References: A through Z

The master list of references
used for all volumes of
Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.

 

References for Sacred Cacti Fourth Edition

Part A: The mescaline containing species

Part B: San Pedro & related Trichocereus species

Part C: Cactus Chemistry

    Section 1: Cactus Alkaloids

    Section 2: Cactus Chemistry: By Species

The propagation & cultivation of cacti

Some Other Succulents

 

[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

A through D

E through J

K through O

P through S

T through Z

 

Aardvark, David (ed.) (1998) Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) 7 (3): 70–71 & 7 (4): 99–100. [Aardvark: editor; beginning with Volume 7 (1998)] ISSN 1066-1913.]

Aardvark, David (ed.) (1999) Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) 8 (1): 22–24 [Ott & Aardvark’s MAOI-less jurema bioassays]

Aardvark, David (2006) Entheogen Review, 15 (3): 95-96.
Epiphyllum oxypetalum and Checking Citations.”

Abdel-Kader, M.S. et al. (2003) Natural Product Sciences, 9 (2): 1–4. “Two Alkaloids from Ephedra aphylla growing in Egypt.” (Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Fahima F. Kassem & Rokia M. Abdallah)

Abdel-Rahman, M.O. et al. (1968) J. Chem. UAR 11: 401–?. “An improved method for the synthesis of mescaline.”

Abel, J.J. & D.I. Macht (1911–1912) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 3: 319. [From Deulofeu & Rúveda 1971] 

Aberle, David F. (1966) Peyote Religion among the Navaho. University of Chicago Press. 454 pages. ISBN 0-226-00082-6 (hardcover.)/ 0-226-00083-4 (paperback)

Aberle, David F. (1982) Peyote Religion among the Navaho. Second Edition. University of Oklahoma Press. 503 pages. ISBN 0-8061-2382-6.

Abou-Donia, A. et al. (1978) Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1078–1079. “X-Ray Crystal and Molecular Structure of Channaine, an Unusual Alkaloid, Probably an Artefact from Sceletium strictum.” (Amina Abou-Donia, Peter W. Jeffs, Andrew T. McPhail & Richard W. Miller) 

Aboul-Einen, Hassan Y. (1973) American Journal of
Pharmacology
, 145 (4): 125–128. “Mescaline: A Pharmacological Profile.” 

Aboul-Enein, N. Nabil & Attait I. Eid (1979) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 16: 267–270. “A novel route for the synthesis of mescaline.” 

Abramovitch, R.A. et al. (1968) Planta Medica, 16 (2): 147–157. “Identification of constituents of Opuntia fragilis.” (R.A. Abramovitch, R.T. Coutts & E.E. Knaus)

Abramson, H.A & A. Rollo (1967) “Comparison of LSD with methysergide and psilocybin on test subjects.” pp. 53–73 in Abramson (ed.) The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism. Bobbs Merrill, New York.

Abramson, H.A. (ed.) (1956) Neuropharmacology. Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation [According to Ott 1993 this was a phony research foundation front for the CIA]

Abramson, H.A. et al. (1960) Journal of Psychology, 49: 151–154. “Production of cross-tolerance to psychosis-producing doses of lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin.” (H.A. Abramson, A. Rolo, B. Sklarofsky & J. Stache)

Abramson, Harold A. (1960) Journal of Psychology, 49: 57–65, “Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25): XXX. The Questionaire Technique with Notes on its Use.”

Achari et al. (1980) Planta Med. Suppl. 5–7

Achiwa (1977) Heterocycles, 8: 247

Ackermann, D. et al. (1924) Zeitschrift fuer Biologie (Munich), 82: 278–284. “The occurrence of methyladenine, dimethylhistamine, guanidine, betaine, and elodinine in Geodia gigas.” (D. Ackermann, F. Holtz & H. Reimwein)

Acosta, P. José de (1590) Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias. J. de León: Seville. 535 pages [from Yacovleff & Herrera 1935 & Guerra 1967]

Acosta, José (1954) Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) in Obras, Madrid, Biblioteca de Autores Españoles.

Adams, Herman R. & Bennie J. Camp (1966) Toxicon, 4: 85–90. “The Isolation and Identification of Three Alkaloids From Acacia berlandieri.”

Adavasio, J.M. & G.F. Fry (1976) Economic Botany, 30: 94–96. “Prehistoric psychotropic drug use in northeastern Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas.” 

Adler, A. & O. Poetzl (1936) Jahrbuch für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 53: 13–34. “Ueber eine eigenartige Reaktion auf Meskalin bei einer Kranken mit doppelseitigen Herden in der Sehsphäre.” (coworkers in Boston Psychopathic Hospital Report)

Adrian, E.D. & Matthews, B.H.C. (1934) Brain, 57: 355–384. “The Berger Rhythm; potential changes from the occipital lobes in man.”

Aghajanian, George K. (1970) “LSD and mescaline: Comparison of effects on single units in the mid-brain raphe.” pp. 165–176 in D.H. Efron (ed.) Psychotomimetic Drugs. Raven Press.

Aghajanian, George K. (1980) Brain Research, 186 (2): 492–498. “Mescaline and LSD facilitate the activation of locus coeruleus neurons by peripheral stimuli.” 

Aghajanian, George K. (1994) Psychiatric Annals, 24 (3): 137–141. “Serotonin and the Action of LSD in the Brain.”

Aghajanian, George K. & G.J. Marek (1999) Neuropsychopharmacology, 21 (2S): 16S-23S. “Serotonin and Hallucinogens.”

Aghajanian, George K. et al. (1968) Science, 161: 706–708. “Lysergic acid diethylamide: sensitive neuronal units in the midbrain raphe.” (G.K. Aghajanian, W.E. Foote & M.H. Sheard)

Aghajanian, George K. et al. (1970) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 171 (2): 178–187. “Action of Psychotogenic Drugs on Single Midbrain Raphe Neurons.” (G.K. Aghajanian, W.E. Foote & M.H. Sheard) [Found that while LSD inhibits all raphe units, mescaline only inhibits raphe units located in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe.]

Ågren, H. (1983) p. 297, in J. Angst (ed.) The Origins of Depression: Current Concepts and Approaches. Springer, Berlin.

Aguas de Silva, M.T. et al. (1968) (in the literature) See as Silva 1968 

Aguerre, A.M. et al. (1973) Relaciones. Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia (Buenos Aires) (new series), 8: 197–231. “Hallazgo de un sitio aceramico en la Quebrada de Inca Cueva (Provincia de Jujuy).” (A.M. Aguerre, A. Fernandez Distel & C.A. Aschero) 

Aguerre, A.M. et al. (1975) Relaciones. Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia (Buenos Aires) (new series), 9: 211–214. “Comentarios sobre nuevas fechas en la cronologia aqueologica preceramica de la Provincia de Jujuy.” (A.M. Aguerre, A. Fernandez Distel & C.A. Aschero)

Agurell, Stig (1969) Experientia, 25: 1132. “Cactaceae alkaloids. VIII. N-Methyl-4-methoxy-phenethylamine from LepidoCoryphantha runyonii (Br. & R.)” [This actually should be (1969)a but, due to their use by ourselves and others in works concerning only mescaline producing cacti, it was felt that changing the other two to b and c, respectively, would create more confusion than it would alleviate.]

Agurell, Stig (1969)a Lloydia, 32 (1): 40–45. “Identification of Alkaloid Intermediates by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. I. Potential Mescaline Precursors in Trichocereus Species.”

Agurell, Stig (1969)b Lloydia, 32 (2): 206–216. “Cactaceae Alkaloids I.”

Agurell, Stig & Jan Lundström (1968) Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1968: 1638–1639. “Apparent intermediates in the biosynthesis of mescaline and related tetrahydroisoquinolines.” 

Agurell, S. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, (26): 2433–2435. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline in Peyote.”

Agurell, S. et al. (1969) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 58 (11): 1413–1414. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. VII. Alkaloids of Echinocereus merkeri.” (Stig Agurell, Jan Lundström & A. Masoud)

Agurell, S. et al. (1971)a Abh. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (in press) [From Lundstrom 1983; ILLS has been unable to locate this.]

Agurell, S. et al. (1971)b Lloydia, 34 (2): 183–187. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. X. Alkaloids of Trichocereus species and some other cacti.” (Stig Agurell, Jan G. Bruhn, Jan Lundström & Ulla Svensson)

Ahmad, A. et al. (1996) Antiviral Research, 30 (2-3): 75–85. “Antiviral properties of extract of Opuntia streptacantha.” (A. Ahmad, J. Davies, S. Randall & G.R. Skinner)

Ahmed, M.S. et al. (2005) Phytotherapy Research, 19 (9): 807–809. “Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. flowers growing in Egypt.” (M.S. Ahmed, N.D. El Tanbouly, W.T. Islam, A.A. Sleem & A.S. El Senousy)

Ainslie, J.R. (1937) A List of Plants Used in Native Medicine in Nigeria. Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford. Institute Paper No. 7. 109 pages. [From Watt 1967]

Aires, V. et al. (2004) Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 260 (1-2): 103–110. “Modulation of intracellular calcium concentrations and T cell activation by prickly pear polyphenols.” (V. Aires, S. Adote, A. Hichami, K. Moutairou, E.S. Boustani & N.A. Khan)

Aizawa, Y., & K. Yamada (1969) Jap. J. Pharm. 19: 474. 

Alarcon-Aguilar, A.F. et al. (2003) Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society (46): 139–142. “Hypoglycemic activity of two polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica and O. streptacantha.” (Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar, Argelia Valdes-Arzate, Santiago Xolalpa-Molina, Tania Banderas-Dorantes, Manuel Jimenez-Estrada, Erica Hernandez-Galicia & Ruben Roman-Ramos)

Albaugh, Bernard J. & Philip O. Anderson (1974) American Journal of Psychiatry, 131: 1247–1250. “Peyote in the Treatment of Alcoholism Among American Indians.”

Albers, Patricia & Seymour Parker (1971) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 27 (3): 203–233. “The Plains Vision Experience: a Study of Power and Privilege.”

Albesiano, Sofía (2012) Haseltonia 18: 119–142. “Taxonomic revision of the genus Trichocereus (Cactaceae) in Chile.” 

Albesiano, Sofía & Roberto Kiesling (2012) Haseltonia, 17: 24–34. “Identity and neotypification of Cereus macrogonus, the Type of the generic name Trichocereus (Cactaceae).”

Albesiano, Sofía & Teresa Terrazas (2012) Haseltonia, 17: 3–23. “Cladistic Analysis Of Trichocereus (Cactaceae: Cactoideae: Trichocereeae) Based On Morphological DATA And Chloroplast DNA Sequences.”

Albónico, S.M. et al. (1967) Journal of the Chemical Society, C: Organic, 1327–1328. “Tembamide from Fagara hyemalis (St. Hill.) Engler.” (S. M. Albónico, A. M. Kuck & V. Deulofeu)

Aldunate, Carlos et al. (1981) Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile, 38: 183–223. “Estudio etnobotanico en una communidad precordillerana de Antofagasta: Toconce.” 

Aldunate, Carlos et al. (1983) Economic Botany, 37 (1): 120–135. “Ethnobotany of Pre-Altiplanic Commnity in the Andes of Northern Chile” 

Aleksandrovskii, A.B. et al. (1936) Arkhiv Biologischeskikh Nauk, 42: 147–173. [“Local parabiotic changes in the brain produced by mescaline poisoning.”] (A.B. Aleksandrovskii, E.B. Babskii & V. Kryazhev)

Alles, Gordon A. (1957) “Some Relations between Chemical Structure and Physiological Action of Mescaline and Related Compounds.” pp. 181–267 in Harold Alexander Abramson (ed.) Neuropharmacology, New York: Macy Foundation 1957. [According to Ott 1993 the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation was a research foundation front for the CIA.]

Alles, Gordon A. & Erik V. Heegard (1943) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 147: 487–503. “Substrate Specificity of Amine Oxidase.”

Altamirano, Fernando (1900) Gaceta Médica de México, 36: 59–64. “Anhalonium Lewinii: Cacteas.”

Altamirano, Fernando (1905) Anales. Instituto Medico Nacional México, 7: 389–423. “Memoria acerca de una excursion botánica al Estado de Querétaro.” 

Altschul, Siri Von Reis (1973) Drugs and foods from
little-known plants
. Harvard University Press

Ammassari et al. (1986) Pharmacological Research Communications 18 (12): 1169–1178 Ammassari et al. (1988) Physiology and Behavior 42 (3): 281–285. 

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1971) Dynamische Psychiatrie 23–45. “Ergebnisse früher Meskalin-Forschung.”

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1974)a Psichiatria Dinamica, 1: 17–32. “I risultati dei primi studi sulla mescalina.”

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1974)b Psichiatria Dinamica, 1: 33–48. “Peyote: due diverse esperienze dell’Io.”

Amos, D. (1964) The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy, 45 (529) Suppl. 13: S8–S10. “The preparation of mescaline from eucalypt lignin.” (Listed in the On-Line catalog as The Australian Journal of Pharmacy)

Andersen, A.M. 1975 Acta Chem Scand., Ser. B, 29: 871 

Anderson, B. (2004a) “Antidepressant Effects of Ethanolic Plant Extracts on Mice,” Ethnobiology, Cost Rica. Organization for Tropical Study Abroad Program.  [from Aardvark 2006]

Anderson, B. (2004b) “Searching in the Dark Jungle for Answers to Dark Times: An Ethnobiological Investigation into Therapies for Mental Illness,” Ethnobiology, Cost Rica. Organization for Tropical Study Abroad Program.  [from Aardvark 2006]

Andersen, F. et al. (1999) Allergy, 54 (5): 511–516. “Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti.” Erratum in: (1999) Allergy 54 (8): 891. (F. Andersen, C. Bindslev-Jensen, P. Stahl Skov, E. Paulsen & K.E. Andersen)

Anderson, E. et al. (1925) American Journal of Pharmacy 97: 589–592. “Some Plant Gums of the Southwestern United States.” (Ernest Anderson, Lila Sands & Nelson Sturgis) Anderson, Edward F. (1961) PhD Dissertation; Claremont College. “A taxonomic revision of Ariocarpus, Lophophora, Pelecyphora, and Obregonia.”

Anderson, Edward F. (1962) American Journal of Botany, 49 (6): 615–622. “A revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). II. The status of the proposed genus Neogomesia

Anderson, Edward F. (1966) Brittonia, 21: 299–310 : “The biography, ecology and taxonomy of Lophophora (Cactaceae).”

Anderson, Edward F. (1967) American Journal of Botany, 54 (7): 897–903. “A Study of the Proposed genus Obregonia (Cactaceae).”

Anderson, Edward F. (1980) Peyote. The Divine Cactus. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson. ISBN 0-8165-0680-9 / 0-8165-0613–2 (pbk.) 248 pages. Second edition in 1997. ISBN 0-8165-1653-7 (hardcover)/ 0-8165-1654-5 (paperback). 

Anderson, Edward F. (1995) Cactus and Succulent Journal, 67: 67–73. “The “Peyote Gardens” of South Texas: A Conservation Crisis.”

Anderson, Edward F. (1996) Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie, 6 (1995): 369–379. “Peyote and its derivatives as Medicine.”

Anderson, Edward F. (2001) The Cactus Family. Timber Press; Portland, Cambridge. 776 pages. ISBN 0-88192-498-9.

Anderson, Edward F. & Margaret S. Stone (1969) Cactus and Succulent Journal, (US) 43 (2): 77–82. “A Pollen Analysis of Lophophora (Cactaceae).” 

Anderson, Edward F. & W.A. Fitz Maurice (1997) Haseltonia, 5: 1–20. “Ariocarpus Revisited” (comment on page 19) See the full text at www.livingrocks.com/anderson.htm

Anderson, Miles (1998) The Ultimate Book of Cacti & Succulents. Lorenz Books/ Anness Publishing, London. 256 pages. ISBN 1 859667 460 7. Loads of color photos & cultivation tips but sparse details on the plants theselves.

Andritzky, Walter (1989) Schamanismus und rituelles Heilen im Alten Peru. Band 2: Viracocha, Heiland der Anden. 

Angeloni, A.S. et al. (1977) Gazz. Chim. Ital. 107: 421.

Anggard, E. & Sedvall, G. (1969) Anal. Chem. 41: 1250–1256.

Anjaneyule, B. et al. (1965) Indian J. Chem. 3 (5): 2378 in the literature meant Anjaneyulu et al. (1965) Indian Journal of Chemistry, 3 (5): 237–238

Anjaneyulu, B. et al. (1965) Indian Journal of Chemistry, 3 (5): 237–238. “Chemical Investigation of Some Indian Plants.” (B. Anjaneyulu, V. Babu Rao, A.K. Ganguly, T.R. Govindachari, B.S. Joshi, V.W. Kamat, A.H. Manmade, P.A. Mohamed, A.D. Rahimtula, A.K. Saksena, D.S. Varde & N. Viswanathan)

Anonymous (1895) Medical Record, (October 19) 558. “Mescal buttons.” 

Anonymous (1896) The British Medical Journal, (July 4) page 3. “Pellotine”

Anonymous (1896) Universal Medical Journal (n.s), 4: 229–230. “Pellotine, a new hypnotic.”

Anonymous (1959) Bulletin on Narcotics, 11 (2): 16–20. “Peyotl.”

Anonymous (1948-1976) The Wealth of India raw materials. 11 volumes. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi.

Anonymous (1999) The Economist (April 3): 27. “A field full of buttons.” 

Anonymous (other than above) indicates correspondence or reports from workers who requested anonymity.

Anonymous 1998 Entheogen Review 7 (3): 70–71. 

Anonymous 1998 Entheogen Review 7 (4): 99–100. 

Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna & Hans Rommelspacher (2012) Isoquinolines and beta-carbolines as neurotoxins and
neuroprotectants: new vistas in Parkinson’s disease therapy
. Springer, New York.

Anton, A.H. & D.F. Sayre (1968) European Journal of Pharmacology, 4 (4): 435–440. “Possible sources of error in solvent extraction procedures for catecholamines.”

Appel, W. & E. Werle (1959) Arzneimittel-Forschung, 9 (1): 22–26. “Identification of histamine, N,N-dimethylhistamine, N-acetyl-histamine, and acetylcholine in Spinacia oleracea.”

Appel, J.B. & D.X. Freedman (1968) Psychopharmacologia, 13: 267–274. “Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance among Psychotomimetic Drugs.”

Appel, J.B. & P.M. Callahan (1989) European Journal of Pharmacology,  159 (1): 41–46. “Involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus properties of mescaline.”

Appelt, G.D. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (3): 527–528. “Effect of Mescaline on Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Synthesis in the Central Nervous System.” (Glenn D. Appelt, Norman O. Walker & Robert G. Brown)

Applewhite, P.B. (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (1): 191–192. “Serotonin and norepinephrine in plant tissues.”

Apter, J.T. (1957)a American Journal of Ophthalmology, 46: 238–246, “Changes in spontaneous and evoked potentials in the eyes of cats induced by drugs.” 

Apter, J.T. (1957)b Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66: 508–516, “The effect of the hallucinogenic drugs LSD-25 and mescaline on the electroretinogram.” 

Aragane, M. et al. (2011) Journal Natural Medicine, 65: 103–110. “Peyote identification on the basis of differences in morphology, mescaline content, and trnL/trnF sequence between Lophophora Williamsii and L. diffusa.” (Masako Aragane, Yohei Sasaki, Jun’ichi Nakajima, Nobutaka Fukumori, Masao Yoshizawa, Yukiko Suzuki, Shigemi Kitagawa, Ken’ichiro Mori, Shuzo Ogino, Ichiro Yasuda & Seiji Nagumo) [This paper oddly ignores their supplier’s clear identification assignment and, incredibly, based on simple morphology and their comparison to Anderson theydecided that their L. fricii was really L. decipiens so published this as evidence that not all L. williamsii contains mescaline.]

Aragão, T.C. et al. (200) Brazilian Journal of Medical & Biological Research, 33 (8): 897–903. “Characterization of a methionine-rich protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae).” (T.C. Aragão, P.A. Souza, A.F. Uchôa, I.R. Costa, C. Bloch Jr & F.A. Campos)

Arcoleo, A. (1961) Ann. Chim. (Rome), 51: 751–758. “Flavonoid pigments from Opuntia. I. Isorhamnetin from the flowers of Opuntia ficus-indica.” (Antonino Arcoleo, Michele Ruccia & Sigismondo Cusmano) [From 1962 CA 56: 10578h-i] 

Arcoleo, A. (1966) Atti. Accad. Sci., Lettere Arti Palermo Pt. 1. (1964–1965) 25: 323–332. “β-Sitosterol from flowers of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae).” (Antonino Arcoleo, Michele Ruccia & Maria Concetta Natoli) [From 1966 CA 65: 14092] 

Ardi, J.A. & P. McKellar (1956) Journal of Mental Science, 102: 22–29. “Hypnogogic Imagery and Mescaline.”

Arendt, Paul (1891–1892) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 1: 92–94. “Anhalonium Lewinii, Hennings”

Arizona Republic (1956) Feb. 20. “24 Nabbed Sniffing Cactus-Button Drug.”

