldstein, M. & J.F. Contrera (1962) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 237 (6): 1898–1902. “The Substrate Specificity of Phenylamine-β-hydroxylase.”

Goldstein, M. et al. (1961) Journal of Neurochemistry, 6: 253–254. “Formation of 3:4:5-trimethoxyphenylethanol from mescaline.” (M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, S. Pomerantz, C. Simmons & J.F. Contrera)

Gomm, A.S. & M. Nierenstein (1931) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 53 (12): 4408–441. “The exhaustive O-methylation of quercetin.” (from Dominguez et al. 1969)

Gonzales Huerta, Ines (1960) Revista del Viernes Médico [Lima], 11 (1): 133–137. “Identificación de la Mescalina Contenida en el Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro).”

Goodall, McC. (1950) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 4: 550. “Dihydroxyphenylalamine and hydroxytyramine in mammalian suprarenals.”

Goodall, McC. (1950) Nature, 166 (4226): 738. “Hydroxytyramine in mammalian heart.”

Goodall, McC. & Harold Alton (1968) Biochemical Pharmacology, 17 (6): 905–908. “Metabolism of 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) in human subjects.”

Goodall, McC. & Norman Kirschner (1957) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226: 213–221. “Biosynthesis of adrenaline and noradrenaline in vitro.”

Goodall, McC. & Norman Kirschner (1958) Circulation, 17: 366–371. “Biosynthesis of epinephrine and norepinephrine by sympathetic nerves and ganglia.”

Goodall, McC. & L. Rosen (1963) Journal of Clinical Investigation, 42: 1578–1588. “Urinary excretion of noradrenaline and its metabolites at ten-minute intervals after intravenous injection of dl-noradrenaline-2-C14 [sic].”

Goodwin, F.K. & W.Z. Potter (1979) p. 1863, in: Barchas, J. et al. (eds.) Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers. Pergamon Press, New York.

Gordon, M. (1960) , page 397 in A. Burger (ed.) Medicinal Chemistry. Interscience Publishers, Inc. NY.

Gorman, Peter (1995) The Best of High Times. (Best of #17) The Psychedelics Issue. 74–78. “Divine Smoke and God’s Flesh. Psychedelics and religion.” (Originally ran in the January 1990 issue of High Times)

Gottlieb, Adam (1997) Peyote and Other Psychoactive Cacti Twentieth Century Alchemist. ISBN 0-914171095-X. 85 pages.

Gottlieb, A. (1998) Peyotlevye Kaktusy

Grace, G.S. (1934) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 50: 359–372. “The Action of Mescaline and Some Related Compounds.”

Gracie & Zarkov (1984; rev. 1985) Notes from the underground. A series of groundbreaking papers which can be found many places including: &

Grant, Campbell (1965) The Rock Paintings of the Chumash. A Study of a California Indian Culture. University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Grant, Mary Lee (2000) Ft. Worth Star Telegram, 23 January “Peyote thrives in South Texas.”

Greenblatt, E.N. & A.C. Osterberg (1961) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 131: 115–130. “Correlations of Activating and Lethal Effects of Excitatory Drugs in Grouped and Isolated Mice.”

Greig, Margaret E. & Anna J. Gibbons (1959) American Journal of Physiology, 196: 803–806. “Effect of various psychotomimetic drugs on rate of appearance of carbon-14 in the brains of mice after administration of C14 glucose.” [should be written 14C.]

Grieve, Maud (1931) A Modern Herbal: the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs & trees with all their modern scientific uses. J. Cape.

Gribel, N.V. & V.G. Pashinski (1986) Vopr Onkol, 32 (12): 38–40. “Antimetastatic properties of Aloe juice.”

Grinspoon, Lester & James Bakalar (eds.) (1997) Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered. [First published in 1979] Lindesmith Center. ISBN 0-9641568-5-7.

Grym, Rudolph (1997) Rod/ Die Gattung Lophophora. Vydavatelstvo Roman Štaník, Bratislava. (In German & Czech.) [125 pages; packed with B&W and color photos] ISBN 80-900033-9-6 (This ISBN, as printed in the book, is a typo according to Books-In-Print). [Features a nice chemical summary by Roman Štarha pp. 85–90.]

Guerra, Francisco (1967) British Journal of Addictions, 62: 171–187. “Mexican Phantastica – A Study of the Early Ethnobotanical Sources on Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Guerra, F. & H. Olivera (1954) Las Plantas fantasticas de Mexico. Imprenta del Diario Español

Guillarmot, J. (1897) Thèse Doct. Méd., Lausanne. “La Pellotine chez les aliénes.”

Guillaumin Cactees (1935) [pages 60 & 61: Cereus macrogonus.]

Gundidza, M. (1985) Central African Journal of Medicine, 31: 238–239. “Phytochemical screening of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1986) Planta Medica, 558. “Insecticidal activity of Monadenium lugardae.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1990) Fitoterapia, 61: 442–444. “Action of Monadenium lugardiae latex on guinea-pig ileum.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1991) Central African Journal of Medicine, 37: 141–144. “Effect of methanol extract from Monadenium lugardiae on contractile activity of guinea-pig ileum.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gupta, M.P. et al. (1996) International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 34: 18–27. “Screening of Panamanian medicinal plants for brine shrimp toxicity, crown gall tumor inhibition, cytotoxicity and DNA intercalation.” (M.P. Gupta, A. Monge, G.A. Karikas, A. Lopez de Cerain, P.N. Solis & E. De Leon) [from Sim et al. 2010]

Gupta, R.S. et al. (2002) Pharmaceutical Biology, 40 (6): 411–415. “Antispermatogenic Effect and Chemical Investigation of Opuntia dillenii.” (R.S. Gupta, Rakhi Sharma, Aruna Sharma, Rakesh Chaudhudery, A.K. Bhatnager, M.P. Dobhal, Y.C. Joshi & M.C. Sharma)

Gusinde, Martin (1939) Der Peyote-Kult: Entsehung und Verbreitung.

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos (1950) América Indígena, 10 (3): 215–220. “Área de mescalinismo en el Peru.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1947) Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 10 (4): 422–468. “Alteraciones mentales producidas por la ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1948)a Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 11 (2): 155–170. “Psicosis experimental producida por ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1948)b Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 11 (3): 390–401. “El test de Rorschach en la intoxicación producida por ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, C. et al. (1951) Revista de Neuro-psiquiatria, 14(3): 427–441. “Estudio psicopatológico y experimental de un caso en que se ha aplicado el alcaloide de la Opuntia Cylindrica.” (C. Gutiérrez-Noriega, G. Cruz Sánchez & L.A. Guerro)

Guttman, Erich (1921) Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 68: 235, 816. “Experimentelle Halluzination durch Anhalonium Lewinii.” [see also (1921) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 47: 145.]

Guttman, Erich (1921) Journal of Mental Science, 82: 1–19. “Artificial psychoses produced by mescaline.”

Guttman, E. & W.S. Maclay (1936) Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, 16: 193–212. “Mescaline and depersonalization: therapeutic experiments.”

Guzmán-Maldonado, S.H. et al. (2010) Journal of Food Science, 75 (6): C485-C492. “Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-México Region.” (S.H. Guzmán-Maldonado, A.L. Morales-Montelongo, C. Mondragón-Jacobo, G. Herrera-Hernández, F. Guevara-Lara & R. Reynoso-Camacho)

Haagen-Smit, A.J. & M. Olivier, private communication with L. Reti.

Habermann, Vlastimil (1974)a Kaktusy, 10: 1, 2, 3, 4, 12–14, 28–33, 65–67, 81–83. “Alkaloidy kaktusů.” From Starha’s cactus alkaloid summary.

Habermann, Vlastimil (1974)b Kaktusy, 10: 123–127, 144. [“Lophophora fricii Habermann species nova.”] (From Anderson 1980 & Grym)

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)a Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 47: 157–160; “Two Red Flowering Species of Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)b Kaktusy, 11: 3–6, 24. “Lophophora jourdaniana Habermann species nova.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)c Kaktusy, 54–57, 80–82 “Rod Lophophora Coulter.” [From Grym 1997]

Habermann, Vlastimil (1977) Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník,  44: 17–21. “Přispěvek ke studiu halucinogenního účinku peyotlu.” [“A Contribution to the Study of the Hallucinogenic Effect of Peyote (Lophophora Coulter).”] [The reference to this as is listed in Anderson 1980 adds page 144; but I lack this article to check.]

Habermann, Vlastimil (1978)a БИОХИМИЯ [Biokhimiya / Biochimia (SSSR)], 43 (2): 246–251. “ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ МЕСКАЛИНА И ПЕЛЛОТИНА В РАСТЕНИЯХ РОДА LOPIIOPHORA COULTER (СЕМ. САСТАСЕАЕ) ПРИ ПОМОЩИ ОСЦИЛЛОГРАФИЧЕСКОЙ ПОЛЯРОГРАФИИ” [“Estimation of Mescaline and Pellotine in Lophophora Coulter Plants (Cactaceae) by Oscillographic Polarography.”] Also appearing in the literature as “Stanoveni meskalinu pellotinu v r. rodu Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1978)b Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník, 46: 94–102. “Oscilografická polarografie meskalinu, pellotinu a některých strukturně blízkých alkaloidů rostlin rodu Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1979) Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník, 47: 61–63. “Oscilografická polarografie některých tetrahydroisochinolinových alkaloidů rostlin rodu Lophophora (Coulter).”

Habibi, Y. et al. (2002) Carbohydrate Research, 337 (17): 15938. “Isolation and structure of D-xylans from pericarp seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, M. Mahrouz, & M.R. Vignon)

Habibi, Y. et al. (2004)a Carbohydrate Research, 339 (6): 1119–1127. “Structural features of pectic polysaccharides from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, A. Heyraud, M. Mahrouz & M.R. Vignon)

Habibi, Y. et al. (2004)b Carbohydrate Research, 339 (6):1201–1205. “An arabinogalactan from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, M. Mahrouz, M.F. Marais & M.R. Vignon)

Hadáček, J. et al. (1955) Chemicke Listy, 49: 271-272. “Přispěvek k syntéze meskalinu.” [“Synthesis of mescaline.”]

Haggendal, J. (1963) Acta Physiol. Scand. 59: 261-268. “The presence of 3-O-methylated noradrenaline (nor-metanephrine) in normal brain tissue.”

Hahn, George & Albert Hansel (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 71: 2183–2191. “Synthese von 1-Alkyl-isochinolen und 1.1’-Polymethylen-di-isochinolen.” 

Hahn, George (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 1210–1211. “Synthese des Mescalins. (Entgegnung auf die “Berichtigung” von K.H. Slotta u. G. Szyszka).”

Hahn, George & Fritz Rumpf (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, B 71 (10): 2141-2153. “Über β-(Oxy-phenyl)-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. V. Mitteil.: Kondensation von Oxyphenyl-äthylaminen mit α-Ketosäuren.” [includes synthetic procedure for mescaline.]

Hahn, George & Otto Schales (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 1486–1493. “Über β-[Oxy-phenyl]-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. II. Mitteil.: Synthese weiterer Amina und der entsprechenden [Oxy-phenyl]essigsäuren aus natürlichen Allylverbindungen.”

Hahn & Stiehl (1936) Ber. 69: 2640. Something is wrong about this citation. LOCATE CORRECT PAPER.

Hahn, George & Heinrich Wassmuth (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 696–708. “Über β-(Oxyphenyl)-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. I. Synthese des Mezcalins.”

Haigler, H.J. & George K. Aghajanian (1973) European Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 53–60, “Mescaline and LSD: direct and indirect effects on serotonin-containing neurons in brain.” 

Haigler, Henry J. & George K. Aghajanian (1980) European Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 53–60. “Mescaline and LSD: direct and indirect effects on serotonin-containing neurons in brain.” [from Aghajanian 1994]

Hajanarvis, L.S. (1964) Current Sci. (India) 33: 584. “Free organic acids in some xerophytes.” [From Meyer & McLaughlin 1982]

Halda (1997) Acta Mus. Richnov. Sect. Nat. 4(2): 71. [From 1998 Repertorium Plantarum Succulentarum XLIX] Lophophora viridescens (Halda) Halda

Haley, T.J. (1957) Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, 13: 107.

Halstead, W.C. et al. (1942)a Journal of Neurophysiology, 5: 349–356. “Modification of cortical activity by means of intermittent photic stimulation in the monkey.” (W.C. Halstead, G.W. Knox & A.E. Walker)

Halstead, W.C. et al. (1942)b Journal of Neurophysiology, 5: 483–486. “Effects of intensity and wave length on driving cortical activity in monkeys.” (W.C. Halstead, G.W. Knox, J.I. Woolf & A.E. Walker)

Hamilton, M.G. & M. Hirst (1976) European Journal of Pharmacology, 39: 237–243. “Effects of salsolinol on smooth muscle responses to various biogenic amines.” 