Armendaris, Eduardo (1900) Anales del Instituto Medico Nacional, 4: 18–20. “Secíon tercera”

Armstrong, M.D. et al. (1956) J. Biol. Chem. 218: 293.

Arndt, R.R. & P.E.J. Kruger (1970) Tetrahedron Letters, 37: 3257–3240. “Alkaloids from Sceletium Joubertii L. Bol. The Structure of Joubertiamine, Dihydrojoubertiamine, and Dehydrojoubertiamine.”

Arnold, Eugene L. (1972) The Analysis of L-3-Hyroxytyrosin (l-Dopa) and its Metabolites. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, AMRL-TR-71-128 (ADØ745944).

Arnold, E.L. & R. Ford (1973) Analytical Chemistry, 45: 85–89. “Determination of catechol-containing compounds in tissue samples bygas-liquid chromatography.”

Artaud, Antonin (1966) Al Paese dei Tarahumara e altri scritti. Adelphi: Milano.

Artaud, Antonin (1975) Die Tarahumaras. Rogner & Bernhard: Hamburg 

Artaud, Antonin (1976) The Peyote Dance (tr. Helen Weaver) Farrar, Strauss & Giroux: New York 

Asberg & Träskman (1981) Adv. Exp. med. Biol. 133: 739 

Aschero, C. & H. Yacobaccio (1994) Revista del Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael (Mendoza) 13 (1/4): 116–119. “20 años después: Inca Cueva 7 revistado. Actas y Memorias del XI Congreso de Argueología.”

Askar, A. et al. (1972) Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebens. 1: 187.

Åström, A. & U. Samelius (1957) British Journal of Pharmacology, and Chemotherapy, 12: 410–414. “The Action of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Some of its Antagonists on the Umbilical Vessels of the Human Placenta.”

Aures, D. et al. (1968a) Journal of Chromatography, 33: 480–493. “Separation and detection of biogenic amines by thin layer chromatography.“ (D. Aures, R. Fleming & R. Håkanson)

Aures, D. et al. (1968b) Zeit. Anal. Chem. 243: 483. (D. Aures, R. Hakanson and L. Spolter)

Austin American Statesman (1998) page A12 in Sunday, November 22 edition.

Author? (1977) Pacific Information Service on Street Drugs, 5 [I have been unable to obtain a copy. From Sax 1984]

Avakian, O.V. & J.S. Gillespie (1968) British Journal of Pharmacology, and Chemotherapy, 32: 168–184. “Uptake of noradrenaline by adrenergicnerves, smooth muscle and connective tissue in isolated perfused arteries and its correlation with the vasoconstrictor response.”

Ávila, Francisco de (1966) Dioses y Hombres en Huarochirí. (first published ~1598) Museo Nacional de Historia, Lima.

Axelrod, Julius (1961) Science, 134 (3475): 343. “Enzymatic Formation of Psychotomimetics from Normally Occurring Compounds.” 

Axelrod, Julius (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 138: 28–33. “The Enzymatic N-Methylation of Serotonin and Other Amines.”

Axelrod, Julius & I.J. Kopin (1969) “The uptake, storage, release and metabolism of noradrenaline in sympathetic nerves.” pp. 21–32 in K. Akert & P.G. Waser, (eds.) Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 31, Mechanisms of SynapticTransmission, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Axelrod, Julius & Juan M. Saavedra (1977) Nature, 265: 501–504. “Octopamine.”

Axelrod, Julius & Thomas Tomchick (1958) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 233 (3): 702–705. “Enzymatic O-Methylation of Epinephrine and other Catechols.” 

Axelrod, Julius & Herbert Weissbach (1961) The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 236 (1): 211–213. “Purification and Properties of Hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase.”

Axelrod, Julius et al. (1958) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 233: 697–701. “O-Methylation of catecholamines in vivo.“ (J. Axelrod, S. Senoh & B. Witkop)

Axelrod, J. et al. (1959) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 127: 251–256. “The physiological disposition of H3[sic]-epinephrine and its metabolite metanephrine.” (J. Axelrod, H. Weil-Malherbe & R. Tomchick)

Azevedo, L. Warren (1995) Lo spirito del peyote. Racconti dei Washoe. in Roberto Fedelli (ed.) Psichedelica. Stampa Alternativa: Rome.

Bach, Dan (1981) Desert Plants, 3 (1): 3–8. “The Double-Cut Technique For Grafting Cacti to Trichocereus pachanoi Rootstock.”

Bächtold, H. & A. Pletscher (1957) Experientia, 13 (4): 163–165. “Einfluss von Isonikotinsäurehydraziden aufden Verlauf der Körpertemperatur nach Reserpin, Monoaminen und Chlorpromazin.” 

Backeberg, Curt (& Erich Werdermann) (1931) Neue Kakteen. Jagden, Arten, Kultur. Frankfurt/Berlin.

Backeberg, Curt (1935) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 4: 4. “Lophophora (Anhalonium) williamsii v. crist.”

 6: 2 Strombocactus pseudomacrochele Bckbg. n. sp.”

Backeberg, Curt (1936) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 1: 4 “Strombocactus macrochele (Werd.) Bckbg.”

Backeberg, Curt (1937) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 4: 2 “Ariocarpus retusus Scheidw., 1838”

 5: 5. “Coryphantha Scolymoides (Scheidw.) Berg.”

 6: 3. “Trichocereus Werdermannianus Bckbg.”

 6:4. “Trichocereus cephalomacrostibas Bckbg.”

 9: 6. “Trichocereus peruvianus Br. & R. (1920).”

Backeberg, Curt (1941) Kakteenkunde, 16–20. “Seltene Cereen des Westandinen Suedamerica.” [On page 20 Backeberg shows the same photo appearing in Backeberg 1937 but this time declares it to be Trichocereus macrogonus he found in the wild.]

Backeberg, Curt (1956) “Descriptiones Cactarearum Novarum. (Erstbeschreibungen neuer Kakteen)” page 20. Veb Gustav Fischer Verlag – Jena. [This work was soundly blasted by Myron Kimnach in a 1957 review. “The work will probably always be regarded as a curiosity of botanical literature, for here the customary low quality of Backeberg’s work sinks to a grotesque level. Indeed, it could well be used as a classroom example of what the conscientious taxonomist should avoid in his own work.” Among Kimnach’s criticisms was questioning its ethics of being released as a means of enabling Rauh to scoop Johnson, Ritter & Aker’s newly discovered species that Backeberg knew were in the process of being prepared for publication, accompanied by shoddy and inadequate descriptions including many minor variants being described as new species. Backberg’s sputtering defense, in a letter to Cyril Parr, included the wonderful comment “I must require that my special and unusual method is consented”.]

Backeberg, Curt (1957) Monatsschrift der Deutschen Kakteen-Gesellschaft, 8 (7): 106–107. “Ein rosa blühender Trichocereus aus Peru.”

Backeberg, Curt (1957/1958) Schöne Kakteen für den Liebhaber. Berlin.

Backeberg, Curt (1958–1962) Die Cactaceae. Handbuch der Kakteenkunde. Backeberg (1958) “Einleitung und Beschreibung der Peireskioideae und Opuntioideae.” Vol. I: pages 1–638, plates 1–35.

Backeberg (1959) “Cereoideae (Hylocereeae-Cereeae [Austrocereinae])” Vol. II: pages 639–1360, plates 36–107. Backeberg (1960) “Cereoideae (Boreocereeae)” Vol. IV: pages 1927–2629, plates 161–211.

Backeberg (1961) “Cereoideae (Boreocactinae)” Vol. V: pages 2631–3543, plates 212–255.

Backeberg (1962) “Nachträge und Index.” Vol. VI: pages 3545–4041.

Backeberg, Curt (1966) Das Kakteenlexikon. Enumeratio diagnostica cactacearum. Gustav Fischer Jena. 741 pages. First edition.

Backeberg, Curt (1970) Kakteenlexikon. Second edition.

Backeberg, Curt (1976) Kakteenlexikon. Third edition with Appendix by W. Haage.

Backeberg, Curt (1977) Cactus Lexicon. Enumeratio diagnostica Cactacearum. Fourth edition. (translated from German by Lois Glass) Blandford Press; Dorset ISBN 0 7137 0840 9. [1978 by Sterling Publishing. 828 pages.]

Backeberg, C. & F.M. Knuth (Knuthenborg) (“1935”/1936) Kaktus A B C. en Haandbog for Fagvolk og Amatoerer. Gyldendalske Boghandel – Nordisk Forlag- København. [Published in 1936 but dated 1935. The deliberate misdating is believed to have occurred in order for Backeberg to get a scoop on Kreuzinger 1935.]

Badger, G.M. et al. (1963) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 16: 734.

Bahnholzer, K. et al. (1952) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 35: 1577–1581: “Notiz über eine neue Synthese von Mezcalin, N-Methyl und N-Dimethylmezcalin.” (K. Bahnholzer, Tod W. Campbell & H. Schmid)

Bailey et al. (1975) Can. J. Pharm. Sci. 10: 31.

Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1963) How Plants Get Their Names. Dover: New York (First published by Macmillan Co 1933) 181 pages. 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde & Ethel Zoe Bailey (1976) Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Revised and expanded by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. Macmillan Publishing Co, 1976. 1290 pages.

Bain (1955) is unpublished laboratory results; cited in Bain 1957.

Bain, James A. (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66 (3): 459–467. “A Review of the Biochemical Effects In Vitro of Certain Psychotomimetic Agents.”

Baird-Lambert & Cohen (1975) J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 27: 958–961. “Effects of several catecholamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinolines on the hypogastric nerve-vas deferens preparation of the rat.”

Balabanova, S. et al. (1992) Naturwissenschaften, 79: 358. “First Identification of Drugs in Egyptian Mummies.” (S. Balabanova, F. Parsche & W. Pirsig)

Balen, B. et al. (2003) Journal of Plant Physiology, 160 (11): 1401–1406. “Isoenzymes of peroxidase and esterase related to morphogenesis in Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. tissue culture.” (B. Balen, M. Krsnik-Rasol & V. Simeon-Rudolf)

Balen, B. et al. (2006) Journal of Proteome Research, 5 (7): 1658–1666. “Glycoproteomic survey of Mammillaria gracilis tissues grown in vitro.” (B. Balen, M. Krsnik-Rasol, A.D. Zamfir, J. Milosević, S.Y. Vakhrushev & J. Peter-Katalinić)

Balestrieri, A. (1960) Psychopharmacologia, 1: 257–259, 

Balestrieri, Antonio (1957) p. 581 in Garattini & Ghetti 

Balestrieri, Antonio & Diego Fontanari (1959a) Archives of General Psychiatry, 1: 279–282. “Acquired and Crossed Tolerance to Mescaline, LSD-25 and BOL-148.”

Balestrieri, Antonio & Diego Fontanari (1959b) “Acquired and Crossed Tolerance to Mescaline, LSD-25 and BOL-148.” page 438, in: Bradley, P.B. et al. (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Neuro-psychopharmacology. (Rome, September 1958). 

Bamford, F. (1951) Poisons, Their Isolation and Identification. 3rd. Edition. Churchill: London.

Ban, T.A. et al. (1961) Journal of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, 6: 150–157. “Observations on the action of Sernyl- a new psychotropic drug.” (T.A. Ban, J.J. Lohrenz & H.E. Lehmann)

Banholzer, K. et al. (1952) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 35: 1577–1581: “Notiz über eine neue Synthese von Mezcalin, N-Methyl und N-Dimethylmezcalin.” (K. Bahnholzer, Tod W. Campbell and H. Schmid) 

Barca et al. (1959) Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim. Ser. B. (Madrid) CA 54: 14289g 

Barceloux, Donald G. (2008) Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals, ISBN-10: 047172761X; ISBN-13: 978-0471727613. Wiley. 1200 pages. (pp. 837–840 “Cactus”)

Barceloux, Donald G. (with Robert B. Palmer as editor & contributor) (2012) Medical Toxicology of Drugs Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471727601, 9780471727606, 1041 pages (Barceloux’s problematic Coryphantha macromeris comment is on page 63.) 

Barchas, J.D. & Daniel X. Freedman (1963) Biochemical Pharmacology, 12: 1225–1235. “Brain Amines: response to physiological stress.”

Bard, l.L. (1941) Revista Médica Latino-America (Buenos Aires) 26: 471–487. “ “El peyote,” algunas observaciones clinicas sobre sus efectos.”

Barfknecht, C.F. & David E. Nichols (1975) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 18 (2): 208–210. “Correlation of psychotomimetic activity of phenethylamines and amphetamines with 1-octacosanol-water partition coefficients.”

Barger, George (1909)a Journal of the Chemical Society, (London), Transactions 95: 1123–1128. “Isolation and Synthesis of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine, an Active principle of Ergot soluble in water.” [Synthesis pages 1127–1128.] 

Barger, George (1909)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London), Proceedings, 25: 289 and (1909)c Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 95: 2193–2197. “Synthesis of Hordenine, the Alkaloid from Barley” 

Barger, G. & H.H. Dale (1910) Journal of Physiology, 41: 19–59. “Chemical Structure and Sympathomimetic Action of Amines.”

Barger, George & Arthur James Ewins (1911)a J. Chem. Soc. (London), Proc. 26: 248 and (1911)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 97: 2253–2261. “Phenolic Derivatives of p-Phenylethylamine.” 

Barger, George & George Stanley Walpole (1909)a Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Proceedings 25: 229 and (1909)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 95: 1720–1724. “Further Synthesis of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine.”

Barnes, C.D. & L.G. Eltherington (1965) Drug Dosages in Laboratory Animals – A Handbook. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barrera-Díaz, C. et al. (2005) Environmental Technology, 26 (7): 821–829. “Cd(II) and Pb(II) separation from aqueous solution using clinoptilolite and Opuntia ectodermis.” (C. Barrera-Díaz, C. Almaraz-Calderón, M.T. Olguín-Gutiérrez, M. Romero-Romo & M. Palomar-Pardavé)

Barrera, H et al. (2006) Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136 (3): 846–853. “Removal of chromium and toxic ions present in mine drainage by Ectodermis of Opuntia.” (H. Barrera, F. Ureña-Núñez, B. Bilyeu & C. Barrera-Díaz)

Barrett (1947) Anesth. and Analg. 26: 74 and 105 

Barron et al. (1964) Scientific American, 210: 29–37. “The Hallucinogenic Drugs.” (Barron, Jarvik & Bunnell)

Baruk, H. et al. (1956) Revue Neurologique, 95: 62.

Bashyal, B.P. et al. (2007) New Zealand Grassland
Association; Endophyte Symposium
, 211–214. “Discovery of Small Molecule Bioactive Agents from Endophytic Fungi of the Sonoran Desert.” (B.P. Bashyal, A.M. Burns,
M.X. Liu, P.A. Paranagama, C.J. Seliga, T.J. Turbyville,
E.M.K. Wijeratne, J. Zhan, M.K. Gunatilaka, A.E. Arnold, S.H. Faeth, L. Whitesell & A.A.L. Gunatilaka)

Basmadjian, Garabed P. & Ara G. Paul (1971) Lloydia, 34 (1): 91–93. “The Isolation of an O-Methyltransferase From Peyote and its Role in the Biosynthesis of Mescaline.”

Basmadjian, G. et al. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (4): 375–380. “Biosynthetic relationships between phenylethylamine and tet rahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in peyote.” (G.P. Basmadjian, S. F. Hussain & A. G. Paul)

Bastos, Milton Lesso (1956) Boletim. Instituto de Quimica Agricola (Rio de Janeiro), 45: 7–16 (English Summary). “Applications of a modified chromic acid reagent in toxicological chemistry.” [also see CA (1958) 52: 156b ]

Batis, A. & M. Rojas (2002) Biodiversitas, 40:12–17. “El peyote y otros cactos alucinógenos de México.“

Batiste, L.M. et al. (1999) Pharmaceutical Biology, 37 (1): 50–53. “Isolation and identification of putative hallucinogenic constituents from the roots of Mimosa ophthalmocentra.” (L.M. Batista, R.N. Almeida, E.V.L da-Cunha, M.S. da-Silva and J.M. Barbosa-Filho) [DMT: 1.6%; MMT: 0.0012%; Hordenine: 0.0065% in dried roots]

Batov, Sergei [1999 e-mail forwarded by M.S. Smith]. 

Battersby, A.R. & T.P. Edwards (1960) Journal of the Chemical Society, 1214–1221. “Chemical Correlation of the Absolute Configuration of Salsolidine, Salsoline and Calycotomine with the Amino acids”

Battersby, A.R. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, 6: 563–565. “Biosynthesis of Cactus Alkaloids.” (A.R. Battersby, R. Binks & R. Huxtable)

Battersby, A.R. et al. (1968) Tetrahedron Letters, 58: 6111–6115. “Biosynthesis of Pellotine.” (A.R. Battersby, R. Binks & R. Huxtable)

Bauer (1907) Monatsschr. Kakteenk 17: 55 [Cereus hempelianus.] [From Britton & Rose] This is actually a reference to Fobe 1907.

Baxter, Claire & Michael Slaytor (1972) Phytochemistry, 11:2763–2766. “Partial Purification and Some Properties of Tryptophan Decarboxylase from Phalaris tuberosa.”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1968) Revue de Mycologie, 33 (1): 94–95. “Toiles d’araignées et champignons hallucinogènes.”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1969) Revue de Mycologie, 34 (2-3): 243–248. “Toiles d’araignées et champignons hallucinogènes. (Suite)”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1971) Revue de Mycologie, 36 (1): 25–46. “Action de la Psilocybine, substance hallucinogène extraite de champignons du Mexique, sur l’édification des toiles d’araignées.”

Beccari, E. (1936)a Archivio di farmacológia sperimentale e scienze affini, 61, 96. “Farmacognosia del Peyotl. Farmacognosia botanica. Parte I.”

Beccari, E. (1936)b Archivio di farmacológia sperimentale e scienze affini, 161. “Parte II. Farmacognosia Microscopica Chimica.”

Becker, Harald (1985) Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit, 14 (5): 129–137. “Inhaltsstoffe der Kaktee Lophophora Williamsii.” [Constituents of the cactus Lophophora Williamsii.]

Beifuss, Will (1996) Psychedelic Sourcebook. Rosetta. 

Beilstein’s Handbuch der Organischen Chemie. (Friedrich Konrad Beilstein) 4th edition (1998) is 503 volumes.

Bell, C.E. & A.R. Somerville (1966) Biochemical Journal, 98: 1C–3C. “A New Fluorescence Method for Detection and Possible Quantitative Assay of some Catecholamine and Tryptamine Derivatives on Paper.”

Bellman, Sander W. (1968) Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 51 (1): 164–175. “Mass Spectral Identification of Some Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Bellman, S.W. et al. (1970) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 15 (2): 261–286. “Spectrometric Forensic Chemistry of Hallucinogenic Drugs.” (Sander W. Bellman, John W. Turczan & Theodore C. Kram) [See also (1970) CA 73:75110b]

Below, L.E. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (3): 515–516. “Macromerine from Coryphantha runyonii” (L.E. Below, A.Y. Leung, J.L. McLaughlin & A.G. Paul)

Beltrami, L. (1941) Archivo Farmaceutico Sperimentale Scienze Affini, 71: 1. “La lignificazione dei peli di Peyotl studiata dal punto di vista farmacognistico, chimico e botanico.”

Bembenek, M.E. et al. (1990) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 33 (1): 147–152. “Inhibition of monoamine oxidases A and B by simple isoquinoline alkaloids: racemic and optically active 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-, 3,4-dihydro-, and fully aromatic isoquinolines.” (M.E. Bembenek, C.W. Abell, L.A. Chrisey, M.D. Rozwadowska, W. Gessner & A. Brossi) 

Bender, L. & D.V.S. Sankar (1968) Science, 159 (letter) “Chromosome damage not found in leukocytes of children treated with LSD-25.” [Concluded that LSD does not cause damage.]

Benington, Fred & Richard D. Morin (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 1353. “An improved synthesis of mescaline.”

Benington, F. et al. (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 5555–5556. “Synthesis of 4-Hydroxy- and 4-Ethoxy-3,5-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamines.” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benington, F. et al. (1955) J. Org. Chem, 20: 1292–1296. “Mescaline Analogs. III. 2,4,6-Trialkyl- and 3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Methoxy-β-phenethylamines” From Patel 1968 Article stolen from library; could not confirm.

Benington, F. et al. (1957) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 22: 227–228. “New Synthesis of Trichocereine” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benington, F. et al. (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24 (7): 917–919. “Synthesis of 5,6,7-Trimethoxy-2,3-dihydroindole and 6,7-Dimethoxyindole.” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benitez, Fernando (1961) La Tierra Magica del Peyote. Biblioteca Era: Altos, Mexico

Benitez, Fernando (1972) Peyoteros. Viaggio nella terra magica della droga. Il Saggiatore: Milano.