Hamilton, M.G. & M. Hirst (1977) European Journal of Pharmacology, 44: 279–281. “Antagonism of smooth muscle responses to oxytocin and vasopressin by salsolinol.” 

Hamilton, M. G. et al. (1976) Pharmacologist, 18: 102–104. “Effect of salsolinol on the field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum.” (M.G. Hamilton, A.M. Marshall, K. Blum & M. Hirst)

Hamilton, M.G. et al. (1978) Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res., 2: 133–137. “Identification of an isoquinoline alkaloid after chronic exposure to ethanol.” (M.G. Hamilton, K. Blum and M. Hirst) 

Hammerschlag, Carl (1988) The Dancing Healers: A Doctor’s Journey of Healing with Native Americans. Harper Collins ISBN 0-06-250395-2. 170 pages.

Hanna, Jon (1996) (1998) Psychedelic Resource List 

Hansen, P. (1996) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 47: 263–271. “Erscheinungsformen der Gattung Lophophora.” [L. fricii var. decipiens Hansen & L. williamsii f. jourdaniana Hansen] [from Grym 1997]

Hansen, P. (1998) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 49 (8): 169–174. “Eine enorme Variationsbreite: Beobachtungen an Lophophora Williamsii (Lemaire ex Salm-Dyck) Coulter.” 

Hansen, P. (1999) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 50 (9): 213–218. “Die Formenvielfalt von Lophophora diffusa (Croizat) Bravo 

Hansen, P. (2000) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 51 (9): 225–232. “Lophophora fricii Habermann und die umstrittene Varietät Lophophora Williamsii var decipiens Croizat.”

Hapke, H.J. (1995) DTW – Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrifte, 102: 228–232. “Pharmacological effects of hordenine.”

Hara, H. et al. (1982) Heterocycles, 17: 293–296. “A Biomimetic Synthesis of (±)-Tetrahydrotakatonine, (±)-O-Methylgigantine, and Tehuanine.” (Hirohi Hara, Akira Tsunashima, Hiroshi Shinoki, Osamu Hoshino & Bunsake Umezawa)

Hardman, H.F. et al. (1973) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 25: 299–300. “Relationship of the Structure of Mescaline and Seven Analogs to Toxicity and Behavior in Five Species of Laboratory Animals.”(Harold F. Hardman, Coryce O. Haavik and Maurice H. Seevers) [This study was performed on behalf of the US Army in the 1950’s and declassified in 1969.]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1991) The Ingens Bull. 4: 27–28. “Psychoactive Mesembs.” [From Hargreaves 1998]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1993) The Euphorbiaceae Study Group Bull. 6 (1): 14–18. “Euphorbia davyi and other khadi sources.” [From Hargreaves 1998]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1998) Plants Used to Make Khadi. [Paper presented at the Huntington’s Annual Succulent Symposium 1998. Copy kindly furnished by author.]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1999) Eleusis, 3: 100–104. “Piante impiegate nella preparazione del Khadi (Sud Africa). Plants used to make Khadi (South Africa)” [ [This was originally a paper presented at the Huntington’s Annual Succulent Symposium in 1998]

Harlay (1902) Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie 6 (16): 193–198. “Sur le mucilage du Cactus à raquettes.” [From Hobschette 1929]

Harley-Mason, J. et al. (1958) Confina Neurologica, 18: 152–155. “I. The Metabolism of mescalin in the human. II. Delayed reactions to mescalin.” (J. Harley-Mason, A.H. Laird & J.R. Smythies.)

Harley, K.L.S. & A.J. Thorsteinson (1967) Can. J. Zoo. 45: 305.

Harmon, James E. (1957) Journal of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America 29: 167–170. “The Persecuted Peyote.”

Harner, Michael (1980) Way of the Shaman: A guide to power and healing. Harper & Row; NY

Harner, Michael J. (Ed) (1973) Hallucinogens and Shamanism. New York/ Oxford University Press 1973. ISBN 0-19-501649-1.

Harrison, C.M.H., et al. (1976) Nature, 260: 138–139. “Mescaline as a mitotic spindle inhibitor.” (C.M.H. Harrison, B.M. Page & H.M. Keir)

Hart, Jeffrey A. (1979) Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University, 27 (10): 261– 307. “The ethnobotany of the Flathead Indians of Western Montana.”

Hartwell, J.L. (1968) Lloydia, 31 (2): 71–170. “Plants used against cancer. A survey.” (part of a larger series)

Hartwich, C. & E. Zwicky (1914) Apotheker-Zeitung 29: 925–926, 937–939, 949–950 & 961–962. “Über Channa, ein Genussmittel der Hottentotten.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Hatfield, G.M. et al. (1977) Lloydia, 40 (4): 374–383. “An investigation of Sophora secundiflora seeds (Mescal Beans.)”

Havard, Valery (1869) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 23 (2): 33–46. “Drink Plants of the North American Indians.”

Hayes, Alden (1940) New Mexico Anthropologist, 4 (2): 34–36. “Peyote Cult on the Goshiute Reservation at Deep Creek.”

Hazum, E. et al. (1981) Science, 213 (28): 1010–1012. “Morphine in Cow and Human Milk: Could Dietary Morphine Constitute a Ligand for Specific Morphine (m) Receptors?” (Eli Hazum, Julie J. Sabatka, Kwen-Jen Chang, David A. Brent, John W.A. Findlay & Pedro Cuatrecasas) 

Heacock, R.A. & Janet E. Forrest (1973) Journal of Chromatography, 78: 241-250. “The use of electron-acceptor reagents for the detection of some hallucinogens.”

Heacock & Hutzinger (1961) Chem. Ind. (London) 595.

Hebbard, Frederick W. & Roland Fischer (1966) Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 9 (2): 145–156. “Effects of Psilocybin, LSD and Mescaline on small involuntary eye movements.” [Experienced users might find their graphic presentations intriguing.]

Hecker, R.J. et al. (1970) J. Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 16: 52.

Hedendal, B.E. in Health Consciousness Vol 13 (1): 14–17.

Heffter, Arthur (1894)a Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 34: 65–86. “Ueber Pellote. Ein Beitrag zur pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Cacteen.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1894)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 27: 2975–2979. “Ueber zwei Cacteenalkaloïde.” [Pellotine from A. williamsii (0.89%) and Hordenine (Anhaline) from A. fissuratum (0.2 gm from 1 kg)] 

Heffter, Arthur (1896) Ber. 29: 221-227; See in Heffter 1896a.