Benitez, Fernando (1975) In the Magic Land of Peyote. 238 pp. & 32 photographs. University Of Texas Press ISBN # 0-446-89306-4 

Bennett, Wendell Clark & Robert Mowry Zingg (1935) The Tarahumara, an Indian tribe of northern Mexico. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. 412 pages, 48 leaves of plates. ISBN 0873801326 (Reprinted in 1976 by Rio Grande Press, Glorietta, N.M.) 

Bennington (in the literature) See as Benington

Benson, Elizabeth P. (1972) The Mochica. A culture of Peru. Prager Publishers; New York. Washington

Benson, Lyman (1982) Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press 1982. Peyote pp. 680–683, ISBN 0-8047-0863-0. 1044 pages Bentley, Kenneth W. (1997) Natural Product Reports, 387–411. “β-Phenylethylamines and the isoquinoline alkaloids” 

Benvento, Fr. Toribo de (1848) “Ritos Antiquos” in Lord Kingsborough’s Antiquities of Mexico 9: 153 [From LaBarre 1975] 

Benzi, M. (1969) Hygiene Mentale 3: 61–97. “Visions des Huicholes sous l’effet du peyiotl.” 

Benzi, Mario (1972) Les derniers Adorateurs du Peyotl. Gallimard: Paris

Benzi, Mario (1998) Wirárika. Gli sciamani della Sierra Madre. Celleno (VT), La Piccola Editrice.

Berecek Kh., B.M. & M.J. Brody (1982) American Journal of Physiology, 242 (4): H593–H601. “Evidence for a neurotransmitter role for epinephrine derived from the adrenal medulla”.

Berger, Alwin (1904) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde, 190. “Cereus macrogonus S.-D.”

Berger, Alwin (1905) Missouri Botanical Garden. Sixteenth Annual Report, “XII. Trichocereus A. Berg.” (73–86 in “Revision of the Genus Cereus Mill.” 57–86) 

Berger, Alwin (1929) Kakteen. [Nice image of a macrogonus being used for grafting in figure 5.]

Berger, J.M. et al. (2007) Chemical Biodiversity, 4 (7): 1525–1532. “The effect of ultraviolet-depleted light on the flavonol contents of the cactus species Opuntia wilcoxii and Opuntia violacea.” (J.M. Berger, Y. Itagaki & K. Nakanishi)

Bergman, Robert (1971) American Journal of Psychiatry, 128: 695–699. “Navajo Peyote Use: Its Apparent Safety.”

Bergström, G.A. (1934) Kungl. Fysiograf. Sällskapets i Lund Förhand, 4: 235 “Further Note on the Occurrence of Citrate in Succulent Plants.” [From Hegnauer 1964]

Beringer, Kurt (1920) Zeitschrifte für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Volume 24. “Experimentelle Psychosen durch Meskalin.” [Also 1922 Vortrag auf der südwestdeutshen Psychiater-Versammlung in Erlangen]

Beringer, Kurt (1927) Der Mezcalinrausch, seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise. Springer, Berlin. (Reti 1950 commented that Beringer has a good bibliography of early works on the subject.) [Anderson & also LaBarre give as “Der Mezcalinrausch, seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise.” (1927) Monographien aus dem Gesamtegebiete der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 49: 35–89, 119–315.] [Beringer 1927 was reprinted in 1969 by Springer-Verlag, New York.] 

Beringer, Kurt (1928) Archivo Argentino de Neurologia, 2: 145–154. “Intoxication due to alkaloids from mescaline: Resulting mental and physical phenomena.”

Berlin, Louis et al. (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 487–491. “Studies in Human Cerebral Function: The Effects of Mescaline and Lysergic Acid on Cerebral Processes Pertinent to Creative Activity.” (Louis Berlin, Thomas Guthrie, Arthur Weider, Helen Goodell & Harold G. Wolff)

Bernabai, A. (1966) Annales della Sanitá Pubblica, 27 (Nov-Dec.) : 1265–1296. “Plante magiche Americana (Psilocybe-Stropharia-Anhalonium).”

Bernheim, Frederick & Mary L.C. Bernheim (1938) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 123: 317–326. “The Oxidation of Mescaline and Certain Other Amines.”

Bernstein, Dennis & Howard Levin (1994) The Texas Observer. (June 17): 14–15. “Ollie Takes a Powder: A Texas DEA Agent Once Tracked Oliver North’s Contra Drug Deals.” [A darkly amusing article about the problems a DEA agent ran into while trying to unravel a cocaine ring he uncovered]

Berrin, Kathleen (1978) Art of the Huichol Indians. The Fine Arts Museum: San Francisco.

Bertani et al. (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 30: (L.M. Bertani, S.W. Dziedzic, D.D. Clarke & S.E. Gitlow)

Bertler, A., et al.(1958) Acta Physiol. Scand. 44: 273–292. (A. Bertler, A. Carlsson & E. Rosengren)

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963) Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1491–1494. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. IV. Synthesis of O-Methylisopilocereine.”

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963)a Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1495–1499. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. V. Synthesis of O-Methylisopilocereine. (2).”

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963)c Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1504–1507. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. VII. Cleavage of O-Methylisopilocereine by Metallic Potassium in Liquid Ammonia.”

Betanzos, Juan de (1880) Suma y narración de los Incas que los indios llaman Capaccuna, que fueron señores de la ciudad del Cuzco y de todo lo a ello subjecto. Madrid [from Yacovleff & Herrera 1935]

Beyer, Karl & Albert R. Latven (1944) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 81: 203. “An evaluation of the influence of succinate and malonate on barbiturate hypnosis.” 

Bezerra, J.D.P. et al. (2013) Symbiosis, 60: 53–63. Fungal endophytes from cactus Cereus jamacaru in Brazilian tropical dry forest: a first study.” (Jadson D. P. Bezerra, Marília G. S. Santos, Renan N. Barbosa, Virgínia M. Svedese, Débora M. M. Lima, Maria José S. Fernandes, Bruno S. Gomes, Laura M. Paiva, Jarcilene S. Almeida-Cortez & Cristina M. Souza-Motta)

Bianchi, Antonio (1991) Annali dei Musei Civici-Rovereto, 6: 147–152. “Psicofisiologia dei rituali allucinatori dello sciamanesimo nord-peruviano.” Discusses the role of the ritual context in producing a religious experience.

Bianchi, Antonio & Giorgio Samorini (1993) “Plants in Association with Ayahuasca.” pp. 21–42 in Christian Rätsch & John R. Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness. Issue 2. [Epiphyllum] 

Bianchi, Antonio & Mario Polia (1991) Integration: Zeitschrift fur Geistbewegende Pflanzen und Kultur, 1: 65–70. “Ethnological evidence and cultural patterns of use of Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose among Peruvian curanderos.” Published in Italian (1990) Annali dei Musei Civici-Roverto, 6: 139–146. “Dati etnofarmacologici e modelli culturali dell’uso del Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose tra I curanderos peruviani.”

Biel, J.H. et al. (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 3149–3153. “Bronchodilators, N-substituted derivatives of 1-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyI)- 2-aminoethanol (Artenerol).” (J.H. Biel, E.G. Schwarz, E. P. Sprengeler, H.A. Leiser & H.L. Friedman)

Bigdeli, M.G. & M.A. Collins (1975) Biochem. Med. 12: 55–65. “Tissue catecholamines and potential tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid metabolites: A gas chromatographic assay method with electron capture detection.” 

Bird, H.L., Jr. (1974) PhD dissertation; University of
Arizona at Tucson
. “Sterols and Fatty Acids of Organ Pipe
Cactus (Lemaireocereus thurberii).” [From Gibson & Horak; also Kircher & Bird 1982]

Bisset, N.G. (1985) Agricultural University Wageningen Papers, 85 Number 3: 115–122. “Uses of Voacanga species.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Björnstad, K. et al. (2008) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 32 (4): 227–231. “Development and Clinical Application of an LC-MS-MS Method for Mescaline in Urine” (Kristian Björnstad, Anders Helander & Olof Beck)

Blair, Thomas S. (1921) Journal of the American Medical Association, 76 (15): 1033–1034. “Habit indulgence in certain cactaceous plants among the Indians’ 

Blanco Labra, Victor (1992) Wirikuta: La tierra sagrada de los huicholes. Daimon: Mexico.

Bland, D.E. et al. (1950) Australian Journal of Scientific Research, 3A: 642–?. [Extraction of syringaldehyde from E. diversicolor, E. obliqua or Eucalyptus regnans sawdust.]

Blaschko, H. (1944–1945) Journal of Physiology, 103: (Proc.) 13–14 P. “Enzymatic oxidation of mescalin in the rabbit’s liver.”

Blaschko, H. (1952) Pharmacological Reviews, 4 (4): 415–458. “Amine oxidase and amine metabolism.“

Blatt, A.H. (ed.) (1943) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, NY. 1943. Page 619

Block, Wolfram (1953) Z. Physiol. Chem. 294: 1–10 in the literature should read Block 1954.

Block, Wolfram (1953a) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 294: 1–12. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. I. Mitteilung. Der enzymatische Vorgang.” 

Block, Wolfram (1953b) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 294: 49–56. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. II. Mitteilung. Einflüss der Aminooxydase.”

Block, Wolfram (1953c) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 8b: 8 : 440–444. Zur Physiologie des 14C-radioactiven Mescalins in Tierversuch, IV. Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit 14C-Mescaline und 14C-β-Phenyl-äthylamine.” 

Block, Wolfram (1954a) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 296: 1–10. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. III. Mitteilung.” 

Block, Wolfram (1954b) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 296: 108–121. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. IV. Mitteilung. Einbau versuche in Zellkerne, Mitochondrien, Mikrosomen und Cytoplasma.” 

Block, Wolfram (1958) “Pharmacological aspects of mescaline.” pp. 108–119 in M. Rinkel & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) Chemical Aspects of Psychosis NewYork: McDowell.

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)a Angewandte Chemie 64 (6): 166–167. “Tierversuche mit 14C-radioaktivem Mescaline und sein Einbau in das Eiweiß der Leber.” 

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 85: 1009–1012. “Synthese von 14C-radioaktivem Mescalin.” 

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)c Congrès International de Biochimie, Résumés de Communications, 2nd, Paris, July 21-27 1952. p. 429. “La distribution de la méscaline marquée (14C-radioactif) dans l’organisme animal et son association avec les protéines du foie.” [CA (1954) 48: 8966d-e.] [“The distribution of mescaline (labeled with radioactive carbon14 ) in the animal organism and its association with the proteins of the liver.”] [Should be written 14carbon] 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)a Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 290: 160–168. “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. I. Mitteilung. Fermentsuche und Ausscheidungsproduckte.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)b Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 290: 230–236 “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. II. Mitteilung. Verteilung der Radioaktivität in den Organen in Abhangigkeit von der Zeit.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)c Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 291: 119–128. “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. III. Mitteilung. Mescaline in bau in Leberprotein.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Blofeld, John (1966) Psychedelic Review, 7: 27–32. “A High Yogic Experience Achieved with Mescalin.”

Bloom, A.D. et al. (1970) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 66 (3): 920–927. “Chromosome Aberrations among the Yanamama Indians.” (Arthur D. Bloom, James V. Neel, Kyoo W. Choi, Shozo Iida & Napoleon Chagnon)

Bloom et al. (1973) Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 12: 175–186

Bloom et al. (1982) Beta-carbolines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines. Proceedings of a workshop held at the Salk Institute, La Jolla, California, December 12 and 13, 1981. Alan R. Liss, NY (Floyd Bloom, Jack Barchas, Merton Sandler & Earl Usdin)

Blossfeld, Harry (1946) Cactus & Succulent Journal, of America 18 (10): 153–155. “Field list of Blossfeld collections.”

Blum, K. et al. (1978) Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res. 2: 113–120. “Putative role of isoquinoline alkaloids in alcoholism: A link to opiates.” (K. Blum, M.G. Hamilton, M. Hirst & J.E. Wallace) 

Blum, K. (1980) “Alcohol and opiates: a review of common mechanisms.” pp. 71–90 in L. Manzo (ed.) Advances in Neurotoxicology, Pergamon, London.

Bobbitt, J.M. & C.P. Dutta (1969) J. Org. Chem. 34: 2001.

Bobbitt, J.M. & Tsu-Teh Chou (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24: 1106–1108. “Synthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids. I. Lophocerine.” 

Bobbitt et al. (1965) J. Org Chem 20: 2247 (synth)

Böchtold (in the literature) See as Bächtold

Bödecker (1928) Zeitscrift für Sukkulentenkunde, 3(11):229–230. [as Echinocactus schmiedickeanus]

Bodendorf, K. & P. Kloss (1961) Archiv der Pharmazie, 66: 654–661. “Über Abbau und Biogenese der Alkaloide Mesembrin und Mesembrenin.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Bodendorf, K. & W. Krieger (1957) Archiv der Pharmazie, 62: 441–448. “Über die Alkaloide von Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L.” See also Krieger 1956

Böhm, Hartmut (2008) Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development, 148–170. “ “Opuntia dillenii” – An Interesting and Promising Cactaceae Taxon.”

Boire, Richard Glen (ed.) The Entheogen Law Reporter. 

Boit, Hans G. (1961) Ergebnisse der Chemie bis 1960. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin

Boke, Norman H. & Edward F. Anderson (1970) American Journal of Botany, 57 (5): 569–578; “Structure, Development and Taxonomy in the Genus Lophophora.”

Bolland, A. (1911) Monatshefte für Chemie, 32: 117–131. “Mikrochemische Studien.” 

Bollhart, Thomas Benno (1985) “Nearika: Visionen der Huichol.” pp. 9–75 in Umgarnte Mythen. Völkerkundemuseum Freiburg.

Borch, R. & A.I. Hassid (1972) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37: 1673–1674. “New method for the methylation of amines.”

Borg, John (1937) Cacti. A Gardener’s Handbook for Their Identification and Cultivation. First Edition. MacMillan and Co.: London.

Borg, John (1976) Cacti. A Gardener’s Handbook for Their Identification and Cultivation. Fourth Edition. Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-0132-3. [3rd ed. (enlarged) was in 1959.]

Borsy, J. et al. (1961) Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19: 27–32.

Borsy, J. et al. (1964) International Journal of Neuropharmacology, 2 (6): 273–277. “Antimescaline properties of some lysergic acid derivatives.” (J. Borsy, Zs. Huszti & M. Fekete)

Borud, O. & L.R. Gjessing (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 27: 552

Bost, J. et al. (1965) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, (Société de Biologie Lyon. Séances des 21 Décembre 1964 et 18 Janvier 1965.] 159 (2): 403–406. “Influence de la réserpine sur l’action centrale de la mescaline: Potentialisation de l’excitation motrice chez la Souris.” (J. Bost, Y. Ruckebusch & M. Roche)

Bouerget, S. (1990) Boletín del Instituto Françés de Estudios Andinos. 19 (2): 45–58. “Caracoles sagrados en la iconografía Moche.”. (from Ott 1993)

Bouma, Marcel (1994) Kaktusy, 30 (2): 59–60. “Lophophora sp. nova od Rio Verde.”

Bourn, W.M. et al. (1978) Life Sciences, 23 (11): 1175–1184. “Psychoactivity of Normacromerine in animals”

Bovet, D. & F. Bovet-Nitti (1948) Médicaments du Système Nerveux Végétatif, p. 102. Bale: Karger [from Erspamer & Glässer 1960]

Boyd, Carolyn E. & J. Philip Deering (1996) Texas Archaic. Antiquity, 70: 256–275. “Medicinal and hallucinogenic plants identified in the sediments and pictographs of the Lower Pecos.” 

Boyer, L.B. et al. (1968) Shamanism and Peyote Use Among the Apaches of the Mescalero Indian Reservation. Paper presented at the Hallucinogens and Shamanism symposium at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. (L. Bryce Boyer, Ruth M. Boyer & Harry W. Basehart) Published as pages 53–66, in Michael J. Harner (ed.) (1973) Hallucinogens and Shamanism. ISBN 0-19-501649-1. 

Braacca, Andrea B.J. & Teodoro S. Kaufman (2004) Tetrahedron 60 (47): 10575–10610. “Synthetic approaches to carnegine, a simple tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid.”

Bradley, C.A. et al. (1961) Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2: 175. 

Bradley, Richard (1989) Current Anthropology, 30 (1): 68–75. “Deaths and Entrances: A Contexual Analysis of Megalithic art.” 

Braga, D.L. & J.L. McLaughlin (1969) Planta Medica, 17 (1): 87–94. “Cactus alcaloids.[sic] V. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyltyramine from Ariocarpus retusus 

Braga, R. (1976) Plantas do Nordeste, Especialmente do Ceará. Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró. Pages 210–211. [from da Silva & Parente 2002]

Brako, Lois & J. Zarrucchi (1993) Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru 

Brant, Charles S. (1950) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology Vol. 6. “Peyotism among Kiowa, Apache and Neighboring Tribes.”

Braun, U. et al. (1978) “Mescaline Analogs: Substitutions at the 4-Position.” (Ulrich Braun, Gisela Braun, Peyton Jacob III, David E. Nichols & Alexander T. Shulgin) pp. 27–37 in G. Barnett, M. Trsic, & R. Willette, (eds.) ‘QuaSAR’ Research Monograph 22, National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Bravo H., Helia (1931) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 2 (2): 117–126. “Cactaceas del Valle de Oaxaca.”

Bravo H., Helia (1932) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 3 (1): 15–18. “Contribucion al Conocimiento de las Cactaceas de Mexico. Myrtillocactus grandiareolatus, sp. nov.”

Bravo Hollis, Helia (1937) Las Cactáceas de México. UNAM. Imprenta Universitaria. México. 755 pages. [First edition]

Bravo, H. (1967) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 12: 8–17. “Una revision del genero Lophophora.”

Bravo-Hollis, Helia (1978) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 1. (in collaboration with Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R.) [Second edition.]

Bravo, Helia & Don K. Cox (1958) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 3: 3–12. “Estudios Cactalógicos. Heliabravoa chende (Goss.) Backeberg”

Bravo-Hollis, Helia & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R. (1991a) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 2 

Bravo-Hollis, Helia & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R. (1991b) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 3 

Breese, G.V. et al. (1969) J. Pharm. Exptl. Ther. 165: 9–13. (G.V. Breese, T.N. Chase & I.J. Kopin)

Brenneisen, Rudolf & Hans-Jörg Helmlin 1993 “Lophophora” in Hager’s Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis (5. Aufl.), Bd. 5: 707–712. Springer: Berlin.

Brickell, Christopher & Judith D. Zuk (eds.) (1996) The American Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-1943-2.

Bridger, W.H. & I.J. Mandel (1967) Life Sciences, 6: 775–781. “The effect of dimethoxyphenylethylamine and mescaline on classical conditioning in rats as measured by the potentiated startle response”

Bridger, Wagner H. & W. Horsley Gantt (1956) American Journal of Psychiatry, 113 (4): 352–360. “The effect of mescaline on differentiated conditional reflexes.”

Brien, J.F. et al. (1983) Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology, 61 (6): 632–640. “Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of salsolinol in the striatum of rat brain during the calcium carbimide–ethanol interaction.” (J.F. Brien, P.J. Andrews, C.W. Loomis & J.A. Page)

Briggs, J.R. (1887) Medical Register, 1: 276–277. “Muscale buttons – Physiological action – Personal experiences.” 

Brimblecombe, Roger W. & Roger M. Pinder (1975) Hallucinogenic Agents. Bristol: Wright Scientific.

Brito, Silverster J. (1989) The Way of a Peyote Roadman. Peter Lang: New York.

Britton, H.T.S. & R.A. Robinson (1932) The Hydrogen Ion. Chapman and Hall, London.

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1913) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16: 239–242. “Studies in Cactaceae.”

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1913) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16 (9): 255-. “The genus Epiphyllum and its Allies.”

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1919–1923) The Cactaceae. Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. [The Carnegie Institute of Washington, Publication No. 248, Washington.]

Reprinted many times. Our information came from the 1937 reprint by Scott E. Haselton, Abbey San Encino Press, Pasadena, California. Also reprinted in 1977, with the four volumes bound as two volumes, by Dover, New York.

[1919:Vol. One; 1920: Vol. Two; 1922: Vol. Three; 1923: Vol. Four.]

Brock, Thomas D. & Michael T. Madigan’s (1991) Biology of Microorganisms, Sixth Edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-083817-9.

Bromberg, W. & C.L. Tranter (1943) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 97: 518–527. “Peyote intoxication: some psychological aspects of peyote rite.”

Brooke, F.K. (1914) Report of the Thirty-Second Annual Lake Mohonk Conference on the Indian and Other Dependent Peoples 72–75. “Cooperation of State and Federal Authorities.”