Heffter, Arthur (1896)a Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 29: 216–227. “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde II. Mitteilung” [Pellotine and Mescaline.] 

Heffter, Arthur (1896)b Therapeutische Monatshefte, 10: 327–328. “Ueber Pellotin” 

Heffter, Arthur (1896)c Apotheker Zeitung, 11: 746. “Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis der Cactaceen.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1898)a Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Archiv fur experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 40: 385–429. “Ueber Pellote. Beitrage zur chemischen und pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Cacteen. II. Mittheilung.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1898)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 31: 1193–1199. “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde. (III. Mittheilung.)” [Pellotine, Mescaline, Anhalonidine, Lophophorine, Anhalonine.] 

Heffter, Arthur (1901) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 34: 3004–3015 “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde. (IV. Mittheilung.)” [Anhalamine, Mescaline, Anhalonidine.]

Heffter, Arthur (ed.) (1924) Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie. Volume Two Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Heffter, Arthur & R. Capellman (1905) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 38 (3): 3634–3640. “Versuch zur synthese des mezcalins.”

Hegnauer, R. (1964) “40. Cactaceae”, pp. 324–336: in Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen [Vol. 3: Dicotyledonae: Acanthaceae–Cyrillaceae] Birkhauser Verlag: Basel & Stuttgart.

Heinrich, C. et al. (1999) Eleusis, 3: 27–68. “Giasone, L’Uomo-Droga/ Jason, The Drug Man” (Clark Heinrich, Carl A.P. Ruck & Daniel B. Staples)

Hell, Christina (1988) Hirsch, Mais, Peyote in der Konzeption der Huichol. Klaus Renner Verlag: Hohenschläftlarn.

Helmlin, Hans-Jörg & Rudolf Brenneisen (1992) Journal of Chromatography, 593: 87–94. “Determination of psychotropic phenylalkylamine derivatives in biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection.” (Results were min/max from 6 samples purchased in Switzerland via retail outlets or obtained from private collections. No further details or any discussion of particulars was included.)

Hennings, Paul (1888) Gartenflora, 37: 410–412. (fig. 92–93) “Eine giftige Kaktee, Anhalonium Lewinii N. Sp.”

Henry, J.L. et al. (2003) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27: 381–382. “The analysis and distribution of mescaline in postmortem tissues.“ (J.L. Henry, J. Epley & T.P. Rohrig)

Henry, Thomas Anderson (1949) The Plant Alkaloids. Fourth Edition (Second Edition was 1924)

Herbert, Richard B. & Abdullah E. Kattah (1990) Tetrahedron 46 (20): 7105–7118. “The Biosynthesis of Sceletium Alkaloids in Sceletium subvelutinum L. Bolus.”

Hermle, L. et al. (1981) Teratology. A Journal of Abnormal Development, 23 (3): 287–291. “Teratogenic effects of mescaline, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in the hamster.” (L. Hermle, M. Funfgeld, G. Oepen, H. Botsch, E. Gouzoulis, E. Fehrenbach, K.S. Hirsch & H.I. Fritz)

Hermle, L. et al. (1992) Biological Psychiatry, 32: 976–991. “Mescaline-Induced Psychopathological, Neuropsychological, and Neurometabolic Effects in Normal Subjects: Experimental Psychosis as a Tool for Psychiatric Research.” (Leo Hermle, Matthias Ftinfgeld, Godehard Oepen, Hanno Botsch, Dieter Borchardt, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis, Rose A. Fehrenbach & Manfred Spitzer)

Hernández, Francisco (1900) Anales del Instituto Médico Nacional, 4 (11): 204. “De Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae.” Reprint of 1790 [from LaBarre]

Hernández, Francisco (1900) Historia, 1577. Abridgement: Rerum medicarum Novae Hispaniae thesaurus, seu(nova) plantarum, animalium, mineralium Mexicananorum historia. Mascardi: Rome [from Stewart — but I cannot locate the cited information in this book.]

Hernandez, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1615) Quatro libros De la naturaleza y viritudes.

Hernandez, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1650) Rerum medicarum Novae Hispani[ae] thesaurus, sev plantarum, animalium, mineralium Mexicananorum historia.

Hernández, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1790) De Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae, 3: 70–71. “Peyotl Zacatecensis.” Madrid; Ibarrae. 572 pages

Hernández, Francisco died in 1578.

Herre, H. (1971) The Genera of the Mesembryanthemaceae.Tafelberg-Uitgewers Beperk Cape Town. ISBN 0 624 00002 8 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1930)a Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 6 (II): 43–49. “Datos quimicos sobre el Echinopsis eyriesii (Turpin) Zucc” [1930 CA 24: 4077]

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1930)b Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 6: 75–85. “Datos quimicos sobre el Gymnocalycium gibbosum (Haw.) Pfeiff.” [1930 CA 24: 4077]

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1931) Revista Farmaceutica (Buenos Aires), 74: 87–99. “Nota sobre algunas reacciónes microquímicas de la mezcalina.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1932a) Revista Farmaceutica, (Buenos Aires) 74: 251-261. “Datos quimicos sobre el Gymnocalycium multiflorum (Hook.) Britton and Rose.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1932b) Revista Farmaceutica, (Buenos Aires) 74: 375–381. “Datos quimicos sobre Trichocereus sp. aff. T. Terschecki.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1943) Microchemical Notes on Doping’. Separate (Buenos Aires) 58 pages plus 100 pages of microphotographs. Preparation of reagents and microchemical reactions for a variety of compounds including mescaline. In Spanish. [From (1944) CA 38: 16077.] LaBarre lists a publication (undated) by this author titled; Notas Microquimicas sobre “Doping”, Buenos Aires, 267 pp.”

Hesse, O. (1871) Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 4 (2): 693-697. “Chemische Studien über die Alkaloide des Opiums.”

Hesse, O. (1872) Ann. Chem. Suppl. 8: 261 

Hewitt, Terry (1993)(1997) The Complete Book of Cactus & Succulents. 176 pages. Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London. ISBN 0-7894-1657-3. Beautifully illustrated book but hardly “complete”.

Heyl, George (1901) (E. Reichardt) Archiv der Pharmazie, [says Archiv der Pharmacie on the spine] 239: 451–473. “Über das Vorkommen von Alkaloiden und Saponinen in Cacteen.” 