Brossi, A. et al. (1964) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 47 (7): 2089–2098. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe Neue Synthesen der Kaktusalkaloide Anhalamin, Anhalidin, rac. Anhalonidin und rac. Pellotin” (A. Brossi, F. Schenker and W. Leimgruber)

Brossi, A. et al. (1965) Monatshefte für Chemie, 96: 25–36. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe: Zur Ätherspaltung 6,7,8-trimethoxy-substituierter Isochinol verbindungen mit wässeriger Salzsäure” (A. Brossi, M. Baumann and R. Borer)

Brossi, A. et al. (1966) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 49 (44): 403–411. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe. Zur Darstellung 6,7,8,-Hydroxy-dimethoxy-substituierter 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisochinoline aus 3-Benzyloxy-4,5-dimethoxy-phenäthylamin und Bericht über die Resultate der pharmakologischen prüfung von Anhalamin, Anhalidin, rac. Anhalonidin und rac. Pellotin” (A. Brossi, F. Schenker, R. Schmidt, R. Banziger & W. Leimgruber)

Brossi, A. et al. (1971) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 93 (23): 6248-6252. “New Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Cactus Alkaloids” (Arnold Brossi, John F. Blount, Jay O’Brien and Sidney Teitel”

Broughton, I.B. & W.T. Hardy (1941) 54th Ann. Rep., Texas Agric. Exper. Stat. p. 1159. [from Clement et al. 1998).

Brown, F. et al. (1949) Journal of the Chemical Society (London), 1761–1766. “Cholla Gum.” (F. Brown, E.L. Hirst & J.K.N. Jones)

Brown, Joel H. (1996–1997) MAPS 7(1): 28–34. “Drug education and democracy [in]action.”

Brown, J.K. et al. (1972) Journal of Chromatography, 64: 129–133 “A Rapid Screening Procedure for some Street Drugs by TLC.” (J.K. Brown, L. Shapazian & G.D. Griffin)

Brown, John Kennedy & Marvin H. Malone (1978) Clinical Toxicology 12 (1): 1–31. “ “Legal Highs”- Constituents, Activity, Toxicology and Folklore.”

Brown, Robert E. (1968) (1975-4th edition) Guide to Preparation of the Eucharist. In a few of its many guises. (Linga Sharira Incense Company)

Brown, S.D. et al. (1968) Phytochemistry, 7 (11): 2031–2036. “Cactus Alkaloids.” (Stanley D. Brown, John L. Massingill, Jr. & Joe E. Hodgkins) 

Brown, S.D. et al. (1972)a Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37 (5): 773–775. “The isolation, structure, synthesis and absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid macromerine” (Stanley D. Brown, Joe E. Hodgkins & Manfred G. Reineke) 

Brown, S.D. et al. (1972)b Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37 (11): 1825–1828. “The isolation, structure, synthesis and absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid gigantine” (Stanley D. Brown, J.E. Hodgkins, J.L. Massingil, Jr. & M.G. Reinecke)

Bruh & also Bruhh in the literature both refer to JG Bruhn 

Bruhn & Bruhn 1971, given in the literature, refers to Bruhn 1971a

Bruhn, Jan G. (1978) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 23 (2): 27–35. “Tres Hombres y Una Droga: Investigaciones sobre el peyote en los Años 90.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1971)a Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas, 16 (3): 51–58, English summary 68–70. “Alcaloides en las Cactáceas.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1971)b Economic Botany, 25 (3): 320–329. “Carnegiea gigantea: The Saguaro and its Uses”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1973)a Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas, 18 (1): 8–11, English summary 11–13. “Búsqueda Etnobotánica de Cactáceas Alucinógenas”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1973)b Planta Medica, 24 (4): 315–319. “Ethnobotanical Search for Hallucinogenic Cacti”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975) Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 3–38. See as Bruhn 1975a.

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975)a Doctoral thesis: Uppsala University. “Pharmacognistic studies of peyote and related psychoactive cacti.” ISBN 91-0554-0335-2. 38 pages. This document appears to be missing the contents of Bruhn’s actual doctoral thesis.  It is misleading if being presented as his doctoral thesis which actually includes the work that was published in several other papers.

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975)b Phytochemistry, 14: 2509–2510. “Phenethylamines of Ariocarpus scapharostrus.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1976) Cactus and Succulent Society Journal 48: 115–118: “Early Records of Lophophora diffusa.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1974) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 63 (4): 574–576. “Cactaceae alkaloids. XVIII. Two new alkaloids from Coryphantha calipensis H. Bravo” 

Bruhn, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 1442–1443. “O-Methylpellotine, a new peyote alkaloid from Lophophora diffusa.” 

Bruhn, Jan G. & Catarina Bruhn (1973) Economic Botany, 27 (2): 241-251 “Alkaloids and Ethnobotany of Mexican Peyote Cacti and Related Species.” [Nice anthropological review of other sacred cacti. Their chemical analysis did not include any quaternary or neutral compounds. This work is commonly mistakenly presented as providing evidence for the psychoactivity of N-Me-DMPEA.]

Bruhn, Jan G. & Peter A.G.M. DeSmet (2003) HerbalGram 58: 30–33. “Ceremonial Peyote Use and its Antiquity in the Southern United States.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Bo Holmstedt (1974) Economic Botany, 28 (4): 353–390. “Early Peyote Research. An Interdisciplinary Study.”

Bruhn, J. G. & J. Lindgren (1976) Lloydia, 39 (1-2):175–177. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. XXIII. Alkaloids of Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum and Cereus jamacaru.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Jan Lundström (1976)a American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 40: 159–160. “A Student Experiment in Pharmacognosy: Biosynthesis of Mescaline in the Cactus Trichocereus pachanoi.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Jan Lundström (1976)b Lloydia, 39 (4): 197–203. “Alkaloids of Carnegiea gigantea. Arizonine,
a New Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloid.”
Concerning our math-work for Bruhn & Lundström 1976b: 15 kg of fresh cactus yielded 32 grams of alkaloids. 80% was nonphenolic and 20% was phenolic. When purifying these fractions they only used 1 gram of the nonphenolic and 0.5 grams of the phenolic fractions. The amounts listed in their account is what was obtained from these aliquots rather than totals. For all compounds except dopamine the yields were calculated, by kt, as if they had used all of their product and then recalculated them in terms of their free bases (Alkaloids were obtained as the hydrochloride salts in all cases except for Arizonine)

Bruhn, Jan G. & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada (1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 622–623. “Phenethylamines From Echinocereus cinerascens and Pilocereus chrysacanthus

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1970) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 24 (10): 3775–3777. “Biosynthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines in Carnegiea gigantea Br. and R.” (Jan G. Bruhn, Ulla Svensson & Stig Agurell)

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1975) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 12 (2): 199–204. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. XXI. Phenethylamine Alkaloids of Coryphantha Species” (Jan G. Bruhn, Stig Agurell & Jan-Erik Lindgren)

Bruhn et al. (1976) Lloydia, 39: 175 in the literature refers to Bruhn & Lindgren 1976.

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1978) Science, 199: 1437–1438. “Peyote alkaloids: Identification in a Prehistoric Specimen of Lophophora from Coahuila, Mexico.”

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (2002) Lancet (correspondence) 359 (9320): 1866–1866. “Mescaline use for 5700 years.” (Jan G Bruhn, Peter A G M De Smet, Hesham R El-Seedi & Olof Beck) [Amazingly neither Bruhn nor any of his coworkers spotted the fact that their material was a manufactured effigy of a peyote crown and not a dried peyote button. See Terry et al. 2006 for details and images]

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (2008) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 40 (2 ): 219–222. “Ecstacy analogues found in cacti.” (Jan G. Bruhn, Hesham R. El-Seedi, Nikolai Stephanson, Olof Beck & Alexander T. Shulgin) [In a personal conversation in 2009, Sasha expressed his extreme embarassment to have been included as an author for such poor quality work.]

Buchanan, Douglas N. (1929) British Journal of Medical Psychology, 9: 67–88, with discussion pp. 89–92. “Meskalinrausch.” 

Buchanan, Douglas N. (1931) Medical Annual, 1931: 12.

Buck, J. S. (1930) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 52: 4119–4122. “Synthesis of iodal and epinine.”

Buck, J.S. (1933)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 55: 2593–2597. “Catalytic Reduction of Mandelonitriles.”

Buck, J.S. (1933)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 55: 3388–3390. “Reduction of Hydroxymandelonitriles. A New Synthesis of Tyramine.”

Buck, J.S. (1934) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 56: 1769–1771. “Some substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline hydrochlorides.”

Buckholtz, N.S. et al. (1990) Neuropsychopharmacology, 3(2): 137–148. “Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) administration selectively downregulates serotonin2 receptors inthe rat brain.” (N.S. Buckholtz, D.F. Zhou, D.X. Freedman & W.Z. Potter)

Buelow, D.W. & O. Gisvold (1944) J. Am. Pharm. Ass. 33: 270.

Bullis, Ronald K. (1990) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 22 (3): 325–332. Swallowing the Scroll: Legal Implications of the Recent Supreme Court Peyote Cases”

Burke, J.C. & A.R. McIntyre (1938) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 64: 465.

Burkill, J.D. (1966) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Art Printing Works. [from Aardvark 2006 and Duke]

Burt-Davy, J. (1913) Agricultural Journal of the Union of South Africa 6: 66. (From Watt 1967)

Buscaino, V. (1949) Gazzetta Sanitaria, 20: 417. [From Turner & Heyman]

Bussmann, Rainer W. & Douglas Sharon (2006) Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 44-55? “Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.” (The available copy online of this 11 page article does not include the actual page numbers.)

Bussmann, Rainer W. & Douglas Sharon (2006) Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 47-65? “Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.” [The available online copy of this 18 page article does not include the actual page numbers.)

Butera, D. et al. (2002) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 50 (23): 6895–6901. “Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.” (Daniela Butera, Luisa Tesoriere, Francesca Di Gaudio, Antonino Bongiorno, Mario Allegra, Anna Maria Pintaudi, Rohn Kohen & Maria A. Livrea)

Butler, George F. (1908) The American Journal of Clinical Medicine, 15: 1043–1056. “A Study of Cactus grandiflorus. A demonstration of the fact that theoretical pharmacology and practical clinical experience do not always agree. A presentation of the case for the latter.”

Bwititi, P.T. et al. (2001) Renal Failure, 23 (2): 149–158. “Effects of Opuntia megacantha leaves extract on renal electrolyte and fluid handling in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats.” (P.T. Bwititi, T. Machakaire, C.B. Nhachi, & C.T. Musabayane)

Bwititi, P. et al. (2000) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 69: 247–252. “Effects of Opuntia megacantha on blood glucose and kidney functions in streptozotocin diabetic rats.” (P. Bwititi, C.T. Musabayane & C.F.B. Nhachi)

Byarlay, Patricia (ed.) The Peyote Awareness Journal later as Peyote: A Medicine Journal.

Bye, Robert A., Jr. (1979) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1: 28–48. “Hallucinogenic Plants of the Tarahumara”

Bygdeman, S. (1960) Ark. Kemi. 16: 247.

Cacti_etc archives: http://www2.labs.agilent.com/bot/cactus_home. Early references on Selenicereus from the 1800s onward can be found in CACTI_ETC Digest 4521.

Cai, Y.Z. et al. (2006) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 54 (18): 6520–6526. “Rapid identification of betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus polyrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS).” (Y.Z. Cai, J. Xing, M. Sun & H. Corke)

Calderón, Eduardo & Douglas Sharon (1978) Terapia de la Curanderia. Edigraf-Trujillo. (Discusses modern use in healing and philosophy. Discusses other herbs pp. 59–67.)

Calderón, Eduardo et al. (1982) Eduardo el Curandero: The words of a Peruvian Healer. North Atlantic Books & Society for the Study of Native Arts & Sciences, Richmond, CA.

Caldwell, Roger Lee (1966) PhD Dissertation; University of Arizona. “A Biochemical Investigation of Callus Tissue in the Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea Gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose).”

Callaway, Jace C. (1995) Eleusis, 1: 4–10. “Ayahuasca, Now and Then.”

Camilla, Giberto (1998) “Cactus Mescalinici.” pages 83–91 in Altrove #5. [Very general overview of mescaline containing and other psychoactive cacti.]

Camino, Alejandro (1992) Takiwasi 1 (1): 99–109. “El Peyote: Derecho histórico de los pueblos indios.”

Camisaca, L. (1949) Oto-rino-laringologia italiana 18: 90–107. “L’azione della mescalina sull’-apparato vestibolare.”

Camp, Bennie J. & Carl M. Lyman (1956) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition 45 (11): 719–721. “The Isolation of N-Methyl beta-Phenethylamine from Acacia berlandieri.”

Camp, Bennie J. & Carl M. Lyman (1957) The Southwestern Veterinarian 10: 133. [Have not yet obtained a copy.]

Camp, Bennie J. & Michael J. Norvell (1966) Economic Botany, 20 (3): 274–278. “The Phenethylamine Alkaloids of Native Range Plants.”

Camp, Bennie J. and Joan A. Moore (1960) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. 49 (3): 158–160. “A Quantitative Method for the Alkaloid of Acacia berlandieri.”

Camp, B.J. et al.(1964) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 111 (2): 744–750. (Bennie J. Camp, Ray Adams and J.W. Dollahite) “The Chemistry of the Toxic Constituents of Acacia berlandieri.”

Campbell, Carolyn E. & Henry W. Kircher (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2777–2779. “Senita Cactus: A Plant With Interrupted Sterol Biosynthetic Pathways.”

Campbell, C.J. et al. (1946) Federation Proceedings, 5: 15. “Sodium succinates as an analeptic in man.” [Paper presenteed to the American Physiological Society, 55th annual meeting Atlantic City, NJ, Mar. 11–15, 1946.] (C.J. Campbell, J.P. Males & R.H. Bennet)

Campbell, Thomas N. (1947) The Texas Journal of Science, 9: 7–25. “The Fields shelter: an archeological site in Edwards County, Texas.”

Campbell, Thomas N. (1958) American Anthropologist, 60 (1): 156–160. “Origin of the Mescal Bean Cult.”

Camus, L. (1906)a Archives internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 16: 43. “Étude physiologique du sulfate d’hordénine” (from Kapadia & Fayez 1970)

Camus (1906)b Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 110–113. “L’hordénine, son degré de toxicité, symptômes de l’intoxication”

Camus (1906)c Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 237–239. “Action du sulfate d’hordénine sur la circulation”

Camus (1906)d Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 350–352. “Action du sulfate d’hordénine sur les ferments solubles et sur les microbes.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1983) Boletín de Lima, 5 (26): 13–28. “El Obelisco Tello de Chavin.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1985) Boletín de Lima, 7 (37): 38–44. “Problemas Arqueológicos e Iconográficos-Enfoques Nuevos.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1988) Boletín de Lima, 10 (56): 35–40. “Alucinógenos utilizados en la región andina prehispánica.”

Canestrini, D. (1993) Airone, 144: 66–77. “Un peyote, e poi perdeersi fra mille colori.”

Cannell, Richard J.P. (ed.) (1998) Natural Products Isolation (Methods in Biotechnology 4) Humana Press: Totowa, NJ 473 pages ISBN 0-89603–362-7

Capps, T.M. et al. (1977) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkins Transactions II, 8: 1098–1104. “Sceletium Alkaloids. Part 7. Structure and Absolute Stereochemistry of (-)-Mesembrane and 3’-Methoxy-4’-O-methyljoubertiamine, Two Minor Bases from S. Namaquense L. Bolus: X-Ray Analysis of (-)-Mesembrane Hydrochloride Monohydrate.” (Thomas M. Capps, Karl D. Hargrave, Peter W. Jeffs & Andrew T. McPhail)

Cárdenas, Martín (1953) Revista de Agricultura (Cochabamba) 11 (8): 15–19 (plus three unnumbered pages with illustrations and/or photographs). “Notas Cactológicas de Bolivia. Dos Trichocereus Nuevos.”

Cardinale, G.J. (1987) Life Sciences 40: 301–306. “Morphine and Codeine are Endogenous Components of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.” (George J. Cardinale, Josef Donnerer, A. Donald Finck, Joel D. Kantrowitz, Kazuhiro Oka & Sydney Spector)

Carling, C. & F. Sandberg (1970) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 7 (3): 285–288. “Alkaloids of Haloxylon articulatum.” [See also 1970 CA 73: 63154f,]

Carlini, E.A. et al. (1965) Experientia, 21 (2): 72–73. “Potentiation of Histamine and Inhibition of Diamine Oxidase by Mescaline.” (E.A. Carlini, M. Santos & M.R.P. Sampaio)

Carlini, E.A. et al. (1967) Med. Pharmacol. Exp. 17: 534–542. “Effects of chronic administration of β-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine and β-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine on the climbing rope performance of rats.” (E.A. Carlini, M.T.A. Silva, L.C. Cesare & R.M. Endo) 

Carlsson, A. & M. Lindquist (1962) Acta Physiol. Scand. 54: 83.

Cashaw, J.L. et al. (1974) Journal of Chromatography, 99: 567–573. “Identification of catecholamine-derived alkaloids in mammals by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.” (J.L. Cashaw, K.D. McMurtry, H. Brown & V.E. Davis)

Casillas Romo, Armando (1990) Nosologia mítica de un pueblo: Medicina tradicional huichola. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara: Guadalajara.

Castellanos-Santiago E & E.M. Yahia (2008) Journal of
Agricultural & Food Chemistry
, 56 (14): 5758–5764.
“Identification and quantification of betalains from the fruits of 10 mexican prickly pear cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.”

Castellar, R. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (9): 2772–2776. “Color Properties and Stability of Betacyanins from Opuntia Fruits.” (Rosario Castellar, José M. Obón, Mercedes Alacid & José A. Fernández-López)

Castellar, R. et al. (2006) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86: 122–128. “The isolation and properties of a concentrated red-purple betacyanin food colourant from Opuntia stricta fruits.” (R. Castellar, J.M. Obón & J.A. Fernández-López)

Castetter, Edward F. (1935) The University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biological Series, 4 (1): 160–220. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest I. Uncultivated Native Plants Used as Sources of Food.”

Castetter, Edward P. & Morris Edward Opler (1936) University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biological Series. 297: 85–88. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest. III. The Ethnobiology of the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache. A. The Use of Plants for Foods, Beverages and Narcotics.” [In Castetter, Edward P. & Morris E. Opler (1936) The University of New Mexico Bulletin, 297: 85–155. “The Ethnobiology of the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache.”]

Castetter, Edward F. & Ruth Underhill (1935) University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biology Series, 4 (5): 3–84. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest. II. The Ethnobiology of the Papago Indians.”

Castrillón, José A. (1950) Thesis, Buenos Aires University. [from Reti 1954]

Castrillón, José A (1952) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 74: 558–559. “Cactus Alkaloids. I. Condensation of Mescaline with Formaldehyde by the Eschweiler-Clarke Reaction.” [An interesting reaction in a failed attempt to produce trichocereine.]

Cattell, James P. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 119 (3): 233–244. “Influence of Mescaline on Psychodynamic Material.”

Caycho Jimenez, Abraham (1977) Folklore Americana, 23: 89–100. “Folklore médico y fitoalucinismo en el Perú.”

Caycho Jimenez, Abraham (1979) Folklore Americana, 28: 159–161. “Sistemática nosográfica del folklore médico en el Perú.”

Ceroni, Luigi (1932) Rivista Sperimentale Freniatria, 56: 42–104. “L’intossicazione mescalinica (Autoesperienze).”

CESAR (University of Maryland Center for Substance Abuse Research.) (2006) Peyote.

Céspedes, C.L. et al. (2005) Phytochemistry, 66 (20): 2481-2493. “Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.” (Carlos L. Céspedes, J. Rodrigo Salazar, Mariano Martínez & Eduardo Aranda)

Chachoyan, A.A. et al. (1973) Biol. Zh. Arm. 25: 102. [Chemical Abstracts (1973) 78:52538m] (A.A. Chacoyan, B.T. Garibdzhanyan & E.Z. Markaryan) [from Strombom & Bruhn 1978]

Chalet, Jean Marc (1980)a Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 25: 75–92. “Los Alcaloides de las Cactáceas.”

Chang Po-tuan (translated by Thomas Cleary) (1987) Understanding Reality. A Taoist Alchemical Classic. With a Concise Commentary by Liu I-Ming [A translation of the Chinese 12th century classic; Wu Chen P’ien] University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1139-7.

Chang, C. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 2771-2775. “Biogenesis of Betalamic Acid.” (Christina Chang, Linda Kimler & Tom. J. Mabry)

Chang, C.-S. et al. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4081–4084. “A new synthesis of hordenine and other p-dialkylaminoethylphenols and some of their derivatives.”

Chang, S.-F. et al. (2008) Food Chemistry, 106: 569–575. “The protective effect of Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit against low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and its active compounds.” (S.-F. Chang, C.-L. Hsieh & G.-C. Yen)

Chapman, N.B. et al. (1965) Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Ser. B, Biological Sciences, 163 (990): 116–135. “The synthesis, reactivity, and pharmacological properties of some substituted N N-dimethyl-2-halogeno-2-phenylethylamines, and related compounds.” (N.B. Chapman, K. Clarke & R.D. Strickland)

Charalampous, K.D. & L.W. Tansey (1967) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 155: 318–329. “Metabolic fate of beta-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)- ethylamine in man.“

Charalampous, K. D. et al. (1964) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 145 (2): 242–246. “Metabolic Fate of β-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine (Mescaline) in Humans: Isolation and Identification of 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenylacetic Acid.” (K.D. Charalampous, Antonio Orengo, K.E. Walker & John Kinross-Wright)

Charalampous, K. D. et al. (1966) Psychopharmacologia, 9: 48-63. “Metabolic Fate of Mescaline in Man.” (K.D. Charalampous, K.E. Walker & John Kinross-Wright)

Chatterjee, A. et al. (1976) Tetrahedron 32: 3051–3053. “Lewis Acid Catalyzed Rearrangement of Triterpenoids.” (A.S. Chatterjee, S. Mukhopadhyay & K. Chattopadhyay)

Chaumerliac & Roche (1948) Bulletin de la société d’ophtalmologie de Paris. 800–802. “Un vasodilateur inattendu, la mescaline.” [CA (1952) 46: 2191a] [“An unexpected vasodilator, mescaline.”]

Chen, C. et al. (1999) Zhong Yao Cai, 22 (11): 581–583. [Studies of Echinopsis multiplex on antineoplastic effects.] (Article is in Chinese. (C. Chen, R. Jin, Z. Sun & H. Zhang) (From PubMed)

Chen, C.R et al. (1974) Lloydia, 37 (3): 493–500. “A phytochemical study of Doryphora sassafras. II. Isolation of eleven crystalline alkaloids from the bark.“ (C.R. Chen, J.L. Beal, R.W. Doskotch, L.A. Mitscher & G.H. Svoboda)

Chen, K.K. & A.Ling Chen (1933) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 49: 503–513. “The poisonous secretions of twelve species of toads.”

Chen, K.K. & A.Ling Chen (1933b) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 22 (9): 813–819. “The pharmacological action of ten amines related to ephedrine and tryptamine.”

Chen, K.K. et al. (1931) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 43: 13. (K.K. Chen, H. Jensen, and A.L. Chen) [From Deulofeu & Rúveda 1971]

Chen, F. et al. (2012) Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences U S A. 109 (5): 1772–1777. “A polymer of caffeyl alcohol in plant seeds.” (Fang Chen, Yuki Tobimatsu, Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Richard A. Dixon & John Ralph)

Chen, I.S. et al. (1995) Phytochemistry, 40 (3): 983–986. “Alkaloids from Hernandia sonora.” (Ih-Sheng Chen, Jih-Jung Chen and Ian-Lih Tsai) [Appears in PubMed as Ih-Sheng, C. et al.] 

Chen, J. et al. (2003) Journal of Chromatography, A, 1003: 127–132. “Determination of noradrenaline and dopamine in Chinese herbal extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. by high-performance liquid chromatography.” (Juan Chen, Yan-Ping Shi & Jing-Yan Liu)

Chen, S.-B. & H.-M. Meng (1997) Pharmacol. Clin. Chin. Mater. Med. 13: 36–37. [Study on Anti-Lipid Peroxidation of Opuntia dillenii Haw] in Chinese with English Abstr..

Chen, X.P. & X. Zhao (1998) Chin. J. Tradition. Med. Sci. Technol. 5: 335–336. [The progress on pharmacological action of Opuntia dillenii study] in Chinese

Cheng, C.-S. et al. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4081–4084. “A New Synthesis of Hordenine and Other p-Dialkylaminoethylphenols and Some of Their Derivatives” (Chao-Shing Cheng, Claus Ferber, Raymond I. Bashford, Jr. & Gerald F. Grillot)

Cherayil, George D. (1973) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 62 (12): 2054–2055. “N-dimethylation of β-phenylethylamine derivatives.”

Chevalier, A. (1946) Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences 223: 767–769. “Le Sata mbwanda racine stimulante et aphrodisiaque employée par les Noirs du Gabon et son identification botanique.”

Chevalier, A. (1947) Revue de Botanique Appliquée, 27: 104–109. “Les Mostuea africains et leurs propriétés stimulantes.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Chevon, G. (1931) Journal de la Sociétè des Africanistes, 1: 285–289. “Le Dyidé.”

Chin, K.C. et al. (1962) Sheng Li Hsueh Pao, 25 (3): 182–190. [CA (1963) 59: 13249g-h.] [“Pharmacologic actions of tetrahydroberberine on the central nervous system.”] (Kuo-Chang Chin, Hsin-Ying Chu, Hsi-Ts’an T’ang & Pin Hsu)

Cho, J.Y, et al. (2006) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 58 (1): 113–119. “Radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Opuntia humifusa Raf.” (J.Y. Cho, S.C. Park, T.W. Kim, K.S. Kim, J.C. Song, S.K. Kim, H.M. Lee, H.J. Sung, H.J. Park, Y.B. Song, E.S. Yoo, C.H. Lee & MH Rhee)

Cholden, L. (ed.) (1956) Lysergic acid diethylamide and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry. New York & London: Grune & Stratton, 1956.

Chomcheon, P. et al. (2005) Journal of Natural Products, 68: 1103–1105. “3-Nitropropionic Acid (3-NPA), a Potent Antimycobacterial Agent from Endophytic Fungi: Is 3-NPA in Some Plants Produced by Endophytes?” (Porntep Chomcheon, Suthep Wiyakrutta, Nongluksna Sriubolmas, Nattaya Ngamrojanavanich, Duangnate Isarangkul & Prasat Kittakoop)

Chopra, I.C. et al. (1960) “With Particular Reference to the Botanical Aspects” in: Medicinal Plants of the Arid Zones. Arid Zone Research Publication No. 13. Paris: UNESCO 1960. (p. 42) (I.C. Chopra, B.K. Abrol & K.L. Handa) [From Anderson 1980]

Choudhury, A.M. (1971) Chemistry and Industry, 578. “Total Synthesis of (±)-Gigantine and its O-Methyl Ether.”

Choulis, N.H. (1967) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 56 (2): 196–199. “Separation and Quantitative Determination of Adrenaline using Thin-Layer Chromatography”

Chow, S.Y. et al. (1977) Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi (Journal of the Formosan Medical Association), 76 (12): 916–925. . [Pharmacological studies of Chinese herbs (6): Pharmacological effects of Epiphyllum oxypetalum Haw.] (article is in Chinese) (S.Y. Chow, C.F. Chen & S.M. Chen) [from Aardvark 2006]

Christenson, James G. et al. (1972) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 69 (2): 343–347. “On the Identity of DOPA Decarboxylase and 5-Hydroxytryptophan Decarboxylase.” [With Wallace Dairman and Sidney Udenfriend]

Christiansen, A. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 136: 31–37. “Changes in spider webs brought about by mescaline, psilocybin and an increase in body weight.” (Arnold Christiansen, Ricarda Baum & Peter N. Witt)

Church, A.C. et al. (1976) Psychopharmacology 47: 49–52. “Salsolinol differentially affects mice selected for sensitivity to alcohol.” (A.C. Church, J.L. Fuller & B.C. Dudek)

Church, A.C. et al. (1977) Drug & Alcohol Dependency, 2: 443–452. “Behavioral effects of salsolinol and ethanol on mice selected for sensitivity to alcohol-induced sleep time.” (A.C. Church, J.L. Fuller & B.C. Dudek)

Chweitzer, A. & E. Geblewicz (1938) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 128: 867–868. “L’action de la mescaline sur la coloration du Cyprin bronzé.”

Chweitzer, A. et al. (1936) L’Année psychologique (Paris) 37: 94–119. “Étude de l’Électroencéphalogramme Humain dans un cas D’Intoxication Mescalinique.” (A. Chweitzer, E. Geblewicz & W. Liberson)

Chweitzer, A. et al. (1937) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 124:1296–1299. “Action de la mescaline sur les ondes α (rythme de Berger) chez l’homme.” (A. Chweitzer, E. Geblewicz & W. Liberson)

Ciaranello, RD. et al. (1969) Nature, 221 (5178): 368–369.  “Enzymatic synthesis of adrenaline in mammalian brain.” (R.D. Ciaranello, R.E. Barchas, G.S. Byers, D.W. Stemmle & J.D. Barchas)

Cjuno. M. et al. (2007) Quepo,  21: 32–38. “Estudio del Echinopsis schoenii.” (Mijail Cjuno, Jorge Choquenaira & Carlos Serrano)

Cjuno, M. et al. (2009) Quepo,  23: 38–45. “El género Trichocereus, Ecología y Contenido Mescalínico.” (Mijail Cjuno, Jorge Choquenaira, Policarpo Quispe, Carlos Serrano & Ciro Tomaylla)

Clark, L.C. et al. (1954) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 13 (1): 27, entry # 87. “Effect of mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related compounds on respiratory enzyme activity of brain homogenates.” [Abstract of a paper presented to the American Physiological Society: 72nd meeting; Atlantic City, New Jersey, April 12–16, 1954.] (L.C. Clark, Jr., R.P. Fox, F. Benington and R. Morin.)

Clark, L.C. et al. (1964) Alabama Journal of Medical Sciences. 1: 417

Clark, L.C. et al. (1965) Journal of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 8 (3): 353–355. “The Effects of Ring-Methoxyl Groups on Biological Deamination of Phenethylamines.” (Leland C. Clark Jr., Frederick Benington & Richard D. Morin)

Clark, W. Dennis & Bruce D. Parfitt (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 1856–1857. “Flower Flavonoids of Opuntia Series Opuntiae.”

Clark, W.D. et al. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2042–2043. “Flower Flavonoids of Opuntia Subgenus Cylindropuntia.” (W. Dennis Clark, G.K. Brown & R.L. Mays)

Clarke, E.G.C. (1957) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (3): 187–192. “Microchemical identification of some less common alkaloids.”

Clarke, E.G.C. (ed.) (1969) Isolation and Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Post-Mortem Materials. London: The Pharmaceutical Press.

Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Post-Mortem Materials. Second Edition. London: The Pharmaceutical Press (1986) [Posthumous revision of Clarke’s classic.]

Clarke, E.C.G. & M. Williams (1955) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7: 255–262. “Microchemical Tests for the Identification of Alkaloids.”

Clarke, John Henry (1900) A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica, Volume 1, Homoeopathic Publishing Company.

Clarke, John Henry (2005) A Dictionary of Practical
Materia Medica
, Volumes 1-3, South Asia Books, ISBN-10 8131902617, ISBN-13 9788131902615, 2616 pages.
Also was reprinted in 1986 as: A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica, 3 volumes. Jain Publishers. ISBN-10 8170210135, ISBN-13 9788170210139. 736 pages

Claude, Henri & Henri Ey (1934) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 115: 838–841. “La Mescaline, substance hallucinogène.”

Clavijero, Francisco Javier (1789) Historia de la antigua ó Baja California, Four Volumes. Venice. Reprinted in 1852 by Impr. de J.R. Navarro (México) and in 1970 by Miguel Leon-Portilla (México).

Clayson, David B. (1949) Journal of the Chemical Society, 2016–2019. “Reduction of cotarnine and certain derivatives thereof.”

Clement, B.A. et al. (1997) Phytochemistry, 46 (2): 249–254. “Toxic Amines and Alkaloids From Acacia berlandieri,” (Beverly A. Clement, Christina M. Goff & David A. Forbes) [Paper needs to be regarded with reservations until answers are forthcoming about problems concerning their purported reference standards.]

Clement, B.A. et al. (1998) Phytochemistry, 49 (5): 1377–1380. “Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Acacia rigidula.” (Beverly A. Clement, Christina M. Goff & David A. Forbes) [Paper needs to be regarded with reservations until answers are forthcoming about problems concerning their purported reference standards.]

Clemente, Emmett & Vincent de Paul Lynch (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (1): 72–78. “In Vitro Action of Mescaline. Possible Mode of Action.”

Clerc, A. et al. (1935) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées 119: 828–830. “Etude expérimentale du chlorohydrate de peyotline.” (A. Clerc, M.-M. Janot & R. Paris)

Clerc, A. et al. (1936) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées 121: 1300–1302. “Contribution à l’étude experimentale du sulfate de mescaline.” (A. Clerc, R. Paris & M.-M. Janot)

Cobo, Barnabé (1653) Historia del Nuevo Mundo 1 (Book 5): pages 450–451: Comments on Huachuma.

Cobo, Father Bernabe (1956) “ ‘Historia del Nuevo Mundo.’ Obras del. P. Bernabe Cobo”, Vols. 1 and 2, Edited by P. Francisco Mateo. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Vol. 91 and 92. [Vol. 91, Page 205] [Also in 1964 Madrid: Ediciones Atlas.] [From Sharon 1978 & Polia] Also 4 volumes published 1890–1893 Seville; [from LaBarre] Written 1653.

Cobo, Father Bernabe (1956) “ ‘Historia del Nuevo Mundo.’ Obras del. P. Bernabe Cobo”, Vols. 1 and 2, Edited by P. Francisco Mateo. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Vol. 91 and 92. [Vol. 91, Page 205] [Also in 1964 Madrid: Ediciones Atlas.] [From Sharon 1978 & Polia] Also 4 volumes published 1890–1893 Seville; [from LaBarre] Written in 1653.

Cobo, Fr. Bernabe (1891–1893) Historia del Nuevo Mundo. Seville [from Yacovleff & Herrrera 1935]

Coch Frugoni, Juan A. (1956? 1958?) Anales. Facultad de Química. [y farmacia (?)], Universidad de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, in press] [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [From CA (1959) 53: 1633c which gives as Anales fac. quím. y farm, Univ. rep. oriental Uruguay.] Given by Marini-Bettòlo and Coch-Frugoni (1956) as (1956) Anal. Fac. Chim. y Farm. (Montevideo) 5: (in press). [Also in CA (1958) 52: 653c as “in press”] Unable to locate the specifics of when this was published. J.A. Coch Frugoni published a handful of papers during the next few years (several in the Journal of Chromatography,) but this one has not been found anywhere (so far). [For those who wish to pursue this, CITES lists him as J.A.C. Frugoni.]

Coch Frugoni, Juan A. (1956?) Anales. Facultad de Química. [y farmacia (?)], Universidad de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, in press] [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [From 1959 CA 53: 1633c which gives as Anales fac. quím. y farm, Univ. rep. oriental Uruguay. ] Given by Marini-Bettòlo & Coch-Frugoni 1956 as (1956) Anal. Fac. Chim. y Farm. (Montevideo) 5: (in press). [Also in 1958 CA 52: 653c as being “in press” ]

Cochin, J. et al. (1951) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 101 (2): 205–209. “The absorption, distribution and urinary excretion of mescaline in the dog.” [J. Cochin, L.A. Woods and M.H. Seevers]

Cocolas, G.H. et al. (1971) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 60 (11): 1749–1752. “Preparation and activity of -substituted acetylcholine iodides.” (G.H. Cocolas, E.L. Robinson, W.L. Dewey & T.C. Spaulding)

Coe, Michael D. & Gordon Whittaker (1982) Aztec Sorcerers in Seventeenth Century Mexico. The Treatise on Superstitions by Hernando Ruiz de Alarcón. “First Tract. Chapter 6. “Of the Superstition of the Ololiuqui.”

Cohen, G. & M.A. Collins (1970) Science, 167: 1749–1751. “Alkaloids from catecholamines in adrenal tissue: Possible role in alcoholism.”

Cohen, I. & W.H. Vogel (1970) Experientia, 26/11: 1231–1232. “An assay Procedure for Mescaline and its Determination in Rat Brain, Liver and Plasma.”

Cohen, M.M. et al. (1967) New England Journal of Medicine, 227: 1043. “In vivo and in vitro chromosomal damage induced by LSD-25.” (M.M. Cohen, K. Horshhorn & W.A. Frosch) [Claimed damage]

Cohen, M.M. et al. (1968) Science, 155: 1417. “Chromosomal
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Cohen, S. et al. (eds.) (1985) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 17 (4): [Whole issue] “LSD in retrospect.” (S. Cohen, S. Krippner, E.L. Zerkin & J.H. Novey) [Social and clinical review]

Colasanti, B. & N. Khazan (1975) Psychopharmacologia, 43 (3): 201-205. “Electroencephalographic studies on the development of tolerance and cross tolerance to mescaline in the rat.”

Cole, D.T. (1995) Setswana – Animals and Plants. Botswana Society: Gaborone. [From Hargreaves 1998]

Cole, L.K. et al. (1975) Mycologia, 67: 701–708. “Antifungal properties of the insect alarm pheromones citral, 2-heptanone, and 4-methyl-3-heptanone.” (L.K. Cole, M.S. Blum & R.W. Roncadori) [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Collier, Donald (1929) (US Congress) Senate Committe on Indian Affairs, 34: 18234–18255. “Peyote, A General Study of the Plant, the Cult and the Drug.”

Collins, A.C. et al. (1973) Biochemical Pharmacology, 22: 2337–2348. “Dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids-inhibitors of neuroamine metabolism.” (A.C. Collins, J.L. Cashaw and V.E. Davis)

Collins, M. A. (1977) “Identification of isoquinolines alkaloids during alcohol intoxication.” pp. 155–166 in K. Blum (ed.), Alcohol and Opiates. Neurochemical and Behavioural Mechanisms, Academic Press, New York, NY.

Collins, Michael A. (1988) Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 387–403. “Acetaldehyde and Its Condensation Products as Markers in Alcoholism.”

Collins, Michael A. (1979) “Neuroamine condensation in human subjects.” in H. Begleiter (ed.) Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies.

Collins, M.A. & M.G. Bigdeli (1975) Life Sciences, 16: 585–601. “Tetrahydroisoquinolines in vivo. I. Rat brain formation of salsolinol, a condensation product of dopamine and acetaldehyde, under certain conditions during ethanol intoxication.”

Collins, M.A. & C.D. Weiner (1977) “Studies on the effects of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives of catecholamines and aldehydes on tyrosine hydroxylase.” 3: 511–519 in R.G. Thurman (ed.) Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing Systems. Academic Press: NY.

Collins, M.A. et al. (1979) Science, 206: 1184–1186. “Dopamine-related Tetrahydroisoquinolines: Significant Urinary Excretion by Alcoholics after Alcohol Consumption.” (M.A. Collins, W.P. Nijim, G.F. Borge & G. Teas).

Colomb, D. (1939) Contribution à l’étude pharmacologique de la mescaline. Lyon. 80 pp.

Cook, L. & E. Weidley (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 66 (3): 740–752. “Behavioral effects of some psychopharmacological agents.”

Cooper, M. et al. (2013) Strength Testing and Material Characterization of Cactus Spines. Senior Project, Materials Engineering Department California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 26 pages. (Mary Cooper, Jeff Goldstein, Tom Tarlton)

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1977) “Chavín art: Its shamanic/hallucinogenic origins.” In Alana Cordy-Collins & Jean Stearn (eds.) Pre-Columbian Art History: Selected Readings.” Peek Publications, pp. 353–362.

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1980) The Masterkey, 54: 84–93. “An artistic record of the Chavín hallucinatory experience.”

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1982) The Journal of Ethnobiology, 2 (2): 144–153. “Psychoactive painted Peruvian plants. The shamanism textile.”

Correa, M. et al. (2012) Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (1): 404–430. “Piecing together the puzzle of acetaldehyde as a neuroactive agent.” (M. Correa, J.D. Salamone, K.N. Segovia, M. Pardo, R. Longoni, L. Spina, A.T. Peana, S. Vinci& E. Acquas)

Correll, Donovan Stewart & Marshall Corning Johnson (1970) Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation; Renner, Texas

“Correspondent requesting anonymity” indicates people sharing bioassay information and/or analytical data but wisely requesting their identities be omitted due to the current state of illegality for both mescaline possession and usage. The Entheogen Review contains the published accounts; personal communications with the bioassayist(s) were the source for the others

Cortes, M. et al. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 849–850. “Cactaceae. Isolation of Candicine From Trichocereus chilensis.

Corti, Ulrich A. (1949) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 32 (3): 681–686. “Über Ergebnisse der Methylierung von Tyrosin mit Dimethylsulfat und einige Derivate des N-Methyltyramins.”

Costa, Erminio (1956)a Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 91 (1): 39–41. [Abstract; entry 22163] “Effects of Hallucinogenic and Tranquilizing Drugs on Serotonin Evoked Uterine Contractions.”

Costa, Erminio (1956)b Psychiatric Research Reports [Amer. Psychiatr. Ass.] 4: 11–13. [CA (1956) 50: 14120c-d.] “The effect of hallucinogenic and tranquilizing drugs on the serotonin-evoked uterine contractions.”

Coulter, John M. (1891) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 2 (1): 1–152. “Manual of the Plants of Western Texas.” [Peyote: page 129]

Coulter, John M. (1894) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 3 (3): 91–132. “Preliminary revision of the North American species of Cactus, Anhalonium, and Lophophora.” [Peyote: pages 131–132]

Coutts, R.T. et al. (1980) Res. Commun. chem. Path. Pharmac. 28: 177–184. [from Clarke 1986]

Cowdry, R.W. & F.K. Goodwin (1978) p. 281, in: R.L. Spitzer & D.F. Klein (eds.) Clinical Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Raven Press, New York.

Cover, Kimberly (2005) Sustainability of the Sacrament: A study of perspectives. 26 page manuscript.