Heyl, George (1928) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, [says Archiv der Pharmazie, on the spine] 266 (3): 668-673. “Über das Alkaloid von Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. und Rose. (Cereus giganteus Engelm.)”

Heym, J. et al. (1984) European Journal of Pharmacology, 101: 57–68. “Some behavioral effects of hallucinogens are mediated by a postsynaptic serotonergic action: evidence from single unit studies in freely moving cats.” (James Heym, Kurt Rasmussen & Barry l. Jacobs)

Hiller, K. et al. (1973) Die Pharmazie, 28: 409–410. “Erynginol A – Ein neues Triterpensapogenin.” (K. Hiller, M. Keipert, S. Pfeiffer, L. Tökés & J. Nelson)

Himwich, Harold E. (1956) in Cholden (ed.) Proceedings of the Round Table on lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline in experimental psychiatry, held at the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association, Atlantic City, New Jersey, May 12, 1955. NewYork: Grune & Stratton.

Himwich, Harold E. (1958) Science, 127 (3289): 59–72. “Psychopharmacologic drugs.”

Hipólito L. et al. (2007) Current Drug Metabolism, 8 (7): 716–727. “Brain, metabolism of ethanol and alcoholism: an update.” (L. Hipólito, M.J. Sánchez, A. Polache & L. Granero)

Hipólito, L. et al. (2012) Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (1): 362–378. “Revisiting the controversial role of salsolinol in the neurobiological effects of ethanol: old and new vistas.” (L. Hipólito, M.J. Sánchez-Catalán, L. Martí-Prats, L Granero & A. Polache)

Hirao, Hiroshi (1979) Color Encylopaedia of Cacti. Seibundo Shinkosha Publ. Co. Ltd. An awesome assemblage of color photos on almost every page, many with flowers, numerous crested specimens and odd Astrophytums we have seen nowhere else. Despite the text being entirely in Japanese this incredible book belongs in the library of any cactophile.

Hirsch, K.S. & H. Ira Fritz (1974) Teratology. A Journal of Abnormal Development, 9 (3): A-19– A-20. “A comparison of mescaline with epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in the hamster.”

Hjort, A.M. (1934) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 52: 101-112. Said to describe the physiological and toxicological properties of some N-methylated phenethylamines. Our available copies of this jourrnal only go back to 1940.

Hjort, A.M. et al. (1942) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Experimental Therapeutics, 76: 263–269. “Relative Pharmacological Effects of 1-Methyl-3,4-Dihydro- and 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-Isoquinoline Derivatives.” (Axel M. Hjort, Edwin J. DeBeer, Johannes S. Buck & Lowell O. Randall)

Ho, B.T. et al. (1970) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 13 (1): 26–30. “Analogs of α-Methylphenethylamine (Amphetamine). I. Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Methoxy and/or Methyl Analogs.” (Beng T. Ho, William M. McIsaac, Rong An, L. Wayne Tansy, K.E. Walker, Leo F. Englert, Jr. & Michael B. Noel)

Hobschette, A. (1929) Les Cactacées Médicinales. Gaston Doin & Cie., Paris. 79 pages.

Hoch, Paul H. (1951) American Journal of Psychiatry, 107: 607–611. “Experimentally produced psychoses.” [Ibidem 108 (1952) 579.]

Hoch, Paul H. (1955) American Journal of Psychiatry, 111 (10): 787–790. “Experimental psychiatry.” 

Hoch, Paul H. et al. (1952)a American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 579–584. “Effects of mescaline and lysergic acid (d-LSD-25)” (Paul H. Hoch, James P. Cattell & Harry H. Pennes)

Hoch, Paul H. et al. (1952)b American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 585–589. “Effects of drugs: theoretical considerations from a psychological viewpoint.” (Paul H. Hoch, James P. Cattell & Harry H. Pennes) 

Hodgkins, J.E. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, 14: 1321–1324. “Two new alkaloids in cacti.” (J.E. Hodgkins, S.D. Brown and J.L. Massingill)

Hoebel, E. Adamson (1950) Western Humanities Review, 3: 126–130. “The Wonderful Herb: An Indian Cult Vision Experience.”

Hoffer, Abram & Humphrey Osmond (1967) The Hallucinogens. New York: Academic Press

Hoffer, Abram et al. (1954) Journal of Mental Science, 100 (418): 29–45. “Schizophrenia: A new approach, II. Result of a year’s research.” (Abram Hoffer, Humphrey Osmond & John Smythies)

Hoffmann, Inge (1984) Cactus & Succulent Journal (US), 56 (2): 57–59. “Argentina: Cactus Hunter’s Paradise, Part II.” 

Hofmann, Albert (1961) Journal of Experimental Medical Science, 5: 31. 

Hogshire, Jim (1994) Opium for the Masses: A Practical Guide to Growing Poppies and Making Opium. Loompanics Unlimited. 112 pages.

Hogshire, Jim (1999) Pills a Go Go: Fiendish Investigation into Pill Marketing, Art, History, and Consumption. Feral House. 320 pages.

Holden, W.C. (1937) Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society, 9: 48–73. “Excavation of Murrah Cave.”

Holdstock, T.M. & H.M. Stevens (1975) Forensic Sciences, 6 (3): 187–195. “The recovery of alkaloids after their location on thin layer chromatograms.”

Holguín, D. Gonzalez (1989) Vocabulario de la lengua general de todo el Peru llamada lengua quichua o del Inca [first ed. 1608] Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos: Lima. 

Hollister, Leo E. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences, 96: 80–88. “Drug-induced psychoses and schizophrenic reactions: a critical comparison.”

Hollister, Leo E. (1969) Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, (Jan.-Feb.): 24–29. “Steroids and Moods: Correlations in Schizophrenics and Subjects Treated With Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), Mescaline, Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Synhexyl.” 

Hollister, Leo E. & Arnold J. Friedhoff (1966) Nature, 210: 1377–1378. “Effects of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine in man” [Observed no effects. Used both mescaline and placebo for controls.]

Hollister, Leo E. & Alan M. Hartman (1962) Comprehensive Psychiatry,  3 (4): 235–241. “Mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin: comparison of clinical syndromes, effects on color perception and biochemical measures.”

Holmes, E.M. (1897) Pharm. Journ. 5: 165–167. “Cactus grandiflorus.” [From Hobschette 1929]

Holmes, E.M. (1921) Journal of the American Medical Association, 10 (2): 103–105, “Mexican Herbs and Drugs.”