Cowdry, R.W. & F.K. Goodwin (1978) p. 281, in: R.L. Spitzer & D.F. Klein (eds.) Clinical Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Raven Press, New York 1978.

Crawford, Albert C. & Walter K. Watanabe (1914) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 19: 303–304. “Parahydroxyphenethylamine, a pressor compound in an American mistletoe.” [from Durand et al. 1962]

Crawford, Albert C. & Walter K. Watanabe (1916) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 24: 169–172. “The occurrence of p-hydroxyphenylethylamine in various mistletoes.” [from Durand et al. 1962]

Crawford, T.B.B. & Celia M. Yates (1970) British Journal of Pharmacology, 38: 56–71. “A method for the estimation of the catecholamines and their metabolites in brain tissue.”

CRC (1980–1981) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 61st Edition. Weast (ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl. ISBN 0-8493-0461-X.

Crema, A. (1953) Bolletino della società italiana di biologia sperimentale, 29: 1520–1522. “Valutazione quantitativa dell’azzione dei farmaci sulla funzionalità vestibolare, III. Neurotosicita della mescalina.”

Creutzberg, Ulrich (2010) Gymnocalycium Taxa 2010-01. (PDF: http://uc.privat.t-online.de/Taxa.pdf) At http://www.creutzburg-info.de/ along with much more information. Based on Ulrich Creutzburg  (2006) Gymnocalycium Taxa. extraction and update of Metzing, Meregall, Kiesling (1995) Allonia, 33: 181-228. “An annotated checklist of the genus Gymnocalycium Pfeiffer ex Mittler (Cactaceae).”

Creveling, C.R. et al. (1962) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 64 (1): 125–134. “Substrates and Inhibitors of Dopamine-β-oxidase.” [Cyrus R. Creveling, John W. Daly, Bernhard Witkop and Sidney Udenfriend.]

Crichtly, M. (1931) British Journal of Inebriety, 28 (3): 99–108. “Some Forms of Drug Addiction: Mescalism.”

Crockett, Earl & Alexander T. (“Sasha”) Shulgin 1999 (Personal communication; unpublished findings)

Croizat, Leon (1943–1945) Desert Plant Life, 15: 116–120, 138–140, 152–154; 16: 7–10, 37–38, 43–44, 53–55, 90–93, 103–108, 118–122, 139–143, 150–156; 17: 11–16, 28–29. “A study of the genus Lophophora.”

Crosby, D.M. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973) Lloydia, 36 (4): 416–418. “Cactus Alkaloids. XIX. Crystallization of Mescaline HCl and 3-Methoxytyramine from Trichocereus pachanoi.”

Crosswhite, M. (1992) Ecology of the Arizona hedgehog cactus. (Unpublished manuscript prepared for Cedar Creek Associates, Inc. July 1992.) 16 pp. (cited by USFWS 2001)

Crout, R.J. (1961) Std. Method Clin. Chem. 3: 62.

Crout, J.R. et al. (1961) Journal of Phamacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 132: 269 “Norepinephrine metabolism in rat brain and heart.” (J.R. Crout, C.B. Creveling & S. Udenfriend) WHY IS THIS ENTRY NOT COMPLETE

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948) “Estudio Farmacologico de la Opuntia cylindrica.” PhD Thesis; Instituto de Farmacologia y Terapeutica Universidad Nacionale Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. (Trichocereus pachanoi misidentified as Opuntia cylindrica) (pp. 10–36) 27 pages

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948)a Revista de la Farmacologia y Medicina Experimental, (Lima) 1 (2): 253–258. “Informe sobre las aplicaciones de la Cimora en el norte del Perú.” [also given as 253ff]

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948)b Revista de la Farmacologia y Medicina Experimental, (Lima) 1: 143-?. “Farmacología de ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.” [From Gutiérrez-Noriega; also given elsewhere as 143ff]

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1951) Revista de medicina experimental, 8 (1): 159–166. “Estudio Folklórico de Algunas Plantas Medicamentosas y Tóxicas de la Región Norte del Perú.”

Csokán (1942) Z. Anal. Chem. 124: 344

Cucchi, A. (1939) Rivista sperimentale di Freniatria, 63: 393–404. “Azione della mescalina sul profilo psicologico.”

Culbreth, David M.R. (1927 ) A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology. 7th edition. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

Curtis 1847 See as Hooker 1847

Cybulski, T. (1935) Med. Dosw. Spoleczna, 20: 126 [CA (1936) 30: 30927]

Cymerman Craig, J. et al. (1977) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 99 (24): 7996–8002. “Chiroptical Properties of 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines. A Semi-empirical Quadrant Rule Based on One-Electron Theory.” (J. Cymerman Craig, S.-Y. Catharine Lee, Rosalind P.K. Chan and Irene Y.-F. Wang)

d’Azevedo, Warren (1978) Straight With the Medicine: Narratives of Washoe Followers of the Tipi Way. Heyday Books (Quick). ISBN 0-930588-19-3. 61 pages.

D’Harcourt, Raoul (1939) La Médicine dans l’Ancien Pérou. Librairie Maloine, Paris. (D’Harcourt 1939 also includes a very unmistakeable example of fellatio.)

da Silva, Bernadete & José P. Parente (2002) Planta Medica, 68 (1): 74–76. “Chemical properties and biological activity of a polysaccharide from Melocactus depressus.”

Daiker, F.H. (1914) Report of the Thirty-Second Annual Lake Mohonk Conference on the Indian and Other Dependent Peoples, 62–68. “Liquor and peyote a menace to the Indian”

Daly, John et al. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 37–43. “Methylation and Demethylation in Relation to the IN VITRO Metabolism of Mescaline.” (John Daly, Julius Axelrod and Bernhard Witkop)

Dammert Bellido, José (1974) Allpanchis Phuturinqa (Cusco) 9: 179–200. “Procesos por Supersticiones en la Provincia de Cajamarca en la Segunda Mitad del Siglo XVIII.” [From Sharon 1978]

Dandiya, P.C. & M.K. Menon (1965) Life Sciences. 4 (17): 1635–1641. “Interaction of Asarone with Mescaline, Amphetamine and Tremorine.” [Asarone appeared to antagonize all aspects of mescaline intoxication.]

Daniel, James (Jim) E. (1999) (Personal communication with J. Hanna during June)

Darth, Chewbacca (1977) The Whole Drug Manufacturers Catalog. (Prophet Press) [Primarily a complation of Irv Penkethman’s literature and anything else they could find]

Datta, R.K. & J.J. Ghosh (1970)a Biochemical Journal, 117: 961–968. “Mescaline-Induced Changes of Brain-Cortex Ribosomes. Effect of Mescaline on the Stability of Brain-Cortex Ribosomes.” [similar effects have also been noted with stimulant drugs, antidepressants and convulsants.]

Davet, Aline (2005) MS dissertation in pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil. “Estudo Fitoquímico e Biológico do Cacto – Cereus jamacaru DeCandolle, CACTACEAE.”

Davis, Bruce (1989) Journal of Chromatography, 466: 89–218. “Review. Biogenic amines and Their Metabolites in Body Fluids of Normal, Psychiatric and Neurological Subjects”

Davis, D.V. et al. (1983) Analytical Chemistry, 55 (8): 1302–1305. “Identification of Naturally Occurring Quaternary Compounds by Combined Laser Desorption and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” (D.V. Davis, R.G. Cooks, B.N. Meyer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Davis, E. et al. (1970) Federation Proceedings of the American Society for Experimental Biology (Abstracts) p. 454. “Alteration of Flash-Induced Responses by Intra-carotid Administration of Harmine.”

Davis, E. Wade (1983) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 29 (4): 367–386. “Sacred Plants of the San Pedro Cult.”

Davis, E. Wade (1997) One River. Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest, (First edition in 1996) Touchstone: New York. 537 pages ISBN 0-684-80886-2 (hard)/ 0-684-83496-0 (pbk.)

Davis, E. Wade (1999) Shaman’s Drum, 52: 50–60. “San Pedro, Cactus of the Four Winds.”

Davis, Leslie B. (1961) Studies in Plains Anthropology and History, 1: 1–5. “Peyotism and the Blackfeet Indians of Montana: An Historical Assessment.”

Davis, M. (1987) Psychopharmacology, 93 (3): 286–291. “Mescaline: excitory effects on acoustic startle are blocked by serotonin2 antagonists.”

Davis, Virginia E. & Michael J. Walsh (1970) Science, 167: 1005–1007. “Alcohol, Amines and Alkaloids: A Possible Biochemical Basis for Alcohol Addiction.”

Davis, W.M. et al. (1978) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 45 (1): 49–62. “Acute Toxicity and Gross Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine, Four Methoxyamphetamines, and Mescaline in Rodents, Dogs and Monkeys.” (W.M. Davis, J.A. Bedford, J.L. Buelke, M.M. Guinn, H.T. Hatoum, I.W. Waters, M.C. Wilson & M.C. Braude)

Dawborne, J.S. (1972) Organic Mass Spectrometry, 6: 211-215. “The electron-impact-induced fragmentation of some methylated histamines.”

Dawider, A.A. & M.B.E. Fayez (1961) J. Chem. United Arab Rep. 4: 145–147. “Identification of β-Sitosterol in Opuntia ficus-indica.” [from 1961 CA 56: 9121g]

de Alarcón, Hernando Ruiz (1892) “Tratado de las
supersticíones y costumbres gentílicas…de esta Nueva
España. Año 1629.
” Museo Nacional, Mexico. 124 pages. See also as de Alarcón, Hernando Ruiz (1898, 1900) Anales del Museo Nacional de Mexico, Volume 6: 123–223. “Tratado de las supersticíones y costumbres gentilicas, 1629.” See also the translation into English by Coe & Whittaker 1982

Deacon, W. & H.V. Marsh Jr. (1971) Phytochemistry, 10: 2915–2924. “Properties of an enzyme from bananas (Musa sapientum) which hydroxylatestyramine to dopamine.”

Dean, R.A. et al. (1980) Life Sciences, 27: 403–413. “A sensitive radioenzymatic assay for the simultaneous determination of salsolinol and dopamine.” (R.A. Dean, D.P. Henry, R.R. Bowsher & R.B. Forney)

Dean, W. et al. (1998) GHB: The Natural Mood Enhancer. The authoritative guide to its responsible use. Smart Publications [www.smart-publications.com] (Ward Dean, MD, John Morgenthaler & Steven Wm. Fowkes] Appropriately billed as “The book the FDA & DEA don’t want you to read!” Buy extra copies and send them to your state and federal representatives.

Decker, Herman & Paul Becker (1913) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 395 (3): 362–377. “Mitteilung VI. Über die quaternären Salze der Alkylidenamine und eine allgemeine Methode der Alkylierung primärer Amine zu sekundären.”

De Cordoba, José (2004) Wall Street Journal (12 May) pages 1 & A10. “Down in Texas Scrub ‘Peyoteros’ Stalk Their Elusive Prey. Rare Cactus Buttons Play Role in Native American Rites: Visions and All-Nighters.”

Deegan, John F. & Leonard Cook (1958) Journal of
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
, 122: 17A. “A study of the anti-mescaline property of a series of CNS active agents in mice.” (Abstract of paper from American Society for
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Abel
Centennial Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, Sept. 4–7, 1957.)

de Farias Freire, S.M., et al. (1996) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 48: 624–628. “Sympathomimetic Effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and Catecholamines Isolated from Plant Extracts.” (Sonia Maria de Farias Freire, Luce Maria Brandão Torres, Caden Souccar & Antonia José Lapa)

De Feo, Vincenzo (2000) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 85: 243–256. “Ethnomedical field study on northern Peruvian Andes with particular reference to divination practices.”

De Graffe, Bertha L. (1896) American Journal of Pharmacy,
68: 169–177 plus 1 plate. “Opuntia vulgaris.” (from
Hobschette 1929)

Deimel, Calus (1980) Tarahumara. Syndikat: Frankfurt.

Deimel, Calus (1985) Schreibheft, 25: 155–163. “Die Peyoteheilung der Tarahumara.”

Deimel, Calus (1986) “Der Heilsame Rausch.” pp. 86–87 in Geo Special #2 “Mexico

Deimel, Calus (1996) “Hikuri ba – Peyoteriten der
Tarahumara.
” Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum (Ansichten der Ethnologie 1): Hannover.

Deitrich, R. & V. Erwin (1980) Annual Review of Pharmacology
and Toxicology
, 25: 55–80. “Biogenic Amine-Aldehyde
Condensation Products: Tetrahydroisoquinolines and
Tryptolines (β-Carbolines).”

De Jongh, H.H. (1945) Experimental Catatonia. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkin’s Co.

DeKorne, Jim (1994) Psychedelic Shamanism, Loompanics.

DeKorne, Jim (1996) Ayahuasca Analogs and Plant-based Tryptamines (The Best of the Entheogen Review, 1992–1996) 58 pages. The Entheogen Review, El Rito, NM

DeKorne, Jim (1997) Entheogen Review, 6 (2): 12. “Night-
Blooming Cereus.”

Delay, Jean & H.P. Gerard (1948) L’Encéphale et l’Hygiène Mentale, Paris, 37 (7): 196–235, “L’intoxication mescalinique expérimentale.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1949) Vol. 2, No. 8; entry #2491.]

Delay, Jean & H.P. Gerard (1950) Clin. des Maladies
Mentales et de l’Encéphale à ‘Hóp. Sainte-Anne
, Paris, 39 (1): 55–63, with 1 illustration; “Les Illusions de la mescaline.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII (1951) Vol. 4, No. 2: Entry #732.]

Delay, Jean & Jean Thuillier (1956) Comptes Rendus
Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences
242: 3138–3140. “Potentialisation de la 5-hydroxytryptamine (sérotonine) par des molécules psychotoniques dérivées de la phényléthylamine.”

Delay, J. et al. (1949)a Annales médico-psychologiques,
2: 427–429. “Les nouvelles chimothérapies de l’alcoolisme.” (J. Delay, P. Pichot & J. Thuillier)

Delay, J. et al. (1949)b Presse Médicale, 57: 1210–1211.
“Illusions et hallucinations de la mescaline.” (J. Delay, H.P. Gerard and D. Hallaix) [From Excerpta Medica. Delay et al. 1950 lists this article as Delay & Gerard (1949) Presse Médicale, 81: 1-210.]

Delay, J. et al. (1950) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 144: 163. “Toxicité aiguë du sulfate de mescaline et antidotisme du succinate de sodium.” (Jean Delay, H.P. Gerard & Jean Thuillier)

Delay, J. et al. (1951) Clin. des Maladies Mentales et de l’Encéphale à ‘Hóp. Sainte-Anne, Paris, 40 (1): 1–10, “Les synthesthésies dans l’intoxication mescalinique.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1951) Vol. 4, No. 10; entry # 3852.] Journal also listed simply as “l’Encéphale,“ (J. Delay, H.P. Gerard, and P.C. Racamier)

Delay, J. et al. (1956) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 150: 512–513. “Antagonisme de la mescaline et de la chloropromazine.” (J. Delay, P. Deniker, M. Ropert & J. Thuillier)

Delgado Pang, Hildegard (1992) Pre-Columbian Art.

Delphant, J. & M. Lanza (1960) Journal de Physiologie (Paris), 52 (1): 70–71. “Action comparative de la mescaline, du L.S.D. 25 et de la yagéine sur la température centrale du Rat.”

De Melo, A.C. et al. (1973) Ciência e Cultura, 25 (7): 644–647. “Cross-tolerance studies among nutmeg compounds, (-) Δ9— Trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and mescaline.” (A. Cesário De Melo, E.A. Carlini & Jack Peter Green)

Demish, L. & M. Neubauer (1979) Psychopharmacology 64 (3): 361–363. “Stimulation of human prolactin secretion by mescaline.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1955) Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 433–438. “Studies on mescaline III Action in epileptics: Clinical observations and effects on brain wave patterns.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1956) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 124: 74–77. “Studies on mescaline, VII. The role of anxiety in the mescaline-induced state and its influence on the therapeutic result.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1957) “Drug-Induced States resembling Naturally Occurring Psychoses.” pp. 26–35 in Garattini & Ghetti

Denber, Herman C.B. (1958) p. 120 in Max Rinkel & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) Chemical Concepts of Psychoses. McDowell-Obolonsky, NY

Denber, Herman C.B. (1959) “Studies on Mescaline IX: Comparative action of various drugs on the mescaline-induced state.” in J. Masserman (ed.) Biological Psychiatry. Grune and Stratton [from Denber et al. 1962]

Denber, Herman C.B. (1961) Psychiatric Quarterly, 35: 18–48. “Studies on mescaline, XI. Biochemical findings during the mescaline-induced state, with observations on the blocking action of different psychotropic drugs.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1964) Rivista Neurobiologica, 10: 1157–1168. [Suppl.] “Studies with mescaline.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1954) Psychiatric Quarterly, 28: 635–640. “A note on some therapeutic implications of the mescaline induced state.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)a Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 463–469. “Studies on Mescaline, VI. Therapeutic Aspects of the Mescaline-Chlorpromazine Combination.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)a Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 463–469. “Studies on Mescaline, VI. Therapeutic Aspects of the Mescaline-Chlorpromazine Combination.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)b [or 1956a] Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 421–429. “Studies on mescaline I: Action in schizophrenic patients [before and after electroconvulsive treatment].”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1956)b “Studies on mescaline IV: Antagonism between mescaline and chlorpromazine.” in Nathan S. Kline (ed.) Psychopharmacology. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publ. No. 42. Washington, DC.

Denber, Herman C.B. & David N. Teller (1968) Agressologie, (England), 9 (1): 127–136. “Mescaline. XVIII. Effect of Phenothiazines, amphetamine, and amobarbital sodium on uptake into brain and viscera.” [from (1968) CA 68: 113189r]

Denber, Herman C.B. & David N. Teller (1969) Pharmacologist 11: 291.

Denber, Herman C.B. & Max Rinkel (eds.) (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 423–451. “Psychodynamic and Therapeutic Aspects of Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide. Round Table.”

Denber, Herman C.B. et al. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 120 (1): p. 87. “Studies on mescaline: its action on the clinical and brainwave patterns of schizophrenics.” [Abstract of paper presented to the NewYork Neurological Society and NewYork Academy of Medicine, Section on Neurology and Psychiatry. Dec. 8, 1953.] (Herman C.B. Denber, Sidney Merlis and Wallace Hunter)

Denber, Herman C.B. et al. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 14–36. “Studies on mescaline. XIII. The effect of prior administration of various psychotropic drugs on different biochemical parameters: a preliminary report.” (Herman C.B. Denber, David N. Teller, Paul Rajotte & Dorothy Kaufman)

Deniker, Pierre (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 427–431. “Biological changes in man following intravenous administration of mescaline.”

De Nito, G. (1934) Rassegna di Terapia e Patologia Clinica, 6 (10): 577–594. “Richerche tossicologiche e farmacologiche sulla mescalina.” [See also in CA (1937) 31: 39944]

De Nito, G. (1935) Berichte über die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmacologie, 84: p. 511. [“Toxicology and Pharmacology of Mescaline.”] [Abstract of De Nito 1934]

Densmore, Frances (1929) Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 90. “Papago Music.” [from Bruhn 1971b]

Densmore, Frances (1932) Winnebago Songs of the Peyote Ceremony. (US Bureau of American Ethnology, Manuscript 3261).

Densmore, Frances (1936) Southwest Museum Papers, (Los Angeles) 10: 15–23, 82–93. “Cheyenne and Arapahoe Music.”

Densmore, Frances (1938) American Anthropologist, 40: 175–177. “The influence of hymns on the form of Indian songs.”

Densmore, Frances (1941) American Anthropologist, 43: 77–82. “Native songs of two hybrid ceremonies among the American Indians.”

Densmore, Frances (nd) Winnebago Songs. (Bureau of American Ethnology, Manuscript 1971. nd).

De Oliveira, Arildo José Braz & Maria de Fátima Pires Da Silva Machado (2003) Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 104 (2): 149–155. “Alkaloid Production by Callous Tissue Cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae)” (In citation indexes as De Oliveira, A.J. & M.F. Machado 2003)

Der Marderosia, Ara (1966) American Journal of Pharmacy 138 (5): 204–212. “Current Status of Hallucinogens in the Cactaceae”

De Salva, S. & R. Evans (1960) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 125: 348–354. “Continuous intravenous infusion of strychnine in rats. II. Antagonism by various drugs.”

De Silva; See under Silva.

DeSmet, A.G.M. Peter (1999) Herbs, Health, Healers. Africa as Ethnopharmacological Treasury. Afrika Museum; Berg en Dal, Netherlands. ISBN 90-71611-09-4. 180 pages

DeSmet, Peter A.G.M. (1996) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 50: 141–146. “Some ethnopharmacological notes on African hallucinogens.”

Desoille, H. (1938) Revue d’oto-neuro ophtalmogie, 16: 136–138. “Remarque sur le mode de formation des hallucinations provoquées par le peyotl (expériences personelles).”