Hooker, William Jackson (1847) Curtis’s Botanial Magazine, 73 [Volume III of the Third Series (or Volume LXXIII of the whole work)]: Pages 85–87: Entry 4296. “Tab. 4296. Echinocactus Williamsii.” (Published by Reeve, Benham & Reeve, London)

Hopf, A. and Eckert, H. (1969) Psychopharmacologia, 16: 201-222. “Autoradiographic Studies on the Distribution of Psychoactive Drugs in the Rat Brain. III. 14C-Psilocin.”

Horan, H. & D.G. O’Donovan (1971) J. Chem. Soc. (C) 2083–2085. “Biosynthesis of dolicotheline.”

Horan et al. 1971 in the literature referred to Horan & O’Donovan 1971

Hörhammer, L. et al. (1966) Chemische Berichte, 99 (4): 1384–1387. “Über die Synthese von Isorhamnetinglykosiden, I. Isolierung und Synthese zweier Flavonol-glykoside von Cereus grandiflorus Mill.“ (Ludwig Hörhammer, Hildebert Wagner, Hans-Günter Arndt & Loránd Farkas)

Hori, K. (1937) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 41: 13. “Ueber experimentelle Mescalinvergiftung: Versuch am Menschen.”

Hori, K. (1938) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 42: 4. “Versuch an Tieren.”

Hornemann, K.M. Kelley et al. (1972) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 61: 41–45. “Cactus Alkaloids XII. β-Phenethylamine Alkaloids of the Genus Coryphantha” (K.M. Kelley Horneman, J.M. Neal & J.L. McLaughlin)

Horning, E.C. (ed.) (1955) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III. John Wiley & Sons.

Hortus refers to Liberty Hyde Bailey & Ethel Zoe Bailey (1976) Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Revised and expanded by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1290 pages.

Hoshikawa 1964 is the Chemical Abstracts of Hoshikawa 1962.

Hoshikawa, Hideo (1962) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, 58: 241-260 [“Pharmacological studies of hallucinogens. I. Influences of mescaline on the central nervous system with special references to the psychic factors.”]; 58: 261-274 [“II. General pharmacological properties of mescaline.”]; 58: 275–288 [“III. Bibliographic considerations of mescaline.”] [Chemical Abstracts (1964) 60: 7338e-j]

Hosko, Michael J. Jr. & Richard Tislow (1956) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 15: 440. [Abstract; entry 1432] “Acute Tolerance to Mescaline in the Dog.”

Howard, James H. (1956) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12: 432–436. “An Oto-Omaha Peyote Ritual.”

Howard, James H. (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 75–87. “The mescal bean cult of the Central and Southern Plains: an ancestor of the peyote cult?”

Howard, James H. (1962) Journal of American Folklore, 75 (296): 10–14. “Peyote jokes.” 

Howe, R.C. et al. (1977)a Phytochemistry, 16 (1): 151. “N-Methyltyramine and hordenine from Mammillaria microcarpa.” (Roberta C. Howe, Jerry L. McLaughlin & Duwayne Statz) 

Howe, R.C. et al. (1977)b Planta Medica, 31 (3): 294–296. “Cactus alkaloids. XXXIV. Hordenine HCl from Coryphantha
vivipara var. arizonica.” (Roberta C. Howe, Richard L. Ranieri, Duwayne Statz & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Hrdlička, Aleš (1908) Bulletin, Bureau of American Ethnology, No. 34. “Physiological and Medical Observations among the Indians of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico.” [from Schultes 1938)

Hsu, H.-Y. et al. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica, A concise guide.  Oriental Healing Arts Institute & Keats Publishing.  ISBN 0-87983-710-1. (Hong-yen Hsu, Yuh-pan Chen, Shuenn-jyi Shen, Chau-shin Hsu, Chien-chih Chen & Hsien-chang Chang)

Hubner, C.F. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4667–4669. “Studies of imidazole compounds. V. A new and improved synthesis of 4-(2-substituted aminoethyl)-imidazoles.”

Huebner, C.F. et al. (1949) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 71: 3942–3944. “Studies of imidazole compounds. IX. Derivatives of 4-ethylimidazole.” (C.F. Huebner, R.A. Turner & C. Scholz)

Huerta 1960 see as Gonzales Huerta 1960

Hughes et al. (1977) Can J. Chem. 55: 3304

Hulsey, D. et al. (2011) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5 (2): 677–683. “Clinal geographic variation in mescaline concentration among Texas populations of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae).” (Diana Hulsey, M. Abul Kalam, Paul Daley, Norma Fowler & Martin Terry)

Humphreys, Ray M. (1916) Denver Times, 2 December. “Peyote Replaces Whiskey on Reservation: Indians Get ‘Jags’ With the Mescal Bean.” [An interview with Chief Special Officer Henry A. Larson of the BIA]

Hunt, David (1992) CITES Cactaceae Checklist.

Hunt, David (2000) CITES Cactaceae Checklist. Second Edition. RBG Kew & the IOS. ISBN 1 900347 45 8

Hunt, David et al. (2006) The New Cactus Lexicon. dh books. ISBN 0 9538134 4 4. 2 volumes- text & atlas.

Hunt, Linda (1991) Secret Agenda: The United States Government Nazi Scientists and Operation Paperclip. St. Martin’s Press.

Huson, Paul (2001) Mastering Herbalism: A Practical Guide. Madison Books. ISBN-10: 1568331819; ISBN-13: 978-1568331812. 372 pages

Huszti, Z. and Borsy, J. (1968) J. Neurochem. 15: 1407–1413.

Hutchings, R.H (1897) State Hospital Bulletin, Utica, 2: 45–48. “Report on the use of pellotine as a sedative and hypnotic”

Huxley, Aldous (1954) The Doors of Perception. Chatto and Windus, London, England [also Harper, New York]

Huxley, Aldous (1956) Heaven and Hell. Chatto and Windus, London.

Hyde, J. et al. (1949) J. Neurophysiol. 12: 17 [from Patel]

Hyde, Robert (1960) “Psychological and Social Determinants of Drug Action.” pp. 297–312 in G.J. Sarwer-Foner (ed.) The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drugs 

Icke, Roland N. & Burnett B. Wisegarver [with Gordon A. Alles) (1955) “β-Phenethyldimethylamine (Phenethylamine, N,N-dimethyl-).” pp. 723–725, in E.C. Horning (ed.) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III. 

Ih-Sheng et al. (in literature) see as Chen et al.

Iliff, Flora Gregg (date?) People of the Blue Water. My adventures among the Walapai and Havasupai Indians. Harper & Brothers: New York

Imai, T. et al. (2006) Journal of Natural Medicine, 60: 49–53. “Triterpenoid saponins from cultural plants of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae).” (Takeo Imai, Sachie Okazaki, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Imaizumi, Reiji et al. (1958) Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 8: 22–30. “Formation of Hydroxytyramine from tyramine in the Adrenal gland.”

Impellizzeri, G. & M. Piattelli (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 2499–2502. “Biosynthesis of Indicaxanthin in Opuntia ficus-indica fruits.”

Impellizzeri, G. et al. (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (9): 2295–2296. “Acylated Betacyanins from Drosanthemum floribundum.” (Guiseppe Impellizzeri, Mario Piatelli & Sebastiano Sciuto)

Imperato, Pascal James (1977) African Folk Medicine. York Press: Baltimore. 251 pages. ISBN 0-912752-08-4

Ingle, P.H. & H. Taylor (1963) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 15: 620–623. “Synthesis of some histamine derivatives having potential histamine-like or antihistamine activity.” 

Innes, Clive (1981) The Complete Handbook of Cacti and Succulents. Ward Lock Ltd., London. ISBN 0-442-24122-4

Innes, Clives & Charles Glass (1991) Cacti. Portland House; New York. ISBN 0-517-05650-X. L.w.var. williamsii (in flower) & L. w. var. diffusa & L.w. var caespitosa (all color) p. 150

Inubushi, Y. & K. Fujitani (1958) J. Pharm. Soc. Japan (Yakugaku Zasshi,) 78: 486-?. “An unexpected reaction in a Pomeranz-Fritsch isoquinoline synthesis.”

Ippen, H. (1968) Index Pharmacorum-Synonyma, Struktur und Wirkung der organisch-chemischen Arzneistoffe. Stuttgart: George Thieme Verlag. (From Usdin & Efron 1979)

Isbell, Harris (1959) Psychopharmacologia, 1(1): 29–38. “Comparison of the Reactions Induced by Psilocybin and LSD-25 in Man.”

Isbell, Harris et al. (1962) Psychopharmacologia, 2: 147–159. “Cross tolerance between LSD and psilocybin.” (Harris Isbell, A.B. Wolbach, A. Wikler & E.J. Miner)

Isibasi, T. (1937) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 41: 38-?. “Beitraege zur Kentniss der experimentellen Meskalinvergiftung an Normalen.”

Ito, Yoshio (1952) Cacti, 96 [Lophophora Williamsii var. caespitosa Y.Ito] from Anderson 1980 & Grym 1997]

Iversen, L.L. & J. Glowinski (1966) J. Neurochem. 13: 671.

Iversen, L.L. & B. Jarrott (1970) Biochem. Pharm. 19: 1841. 

Iversen, L.L et al. (1966) J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 151: 273. (L.L. Iversen, J. Glowinski and J. Axelrod)

Iwamoto, H.K. (1942–1944) Thesis, Graduate School of the University of Maryland, 43 [Abstract] “The synthesis of analogs of mescaline.” [From LaBarre (1975)]

Iwasa, K. et al. (2001) Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry, 9 (11): 2871-2884. “Simple isoquinoline and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids as potential antimicrobial, antimalarial, cytotoxic, and anti-HIV agents.” (K. Iwasa, M Moriyasu, Y Tachibana, HS Kim, Y Wataya, W Wiegrebe, KF Bastow, LM Cosentino, M Kozuka & KH Lee)

Izumi, Seiichi and Toshiko Sono (1960) Andes 2. Excavations at Kotosh, Peru 1960. 

Jacob, J. (1966) Proceedings of the European Society for the Study of Drug Toxicity, 8: 30–58

Jacob, J. & C. Lafille (1963) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 145: 528-?. 

Jacob, J. et al. (1962) Medicina Experimentalis 7: 296-?. 

Jacob, J. et al. (1964) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 148: 14-?.

Jacobsen, Erik (1963) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 4: 480–503. “The Clinical Pharmacology of the Hallucinogens.”

Jacobsen, Hermann (1960) A Handbook of Succulent Plants: Descriptions, Synonyms and Cultural Details For Succulents Other Than Cactaceae. Volume 3. Mesembryanthemums (Ficoidaceae). Blandford Press, London. 

Jacquet, R. (1934) Recharches botaniques et chimiques sur quelques Cactaceées. Thèse franc. Pharm., Paris 176 pp. 

Jaensch, W. (1920) Zentralblatt für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 23: 119–120. “Pharmakologische Versuche über die Beziehungen optischer Konstitutionsstigmen zu den Halluzinationen.”

James, Jennifer (1996) Peyote and Mescaline. A brief Account of the History and Uses of theDivine Cactus.” Do It Now. 0-89230-210-0. Do It Now Foundation Box 27568, Tempe, AZ 85285 602 491-0393 D.I.N. Publications. A one page (double sided) informational brochure.

James, W. O. (1948) Nature, 161 (4100): 851–852. “Demonstration
and separation of noradrenaline, adrenaline, and

Janiger, Oscar & Marlene Dobkin de Rios (1975) Economic Botany, 30: 149–151. “Nicotiana an Hallucinogen?”

Janniger, Otto & Gertrude Paltin (1971) A Bibliography of LSD, Mescaline, from the Earliest Researches to the Beginnings of Suppression. Fitz Hugh Memorial Library: San Francisco

Janot, M. & M. Bernier (1933) Bulletin des sciences pharmacologiques, 40: 145–153. “Essai de localisation des alcaloïdes dans le peyotl.” 

Jantz, H. (1940)a Klinische Wochenscrift, 19: 774. “Zur pathophysiologie des Meskalinrausches.” [also (1940)b Medizinische Klinik (Berlin) 36: 790.]

Jantz, H. (1941) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 171: 28–56. “Veränderung des Stoffwechsels im Meskalinrausch beim Menschen und im Tierversuch.”

Jarrard, L.E. (1963) Psychopharmacology, 5: 39–46.