Dessi, Pietro (1950) Farmaco Scienze e Technica, 5: 32–38. “Sul dossagio fotometrico della mescalina e simpanina col reattivo di Richter.”

Dessi, Pietro & C. Rizzoli (1948) Bolletino. Societe Italiano di Biologia Sperimentale, 24: 1250–1254. “Sul dosaggio della 3:4:5:trimetossifenilethamina in soluzioni acquose nell’urina e nel sangue.” [“Testing of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine in aqueous solutions, urine and blood.”]

Dessi, Pietro & Giuseppe Labó (1950) La Ricerca Scientifica, 20 (12): 1831–1842. “Contributo allo studio farmacologico delle interazioni dell’aneurina con alcuni farmaci del sistema neurovegetativo.”

Dessi, Pietro & Tullio Franco (1949) Bolletino. Societe Italiano di Biologia Sperimentale, 25: 1368–1370. Applicazione della reazione di Beyer e Skinner al dosaggio fotometrico della mescalina e dell’istamina. – 1) Curve d’assorbimento nel visible.” [“Application of the Beyer and Skinner reaction to photometric determination of mescaline and histamine.”]

Deulofeu, V. (1935) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 237: 171–172. “Adrenaline in the venom of Bufo arenarum.”

Deulofeu, Venancio (1973) Ciência e Cultura, 25 (7): 649–659 “Distribution of indolethylamines and β-carbolines in plants.”

Deulofeu, V. & J.R. Mendive (1938) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 534: 288–292. “The poison of an Argentine toad.”

Deulofeu, Venancio & Edmundo A. Rúveda (1971) “The Basic Constituents of Toad Venoms” pp. 475–495, (Ch. 38), in: Wolfgang Bücherl & Eleanor E. Buckley (eds.) Venomous
Animals and their Venoms
. Academic Press/ New York, London.

Devereux, Paul (1997) The Long Trip: A Prehistory of
Psychedelia
. Penguin/ Arkana ISBN 0-14-019540-8. 298 pages.

DeVries, J.X. et al. (1971) Revista Latinoamericana de
Quimica
, 2 (1): 21-23. “Alcaloides de cactos del Uruguay” (Juan X. DeVries, Patrick Moyna, Victor Diaz, Stig Agurell and Jan G. Bruhn) [Have not seen. First three issues missing from our available copy.] [From Mata & McLaughlin 1982, Shulgin & 1971 CA 75: 31357]

Dewhurst , W.G. & E. Marley (1965a) British Journal of Pharmacology, 25: 682–704. “The effects of α-methyl derivatives of noradrenaline, phenethylamine and tryptamine on the central nervous system of the chicken.”

Dewhurst , W.G. & E. Marley (1965b) British Journal of Pharmacology, 25: 705–727. “Action of sympathomimetic and allied amines on the central nervous system in the chicken.”

Dewhurst et al. 1965 in the literature referred to Dewhurst & Marley 1965a

Díaz Medina, E.M. (2007) Food Chemistry, 103: 38–45. “Chemical characterization of Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica fruits.” (E.M. Díaz Medina, E.M. Rodríguez Rodríguez C. Díaz Romero)

Díaz, José Luis (1977) Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 17: 647–675. “Ethnopharmacology of Sacred Hallucinogenic Plants Used by the Indians of Mexican.”

Díaz, José Luis (1979) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 11 (1-2): 71–101. “Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Plants.”

Diaz, P.M. et al. (1968) “Factors modulating brain serotonin turnover.” p. 6 in: Advances in Pharmacology. Part B.
Academic Press. (P.M. Diaz, S.H. Ngai & E. Costa)

Dickson, Darylene (1978) Head, 59–61. “High Profile: The San Pedro Mescaline Cactus.” (Confused T. bridgesii for T. pachanoi)

Digenis, G.A. et al. (1972) Journal of Labelled Compounds, 8 (2): 231-235. “A convenient synthesis of 2-[14C]-hordenine.” (George A. Digenis, J. W. Burkett & V. Mihranian)

Diguet, Léon (1899) Nouvelles archives des missions scientifiques, Vol. IX: pp. 621–625.

Diguet, Léon (1907) Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris, 4 (1): 21-29. “Le “peyote” et son usage rituel chez les Indiens du Nayarit.”

Diguet, Léon (1928) Les Cactacées Utiles du Mexique. Paris: Société nationale d’acclimitation de France. 552 pages

Dill, R.E. et al. (1969) Fed. Proc., Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 28: 776 (Abstract) “The action of sympathomimetic amines on the isolated heart of frog.”

Dimayuga, Rosalba Encarnación (1996) Medicina Tradicional y Popular de Baja California Sur. SEP (Secretaría de Educación Pública), Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, ISBN-10: 9688960675: ISBN-13: 9789688960677, 121 pages

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)a Journal of
Pharmaceutical Sciences.
62 (10): 1663–1666. “Cactus
Alkaloids. XXI. β-Phenethylamines from Dolichothele sphaerica.

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)b Lloydia, 36 (4): 419–421. “Cactus alkaloids. XXII. Dolichothele surculosa and other Dolichothele species.”

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)c Lloydia,
(Proceedings) 439–440. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXI. β-Phenethylamines from Dolichothele sphaerica.”

Dishotsky, N.I. et al. (1971) Science, 172: 431. “LSD and
genetic damage.” (N.I. Dishotsky, W.D. Loughman, R.E. Mogar & W.R. Lipscomb) [Does not cause damage]

Dittman, Allen T. & Harvey C. Moore (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 642–649. “Disturbance in Dreams as Related to Peyotism among the Navajo.”

Divry, P. & H. Evard (1935) Psychiatr. Bl. 39: 58-64 [CA (1937) 31: 80252.] also (1935) Ber. ges. Physiol. exptl. Pharmakol. 88: 156. [“Antagonists to bulbocarpine.”]

Dixon, Walter E. (1899–1900) Journal of Physiology, 25: 69–86. “The Physiological Action of the Alkaloids Derived from Anhalonium Lewinii.” [Most often given as Dixon 1899]

Dixon, W.E. & Edmund White (1898) British Medical Journal, 2: 1060–1061. “A Preliminary Note on the Pharmacology of the Alkaloids Derived from the Mescal Plant.”

Djerassi, Carl (1957) “Cactus Triterpenes”, pp. 330–352; in Festschrift Professor Dr. Arthur Stoll. Birkhäuser, Basel. (Paper XXVI in Djerassi’s “Terpenoids” series) [p. 320 in the literature is a typo.]

Djerassi, Carl & A.E. Lippman (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 5780–5781. “Terpenoids. X. The
Triterpenes of the Cactus Lemaireocereus hystrix.”

Djerassi, Carl & A.E. Lippman (1955) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77: 1825–1828. “Terpenoids. XIII. The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Machaeric Acid and Machaerinic Acid.”

Djerassi, Carl & John S. Mills (1958) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 1236–1243. “Terpenoids. XXXII. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Treleasegenic Acid. Ring Conformational Alterations in a Pentacyclic Triterpene.”

Djerassi, Carl & H.G. Monsimer (1957) Journal of the
American Chemical Society
, 79: 2901-2905. “Terpenoids. XXVII. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Myrtillogenic Acid.”

Djerassi, C. & G.H. Thomas (1954) Chemistry & Industry, 1354. “Terpenoids. XII. The Constitution of the Cactus Triterpene Cochalic Acid.”

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 2254–2256. “Terpenoids. I. The Triterpenes of the Cactus Lemaireocereus Thurberi.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 3632–3635. “Alkaloid Studies I. The Isolation of Pilocereine from the Cactus Lophocereus schottii.” (C. Djerassi, N. Frick & L.E. Geller)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 5940–5942. “Terpenoids. III. The Isolation of Erythrodiol, Oleanolic Acid and a New Triterpene Triol, Longispinogenin, from the Cactus Lemaireocereus longispinus.” (Carl Djerassi, R.M. McDonald & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)a Chemistry and Industry, 161–162. “Terpenoids. IV. “The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Gummosinogenin and Longispinogenin.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 2969–2973. “Terpenoids. VI. Dumortierigenin, a New Triterpene Lactone from the Cactus Lemaireocereus dumortieri.” (Carl Djerassi, Eugene Farkas, A.J. Lemin, J.C. Collins & F. Walls)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76 (12): 3215–3217. “Alkaloid studies. III. Isolation of Pilocereine and Anhalonidine from four cactus species.” (Carl Djerassi, C.R. Smith, S.P. Marfey, R.N. McDonald. A.J. Lemin, S.K. Figdor & H. Estrada)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)d Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 4089–4091. “Terpenoids. VIII. The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Gummosogenin and Longispinogenin.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77 : 484. “Alkaloid Studies V. Synthesis of 1-Isopropyl and 1-Isobutyl-2-methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.” (C. Djerassi, J. J. Beereboom, S. P. Marfey & S. K. Figdor)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)a Chemistry and Industry, 1520–1521. “The Constitution of the Cactus Terpene Queretaroic Acid.” (Carl Djerassi, J.A. Henry, A.J. Lemin & T. Rios) [Terpenoid paper XXI]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77 (5): 1200–1203. “Terpenoids. XI. Investigation of Nine Cactus Species. Isolation of Two New Triterpenes, Stellatogenin and Machaeric Acid” (Carl Djerassi, L.H. Liu, E. Farkas, A.E. Lippman, A.J. Lemin, L.E. Geller, R.N. McDonald & B.J. Taylor)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77: 3579–3582. “Terpenoids. XVI. The Constitution of the Cactus Triterpene Cochalic Acid. Partial Reductions of Methyl Diketoechinocystate.” (Carl Djerassi, G.H. Thomas & H. Monsimer)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78 (10): 2312–2315. “Terpenoids. XXII. Triterpenoids from Some Mexican and South American Plants.” (Carl Djerassi, S. Burnstein, H. Estrada, J. Grossman, J. Herrán, A. Manjarrez & S.C. Pakrashi) [Did not report on any alkaloids but did find several species to be alkaloid devoid]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78: 3783–3787. “Terpenoids. XXIV. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Queretaroic Acid.” (C. Djerassi, J.A. Henry, A.J. Lemin, T. Rios & G.H. Thomas)

Djerassi et al. (1956)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78: 3861–3862. “Alkaloid Studies. XIV.

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)d Journal of Organic Chemistry, 21: 975–978. “Alkaloid Studies. XII. Synthesis of Substituted 1-Isobutyl-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (C. Djerassi, F.X. Markley & R. Ehrlich)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1957)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79: 2203–2210. “Alkaloid Studies. XVII. The Structure of the Cactus Alkaloid Pilocereine.” (Carl Djerassi, S.K. Figdore, J.M. Bobbitt & F.X. Markley)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1957)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79: 3525–3528. “Terpenoids. XXVIII. The Triterpene Composition of the Genus Myrtillocactus.” (Carl Djerassi, S. Burstein, H. Estrada, A.J. Lemin, A.E. Lippman, A. Manjarrez & H.G. Monsimer)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 1005–1006. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol Lophenol. A Link in Sterol Biosynthesis.” (Carl Djerassi, J.S. Mills & Richardo Villottii)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 6284–6292. “The Neutral Constituents of the Cactus Lophocereus schotti. The Structure of Lophenol – 4α-Methyl-Δ7-cholesten-3β-ol – A Link in Sterol Biosynthesis.” (C. Djerassi, G.W. Krakower, A.J. Lemin, Liang H. Liu, J.S. Mills & R. Villottii)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)c Tetrahedron, 2 (1-2): 58-63. “Alkaloid studies. XX. Isolation and structure of two new cactus alkaloids Piloceredine and Lophocereine” [From Lophocereus schotti.]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1961) Chemical Society (London) Proceedings, 450. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol, Peniocerol (Cholest-8-en-3β,6α-diol.” (Carl Djerassi, R.D.H. Murray & R. Villotti)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1962) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 84: 3210–3212. “Alkaloid Studies XXXVIII. Pilocereine – A Trimeric Cactus Alkaloid.” (Carl Djerassi, H.W. Brewer, C. Clark & L.J. Durham)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1963) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 85 (6): 835. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol Macdougallin (14α-Methyl-Δ8-cholestene-3β,6α-diol) – A Novel Link in Sterol Biogenesis.” (Carl Djerassi, J.C. Knight & D. I. Wilkinson)

Dobbie, J.J. & C.K. Tinkler (1904) J. Chem. Soc. 85: 1007.

Dobkin de Rios 1984 was the first edition of Dobkin de Rios 1990

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1969) Mesa Redonda de Ciencias Prehistoricas y Anthropologias. Lima 1: 139–149. “Curandismo psicodélico en el Perú: continuidad y cambio.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1973) Psychiatry: Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Psychiatry. Vol. 2. (Ramon de la Fuente & Maxwell N. Weisman (eds.) (Mexico City) pp. 1187–1198. “Peruvian Hallucinogenic Folk Healing: An Overview.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1977) Economic Botany, 31 (2): 189–203. “Plant Hallucinogens and the Religion of the Mochica – An Ancient Peruvian People.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1982) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 14 (1-2): 81–90. “Plant Hallucinogens, Sexuality and Shamanism in the Ceramic Art of Ancient Peru.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1986) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15 (3): 297–304. “Enigma of Drug-Induced Altered States of Consciousness Among the !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1990) Hallucinogens: Cross Cultural Perspectives. Prism Press. ISBN 1-85327-061-X. (First published 1984 University of New Mexico Press)

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene & Mercedes Cárdenas (1980) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2 (3): 233–246. “Plant hallucinogens, shamanism and Nazca ceramics.”

Dobkin, Marlene (1968)a International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 15: 23–32. “Folk Curing with a Psychedelic Cactus in Northern Peru.”

Dobkin, Marlene (1968)b Economic Botany, 22 (2): 194–199. “Trichocereus pachanoi— A Mescaline Cactus Used in Folk Healing in Peru.”

Doetsch, P.W. et al. (1980) Journal of Chromatography, 189: 79–85. “Cactus Alkaloids XL. Identification of Mescaline and Other β-Phenethylamines in Pereskia, Pereskiopsis and Islaya by Use of Fluorescamine Conjugates.” (Paul W. Doetsch, John M. Cassady & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Dogin (1976) Federal Register, 41: 4015 “Peyote”

Doig, Federico Kauffmann (1979) Sexual Behavior in Ancient Peru. [Kompaktos S.C.R.L. Lima] (from Cané 1988)

Dok-Go, H. et al. (2003) Brain Research, 965 (1-2): 130–136. “Neuroprotective effects of antioxidative flavonoids, quercetin, (+)-dihydroquercetin and quercetin 3-methyl ether, isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.” (Hyang Dok-Go , Kwang Heun Lee, Hyoung Ja Kim, Eun Ha Lee, Jiyong Lee, Yun Seon Song, Yong-Ha Lee, Changbae Jin, Yong Sup Lee & Jungsook Cho)

Domínguez, X.A. & O. Pugliese C. (1967) Planta Medica, 15 (4): 401–403. “A Chemical Study of Mammillaria Runyoni. The isolation of acetovanillone and a new triterpenoid, mamillarol.”

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1968) Planta Medica, 16 (2): 182–183. “Chemical study of the cactus Ariocarpus retusus.” (Xorge Alejandro Domínguez, Rafael H. Ramírez, Olga Lock Ugaz, Jesús García D. & Roger Ketcham)

Dominguez, X.A. et al. (1968)b Planta Medica, 16: 458–461. “The Constituents of Thelocactus bicolor. Part I. The isolation of itesmol, a new steroid and eisacol, a new pentacyclic triterpenoid.” (Xorge Alejandro Domínguez, Víctor A. Barragán, Joaquín O. León V., Lothar Krause S., Gloria A. Bravo & Josefina Morales G.)

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1969) Rev. Soc. Quim. Mex. 13 (1): 8A-12A. “Estudio químico preliminar de 31 cactáceas.” (X.A. Domínguez, P. Rojas, M. Gutiérrez, N, Armenta & G. de Lara)

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1970) Planta Medica, 18 (4)): 315–317. “Chemical Studies of Cacti. V. Constituents of the Coryphantha palmeri Britton-Rose and Echinocereus grandis Rose” (Xorge A. Domínguez, Saúl Escarria and Carlos Pérez E.)

Don, N.S. et al. (1998) Phytomedicine, 5 (2): 87–96. “Effects of Ayahuasca on the human EEG.” (Norm S. Don, B.E. McDonough, G. Moura, C.A. Warren, K. Kawanishi, H. Tomita, Y. Tachibana, M. Böhlke & N.R. Farnsworth)

Donike, M. 1974 Chromatographie 7: 651

Donnan, Christopher B. (1976) Moche Art and Iconography. UCLA Latin American Center. 146 pp.

Donnan, Christopher B. & Carol J. Mackey (1978) Ancient Burial Patterns of the Moche Valley, Peru. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70329-5.

Dornan, S.S. (1927–1930) Bantu Studies, 3: 185 (From Watt 1967)

Dornow, Alfred & Günther Petsch (1951) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 284 (56) 4: 160–163. “Notiz Darstellung des β-oxy β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Oxymescalin”), de Bis-[β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Dimezcalin”) und des β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Mezcalin”).”

Dornow, Alfred & Günther Petsch (1952) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 285: 323–326. “Über die Darstellung des Oxymezcalins und Mezcalins. 2. Mitteilung.”

Dorrance, D.L. et al. (1975) Journal of the American Medical Association, 234 (3): 299–302. “Effect of peyote on human chromosomes. Cytogenetic study of the Huichol Indians of Northern Mexico” (David L. Dorrance, Oscar Janiger & Raymond L. Teplitz)

Dowson, Thomas A. (1992) Rock Engravings of Southern Africa. Witwaterstrand University Press: Johannesburg.

DPFT News (Drug Policy Forum of Texas), 888 W. Sam Houston Pkwy. S., Suite 2248, Houston, TX 77042–1909 (Monthly newsletter) Membership $25, students $7 & newsletter subscription only is $5.

Dragendorff, George (1898) Die Heilpflanzen der Verschiedenen Völker und Zeiten. Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart. [Reprinted in 1967 by Werner Fritsch: München (Munich).]

Dreiding, André S. (1961) “The Betacyanins, A Class of Red Pigments in the Centrospermae.” p. 194[-?] in W.D. Ollis (ed) Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Natural Phenolic Compounds. [From Miller et al. 1968 & Wohlpart & Mabry 1968]

Drill, V.A. (1954) Pharmacology in Medicine. Chapter 19; page 14. McGraw-Hill Book Co. [Said to quote unpublished observations of Woods et al. [From Fischer 1958 and Kapadia & Fayez 1970]

Dronfield, Jeremy (1995)a Oxford Journal of Archaeology ,14 (3): 261-275. “Migraine, Light and Hallucinogens: The Neurocognitive Basis of Irish Megalithic Art.”

Drost (1961) Diss. Pharm (Poland) 13: 167; 1962 BA 37: 7361

Drost-Karbowska (1977) Acta Pol. Pharm. 34: 421 [CA 88: 117814b]

Drujan, B.D. et al. (1959) Canadian Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology, 37: 1153–1159. “The differential determination of catecholamines in urine.” (B.D. Drujan, T.L. Sourkes & )

Duc, C. (1936) Bolletino di oculistica, 15: 745–760. “Sintomi visivi nell’ intossicazione mescalina.”

Duke, James A. (1972) Isthmian ethnobotanical dictionary. Self-published.

Duke (no date) came from the online reference site below.

Duke, James A. (1985) CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. ISBN 0-8493-3630-9. [For folk uses of San Pedros: Duke cited J. A. Duke & K.K. Wain (1981) Medicinal Plants of the World (Computer Index with over 85,000 entries. 3
volumes; 1,654 pages) This one of Duke’s primary references for his published claims but it is very poorly to awkwardly referenced. Duke often cites himself as a primary reference even when it is clear that the material was actually derived from elsewhere in the published literature.

See in “Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical
Databases
.” at www.ars-grin.gov/duke. Duke’s comment on that site’s reference page might be found illuminating: “Please note that this is far from a complete list of references used by the database, and many more will be documented as time is allotted for such weighty matters.

Duncan, C. & R.A. Deitrich (1978) Fed. Proc. 37: 420 (Abstract) “Role of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in alcohol preference.”

Durand, E. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 14: 562–566. “Simple hypotensive and hypertensive principles from some West Indian medicinal plants.” (E. Durand, E.V. Ellington, P.C. Feng, L.J. Haynes, K.E. Magnus & N. Philip)

Durant, G.J. et al. (1976) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 19: 923–928. “Potential histamine H2-receptor agonists. 3. Methylhistamines.” (G.J. Durant, J.C. Emmett, C.R. Ganellin, A.M. Roe & R.A. Slater)

Durden, D.A. et al. (1976) Adv. Mass Spec. Biochem. Med. 2: 597–606. “The analysis of tetrahydroisoquinoline and tetrahydro-(beta)-carboline alkaloids as their dansyl derivatives.” (D.A. Durden, T.J. Danielson and A.A. Boulton)

Durrum, L. (1950) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72: 2943

Dustin, C. Burton (1962) Peyotism and New Mexico. Eigenverlag: Albuquerque.