Jayasuriya, H. et al. (2005) Journal of Natural Products, 68 (8): 1247–1252. “Diterpenoid, steroid, and triterpenoid agonists of liver X receptors from diversified terrestrial plants and marine sources.” (H. Jayasuriya, K.B. Herath, J.G. Ondeyka, Z. Guan, R.P. Borris, S. Tiwari, W. de Jong, F. Chavez, J. Moss, D.W. Stevenson, H.T. Beck, M. Slattery, N. Zamora, M. Schulman, A. Ali, N. Sharma, K. MacNaul, N. Hayes, J.G. Menke & S.B. Singh)

Jeffcoate, W. J. et al. (1979) Lancet, 1: 1157–1159. “Prevention of effects of alcohol intoxication by naloxone.” (W.J. Jeffcoate, M.H. Cullen, M. Herbert, A.G. Hastings & C.P. Walder)

Jeffs, Peter W. (1981) Alkaloids (N.Y.) 19: 26. [From Southon & Buckingham]

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 91 (14): 3831–3839. “Structure of the Mesembranols and the Absolute Configuration of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids.” (P.W. Jeffs, Richard L. Hawks & D.S. Farrier)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1970) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 35 (10): 3512–3518. “Alkaloids of Sceletium Species. III. The Structures of Four New Alkaloids from S. strictum.” (P.W. Jeffs, G. Ahmann, H.F. Campbell, D.S. Farrier, G. Ganguli & Richard L. Hawks)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 93 (15): 3752–3758. “Biosynthesis of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids. The Amino Acid Precursors.” (Peter W. Jeffs, W.C. Archie, Richard L. Hawks & D.S. Farrier)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)b Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 228–230. “Biosynthesis of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids, Mode of Incorporation of Phenylalanine, and Examination of Norbelladines as Precursors.” (Peter W. Jeffs, H.F. Campbell, D.S. Farrier & G. Molina)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)c Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1466–1467. “The Structure of Sceletium Alkaloid A4, a Pyridine Alkaloid from Sceletium namaquense: Direct Method X-Ray Determination.” (Peter W. Jeffs, P.A. Luhan, Andrew T. McPhail & N.H. Martin)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1974)a Journal of Organic Chemistry, 39 (18): 2703–2710. “Sceletium Alkaloids. VI. Minor Alkaloids of S. namaquense and S. strictum.” (Peter W. Jeffs, T. Capps, D.B. Johnson, J.M. Karle, N.H. Martin & B. Rauckman)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1974)b Phytochemistry, 13: 933–945. “Incorporation of Phenylalanine and Examination of Norbelladines as Precursors of the Mesembrine Alkaloids.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Henry F. Campbell, David S. Farrier, Gouranga Ganguli, Ned H. Martin & Gerado Molina)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1978) Phytochemistry, 17: 719–728. “Cinnamic Acid Intermediates as Precursors to Mesembrine and Some Observations on the Late Stages in the Biosynthesis of the Mesembrine Alkaloids.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Jean M. Karle & Ned H. Martin)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1982) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 47: 3611–3617. “Sceletium Alkaloids. Structures of Five New Bases from Sceletium namaquense.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Thomas M. Capps & Richard Redfearn)

Jensch, H. (1929) (1931) German Patent 526,172, April 7, 1929; CA (1931) 25: 4284. 

Jensch, H. (1936) Medizin und Chemie, 3: 408–411. “Zur Synthese der Mezcalins.”

Jensen, H. (1935) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 57 (10): 1765–1768. “Chemical studies on toad poisons. VII. Bufo arenarum, Bufo regularis, and Xenopus laevis.”

Jensen, H. & K.K. Chen (1929) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 82: 397–401. “A Chemical Study of Ch’an Su, The Dried Venom of the Chinese Toad, with Special Reference to the Isolation of Epinephrine.”

Jiang, J. et al. (2006) Steroids, 71: 1073–1077. “Two novel C29-5β-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.” (Jianqin Jiang, Yanfang Li, Zhen Chen, Zhida Min & Fengchang Lou)

Jiang, J.Q. et al. (2003) Yao Xue Xue Bao, 38 (9): 677–679. [A new alkaloid from Opuntia vulgaris.] Article is in Chinese.(J.Q. Jiang, W.C. Ye, Y.H. Liu, Z. Chen, Z.D. Min & F.C. Lou) [from PubMed]

Jiao, R.H. et al. (2006) Organic Letters, 8 (25): 5709–5712. “Chaetominine a cytotoxic alkaloid produced by endophytic Chaetomium sp. IFB-E015.”

Jilek, Kugler, Hofer & Lawder (1963) Confinia Neurologica, 23: 201-220 in the literature meant Knoll et al. 1963. 

Jimenez, A.C. See as Caycho Jimenez, A.

Joachimoglu, G. & E. Keeser (1924) “Kakteenalkaloide” pp. 1104–1113, in A. Heffter’s Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie, Bd. II. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1924. 0

Johnson et al. (1970) Psychopharm. 17: 434. [G. Johnson, A.J. Friedhoff, M. Alpert and J. Marchitello)

Johnson, Harry (1958–1968) entries from the Johnson Cactus Gardens catalogs.

Johnson, Treat Baldwin & H.H. Guest (1909) American Chemical Journal, 42: 340–353. “Researches on Amines: Synthesis of Methylphenylethylamine.”

Johnson, Timothy (1999) CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference. CRC Press, Boca Raton. ISBN 0-8493-1187-X. 1211 pages.

Johnson, William E. “Pussyfoot” (1912) Indian School Journal, 12 (7): 239–242; (8): 289–293. “History, Use and Effects of Peyote.”

Jolad, S.D. & Cornelius Steelink (1969) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 34 (5): 1367–1369. “Thurberin, a New Pentacyclic Triterpene from Organ Pipe Cactus.” 

Jolly, F. (1896)a Therapeut. Monatsh., 10: 328–329. “Ueber die schlafmachende Wirkung des Pellotinum muriaticum.” 

Jolly, F. (1896)b Deut. Med. Wochenschrift 22: 375–376. “Ueber Pellotin als Schlafmittel.”

Jones, A.M. (1954) Africa 24: 26–47. “African Rhythm.”

Jones, Orlando (1890) British Medical Journal, January 11: 70. [From Hobschette 1929] 

Jonsson, Gösta & Torbjörn Malmfors (1970) Histochemie. 24 (1): 1–6. “Determination of small amounts of noradrenaline using a fluorescence histochemical method.”

Joralemon, Donald & Douglas Sharon (1993) Sorcery and shamanism: curanderos and clients in northern Peru. University of Utah Press. [A book review appeared in (1996) Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10 (1): 100–102.]

J PACD = Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development.

Julian, Percy L. (1943) Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 34: 122–125. “On the Progenitors of Certain Plant Alkaloids and the Mechanisms of the Formation in the Plant Structure.”

Julien, R.M. (1998) A Primer of Drug Action. 8th edition. W.H. Freeman, NY