Dyumaev, K.M. & I.S. Belostotskaya (1962) Zhurnal Obschei Khimii 32 (3): 2661-2663. [Also in (1962) Journal of General Chemistry of USSR (English translation) 32 (3): 2620–2622.] “Synthesis of trisubstituted phenethylamines by catalytic reduction of w-nitrostyrenes.”

EAMP See Under the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit.

Earle, W. Hubert (1980) Cacti of the Southwest. Revised.

Easterlin, Malcolm (1941) Scribner’s Commentator 11: 77–82. “Peyote – Indian Problem #1.”

Echeverría, Javier & Hermann M. Niemeyer (2012) Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 11 (4): 341–344. “Phenylethylamines from Browningia candelaris (Cactaceae).”

Eger, Susan (with Peter R. Collings) (1978) “Huichol Women’s Art.” in Kathleen Berrin (ed.) Art of the Huichol Indians. Harry N. Abrams: New York.

Eggli, Urs (1985) Bradleya, 3 “A Bibliography of Succulent Plant Periodicals.” Also; supplementary material is at Eggli et al. 1987 Bradleya, 5: & 1989 Bradleya, 7: [from http://www.cactus-mall.com/bcss/period.html]

Eggli, Urs & Leonard E. Newton (2004) Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names. Springer, 266 pages

Ehrlich, Felix & P. Pietschimuka (1912) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 45 (2): 2428–2437. “Synthesen des Tyrosols und seine Umwandlung in Hordenin.”

El Finti, A. et al. (2013) Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7 (35): 2574–2583. “Assessment of some agro-technological parameters of cactus pear fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) in Morocco cultivars.” (Aissam El Finti, Rachida El Bouillani, Mohamed Fallah, Fouad Msanda & Abdelhamid El Mousadik)

El-Kossori, R.L. et al. (1998) Plant Foods & Human Nutrition, 52 (3): 263–270. “Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).” (El Kossori RL, Villaume C, El Boustani E, Sauvaire Y, Méjean L.)

El-Moghazy, A.M. et al. (1982) Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 23: 247–254. “A Phytochemical Study of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. Cultivated in Egypt.” (A.M. El-Moghazy, S.M El-Sayyad, A.M, Abdel-Baky, & E.Y. Bechait)

El-Seedi, H.R. et al. (2005) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101: 238–242. “Prehistoric peyote use: Alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.” (Hesham R. El-Seedi, Peter A.G.M. De Smet, Olof Beck, Göran Possnert & Jan G. Bruhn)

El-Shazly, Assem & Michael Wink (2008) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, C 58 (7–8): 477–480. “Tetrahydroisoquinoline and β-carboline alkaloids from Haloxylon articulatum (Cav.) Bunge (Chenopodiaceae).”

Eleusis: Piante e Composti Psicoattivi/ Journal of Psychedelic Plants and Compounds. New Series 1998 onward (Giorgio Samorini; editor) subscriptions: eleusis@telestrion.it

Elgar, Frank (1963) The Rock Paintings of Tassili. World Publishing: Cleveland.

Ellis, C.H. (1965) Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 154: 26.

Ellis, Havelock (1897) The Lancet, 75 (1): 1540–1542. “A Note on the Phenomeon of Mescal Intoxication.”

Ellis, Havelock (1898) Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1898: 537–548. “Mescal a New Artificial Paradise.”

Ellis, Havelock (1898) Contemporary Review, 73 (1-6): 130–141. “Mescal: A new artificial paradise.”

Ellis, Havelock (1902) Popular Science Monthly, 61: 52–71. “Mescal: A Study of a Divine Plant.”

Ellis, Havelock (1971) Dynamische Psychiatrie, 17–22. “Zum Phänomen der Meskalin-Intoxikation.”

Emboden, William (1972) Narcotic Plants. The Macmillan Company, New York.

Encyclopedia Brittanica; pp. 228–232: “Pharmacological cults.”

Endo, K. (1952) Folio psychiatrica neurotica japonica, 6: 104–113. “Experimental Study of mescaline intoxication on relation between clinical picture and EEG in man.”

Engelbrecht, J.A. (1936) The Korana. Cape Town. [From Hargreaves 1998]

Engelmann, George (1852) American Journal of Science and Arts, 2nd series., 14: 1–5. “Notes on the Cereus Giganteus of South Eastern California and some other Californian Cactaceae.”

Engelmann, George (1852–1857) Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 3: 259–314, 345–346. “Synopsis of the Cactaceae of the Territory of the United States and Adjacent Regions.”

Engelmann, George (1859) Report of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 2: 1–78 “Cactaceae of the Boundary.”

Engstad, J.E. (1890) Therapeutic Gazette, 3 (6): 606–607. “Cactus grandiflorus in Heart-disease.” (from Hobschette 1929)

Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) (1998) 7 (3): 70–71 & 7 (4): 99–100. [David Aardvark: editor; K. Trout: technical editor; beginning with Volume 7 (1998)] ISSN 1066-1913. $25/yr (quarterly) The Entheogen Review, POB 19820, Box 808, Sacramento, CA 95819

Epstein, D. et al. (1932) Journal of Physiology, 76 (2): 224–246. “The action of some amines related to adrenaline: I. Methoxy- phenylethylamines.” (D. Epstein, J. A Gunn & C.J. Virden)

Er, H.M. et al. (2007) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113 (3): 448–456. “Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).” (Er Hui Meng, En-Hsiang Cheng & Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan)

Erdoes, Richard (1971) Crow Dog’s Paradise. Songs of the Sioux. [Album EKS-74091; includes album notes and photos] Elektra: New York.

Erhardt, P.A. & T.O. Soine (1975) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 64 (1): 53–62. “Stereochemical preferences for curarimimetic neuromuscular junction blockade I: enantiomeric monoquaternary amines as probes.” (Carnegine)

Erne, M. & F. Ramirez (1950) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 33: 912–916. “Über die Reduktion von β-Nitrostyrolen mit Lithiumaluminumhydrid.”

Ernst, E. (2000) Perfusion, 13: 4–15 [i.e. 4–6, 8–15]. “Possible interactions between synthetic and herbal medicinal products. Part 1: a systematic review of the indirect evidence.”

Ernst, E. (2003) Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 19: 818–27. “Cardiovascular adverse effect of herbal medicines: a systematic review of the recent literature.”

Erowid website [www.erowid.com] Excellent information resource.

Erspamer, V. (1959) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 82 (2): 431–438. “Isolation of leptodactyline (m-hydroxyphenylethyltrimethyl-ammonium) from extracts of Leptodactylus skin.”

Erspamer V. (1984) Comp Biochem Physiol C. 79 (1): 1–7. “Half a century of comparative research on biogenic amines and active peptides in amphibian skin and molluscan tissues.”

Erspamer, V. & G. Boretti (1951) Experientia, 7 (7): 271-273. “Substances of a phenolic and indolic nature present in acetone extracts of the posterior salivary glands of octopoda (Octopus vulgaris, Octopus macropus and Eledone moschata.)”

Erspamer. V & G. Falconieri (1952) Naturwissenschaften, 39 (18): 431–432. “Papierchromatographische Untersuchungen über die Hydroxyphenylalkylamine der Gerstenkeimlinge.”

Erspamer, V. & A. Glässer (1960) British Journal of Pharmacology, 15: 14–22. “The Pharmacological Actions of (m-Hydroxyphenethyl)-trimethylammonium
(Leptodactyline).”

Erspamer, V. & M. Vialli (1952) Ric.sci., 22: 1420. [From Erspamer & Glässer 1960]

Erspamer, V. et al. (1963a) Experientia, 19: 346–347. “Occurrences
of new imidazolealkylamines (spinaceamin and 6-methylspinaceamine) in skin extracts of Leptodactylus pentadactylus labyrinthicus.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & I.M. Cei) [This reference is cited in the literature but I believe that Erspamer et al 1963b is what was actually intended.]

Erspamer, V. et al. (1963b) Life Sciences, 2 (11): 825–827. “Occurrence of candicine (p-hydroxyphenylethyltrimethylammonium) in extracts of the skin of Leptodactylus pentadactylus pentadactylus.” (V. Erspamer, J.M. Cei & M. Roseghini)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1964) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 105: 620–629. “The identification of New Histamine Derivatives in the Skin of Leptodactylus.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1964) Biochemical Pharmacology, 13 (7): 1083–1093. “Indole-, imidazole-, and phenyl-alkylamines in the skin of thirteen Leptodactylus species.” (V. Erspamer, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1965) Experientia, 21: 504. “5-Methoxy- and 5-Hydroxy-Indolealkylamines in the Skin of Bufo alvarius.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1967) Biochemical Pharmacology, 16 (7): 1149–1164. “5-Methoxy- and 5-Hydroxyindoles in the Skin of Bufo alvarius.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Esquivel, P. et al. (2007) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, [C]. 62 (9-10): 636–644. “Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.” (Patricia Esquivel, Florian C. Stintzing & Reinhold Carle)

European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit. (EAMP) (1999) “Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. Selenicereus grandiflorus. Summary Report.” [http://www.emea.eu.int/pdfs/vet/mrls/060199en.pdf]

Evans, A. Don (1989) “The Purpose and Meaning of Peyote as a Sacred Material for Native Americans.” pp. 20–35 in George P. Horse Capture (ed.) The Concept of Sacred Materials and Their Place in the World. The Plains Indians Museum: Cody, Wyoming

Evans, C.S. et al.(1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 565–570. “Free Amino Acids in the Seeds of Acacia Species.” (Christine S. Evans, M. Yasin Qureshi & E. Arthur Bell)

Evans, Philip (1979) National Cactus & Succulent Journal, 34 (1): 14–16. “Hallucinogenic Cacti.”

Ewell, Ervin E. (1896) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 18 (7): 624–638. “The Chemistry of the Cactaceae.”

Excerpta Medica, VIII, Subsection 58, New York: Excerpta Medica Foundation [Unable to locate in the work with this name; from Usdin & Efron]

Ey, H. & M. Rancoulle (1938) Encéphale, 33 ( pt. II): 1-25. “Hallucinations mescaliniques et troubles psychosensoriels de l’encéphalite épidémique chronique.”

Fabing, Howard D. (1955) Science, 121 (3137): 208–210. “New Blocking Agent against the Development of LSD-25 Psychosis.”

Fairbairn, J.W. & G. Wassel (1964) Phytochemistry, 3: 253–258. “The alkaloids of Papaver somniferum L. — I. Evidence for a rapid turnover of the major alkaloids.”

Faiveley, J. (1920) PhD thesis, Paris. “Contribution à l’étude des Cactées Opuntiées.” (from Hobschette 1929)

Falco, Federico & Sebastian Hilburg (1946/1947) Revista. Facultad de Química Industrial y Agricola. Universidad Nacional del Litoral (Santa Fé, Argentina) 15/16 (26): 71–73 “Investigation of alkaloids in Opuntia cacti.” [CA (1949) 43: 1530i-1531a.]

Fales, H.M. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 91 (13): 3682–3685. “Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Complex Molecules” (H.M. Fales, G.W.A. Milne and Marvin L. Vestal)

Farbsystem DIN 6164 (source of Ritter’s color specifications) http://www.uni-mannheim.de/fakul/psycho/irtel/colsys/DIN6164_A0.pdf

Farmilo, Charles G. & Klaus Genest (1961) “Alkaloids and Related Bases: Identification.” pp. 209–595 , (Chapter 7) in: C.P. Stewart & A. Stolman (eds.) Toxicology. Mechanisms and Analytical Methods. Volume II. Academic Press: New York and London. (Includes many drawings of microcrystalline forms for comparison.)

Farwell, Oliver Atkins (1924) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 13 (3): p 211-?. (from Hobschette 1929)

Faurbye, A. & K. Pind (1964) Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 40: 240.

Favilli, M. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici, 26: 191-212. “Sull’alcune modificazioni psichiche da intossicazione mescalinica.”

Favilli, M. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici, 26: 191-212. “Sull’alcune modificazioni psichiche da intossicazione mescalinica.”

Feeney, Kevin (undated) Peyote, Conservation, & Indian Rights, 12 page manuscript

Feigen, George A. & Gordon A. Alles (1955) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology and Quarterly Review of Psychiatry and Neurology, 16 (3): 167–178. “Physiological Concomitants of mescaline intoxication. A study of the effects upon normal subjects tested with submaximal doses.”

Felger, Richard Stephen & Mary Beck Moser (1991) People of the Desert and Sea: Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. ISBN-10: 0816512671; ISBN-13: 978-0816512676. 435 pages.

Feller, D.R. et al. (1975) Biochemical Pharmacology, 24: 1357–1359. “Comparative actions of the trimetoquinol, tetrahydropapaveroline and salsolinol isomers in β-adrenoceptor systems.” (D.F. Feller, R. Venkataraman & D.D. Miller) [from Deitrich & Erwin 1980] 

Feng, P.C. et al. (1961) Nature, 191: 1108. “High Concentration of (-)-Noradrenaline in Portulaca oleracea.” (P.C. Feng, L.J. Haynes & K.E. Magnus)

Feng, Z. et al. (1993) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 76: 2547–2552. “Biosynthesis of the irregular C12-terpenoid dehydrogeosmin in flower heads of Rebutia marsoneri Werd. (Cactaceae).” (Z. Feng, U. Huber & W. Boland ) [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Ferguson, George G. & William J. Keller (1975) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 64 (8): 1431–1432. “Monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity of a series of (±)-4-Methoxy-b-hydroxyphenethylamines”

Fernandez Distel, A. (1980) Estudios Arqueologicos. (Universidad de Chile, Antofagasta) 5: 55–79. “Hallazgo de pipas en complejos preceramicos del borde de la Puna Jujena (Republica Argentina) y el empleo de alucinógenos por parte de las mismas culturas.”

Fernandez Distel, Alicia (1984) Proceedings 44 International Congress of Americanists, BAR International Series 194. “Contemporary and Archaeological Evidence of Llipta Elaboration from the cactus Trichocereus pasacana in Northwest Argentina.”

Fernández-López JA, & L. Almela (2001) Journal of Chromatography A. 913 (1-2): 415–420. “Application of high-performance liquid chromatography to the characterization of the betalain pigments in prickly pear fruits.”

Fernandez, V. (1890) Monografías mexicanas de matéria médica, 173–190. “Análysis qualitiva y cuantitativa del mezcal.”

Fernberger, Samuel W. (1923) American Journal of Psychology, 34: 267–270, 616. “Observations on Taking Peyote. (Anhalonium Lewinii).”

Fernberger, Samuel W. (1932) Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 26 (4): 367–378. “Further Observations on Peyote Intoxication.”

Ferrigni & McLaughlin 1981; Unpublished results cited in Mata & McLaughlin 1982. See as Ferrigni et al. 1982

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1982) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 5: 359–364. “Cactus Alkaloids XLVIII. Nα,Nα-Dimethylhistamine, A Hypotensive Component of Echinocereus triglochidiatus.” (Nelson R. Ferrigni, David E. Nichols, Jerry L. McLaughlin & Robert A. Bye, Jr.)

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1984) Journal of Natural Products, 47 (5): 839–845. “Identification of New Cactus Alkaloids in Backebergia militaris by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” (N.R. Ferrigni, S.A. Sweetana, J.L. McLaughlin, K.E. Singleton & R.G. Cooks.)

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1984) Revista Latinoamericana Quimica, l4: 131–133. “Cactus Alkaloids. LVI. l3C and lH NMR of the Imidazoles, Na,Na-Dimethylhistamine and Dolichotheline.” [Chemical Abstracts 101: 23790a] (N.R. Ferrigni, B.N. Meyer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Fester, Uncle (1991) Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, Second edition (3rd edition is said to be out but I have not seen it) Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-070-0.

Fester, Uncle (1997) Practical LSD Manufacture Revised and Expanded Second Edition. Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-161-8.

Fester, Uncle (1998) Advanced Techniques of Clandestine Psychedelic & Amphetamine Maanufacture. Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-174-X.

Festi, Francesco & Giorgio Samorini (1994) (1996) Actas. II Congreso Internacional para el Estudio de los Estados Modificados de la Consciencia: celebrado en Lleida (España), el mes de octubre de 1994. (Etnobotanica, farmacologia y Quimica). [Lectures. II International Congress for the Study of the Modified States of Consciousness held in Lleida (Spain), october 1994. (Ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry].” pp. 62–71. “Ayahuasca-like” effects obtained with Italian Plants.” Also available as reprint through Rosetta with an additional 1 page charted representation of Fabio Calligris’ HPLC analysis of some European Phalaris species.

Festi, Francesco & Giorgio Samorini (1995) Eleusis, 2: 28–34. “Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Brown in Phillips (Fico degli Ottentotto / Hottentots Fig).”

Fetrow, Charles W. & Juan R. Avila (1999) Professional’s handbook of complementary & alternative medicines.

Fikes, Jay Courtney (1993) Carlos Castaneda, Academic Opportunism, and the Psychedelic Sixties. Millenia Press (Bookworld Series.) ISBN 0-9696960-0-0. 313 pages.

Fimbres P.Y. & R. García (1998) XXX Congreso Nacional de Microbiología. México. Abril 2-4. “Evaluación del efecto fungicida y bactericida de la mezcla de cactáceas Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum (cardón) y Lophocereus schottii (músaro).“ [From Garza Padrón 2010]

Fischer, Nikolaus & André S. Dreiding (1972) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 55 (2): 649–658. “Biosynthesis of Betalaines. On the Cleavage of the Aromatic Ring durng the Enzymatic Transformation of Dopa in Betalamic Acid.”

Fischer, P. & J. Lecomte (1950) Arch. Intern. Physiol. 57: 277. [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Fischer, Roland (1946) Schweitzerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie,  5: 308–313. “Selbst-beobachtungen im Mezkalinrausch.”

Fischer, Roland (1953) Mschr. Psychiatr. Neurol. 126: 315. [from Fischer 1958]

Fischer, Roland (1954) Journal of Mental Science, 100 (420): 623–631. “Factors Involved in Drug-Produced Model Psychoses.” [for pKb: citing private communication from E. Rothlin]

Fischer, Roland (1955) Experientia, 11(4): 162–163. “Possible Biosynthesis of D-lysergic Acid Diethylamide-like Compounds from Mescaline.” ]

Fischer, Roland (1958) Revue Canadienne de Biologie, 17 (3): 389–409. “Pharmacology and Metabolism of Mescaline.”

Fischer, Roland & Neil Agnew (1954) Naturwissenschaften, 41 (18): 431–432. “On Drug-produced Experimental Psychoses.”

Fischer, Roland et al. (1951) Schweitzerische medizinische Wochenschrift, 81: 817–819, 837–840. “Psychophysische Korrelationen, VIII. Modellversuchen zum Schizophrenieproblem, Lysergsäurediäthylamid und Mezcalin.” (Roland Fischer, F. Georgi & R. Weber)

Fischer, R. et al. (1958) (in the literature) meant Pellerin et al. 1958

Fish, F. & P.G. Waterman (1971) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 23 (Suppl.): 132S-135S. “Alkaloids from two Nigerian species of Fagara.”

Fish, F. & P.G. Waterman (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 3007–3014. “Methanol-soluble quaternary alkaloids from African Fagara species.

Fish, F. et al. (1975a) Lloydia, 38 (3): 268–270. “Alkaloids and coumarins from North American Zanthoxylum species.” (F. Fish, A.I. Gray & P.G. Waterman)

Fish, F. et al. (1975b) Phytochemistry, 14 (3): 841–842. “Coumarin, alkaloid and flavonoid constituents from the root and stem barks of Zanthoxylum avicennae.” (F. Fish, A.I. Gray & P.G. Waterman)

Fitzgerald, J.S. (1964a) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 17: 160–162. “Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae. III. The Occurrence of Phenylethylamine Derivatives in Acacia Species.”

Flath, Robert A. & Juan M. Takahashi (1978) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 26 (4): 835–837. “Volatile Constituents of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. de Castilla Variety).”

Flattery, David & J. Pierce (1965) Peyote. Berkeley Press, Berkeley

Flores G., José (2000) “Estudio Químico del cactus San Pedro (Echinopsis pachanoi Britton & Rose).” Thesis para optar el título profesional de Licenciado en Ciencias con Mencion en Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Facultad de Ciencias, December 2000. 103 pages. [from Reyna & Flores 2001]

Flores Ortiz, C.M. et al. (2003) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 31 (6): 581–585. “Alkaloids from Neobuxbaumia species (Cactaceae).” (C.M. Flores Ortiz, P. Dávila & L. B. H. Portilla)

Fobe, Friedrich (1907) Monatsschrifte für Kakteenkunde, 17: 53–55. “Zur Praxis der Pfropfungen.” [Briefly mentions Cereus hempelianus Bauer on page 55.]

Fodor et al. (1951) Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hung. 1: 395. [CA (1958) 49: 897.]

Foerster, E. (1930) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 127 (1-2): 1–14. “Selbst-experiment im Mescalinrausch.” [elsewhere given as “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin”]

Fogleman, James C. & Phillip B. Danielson (2001) Integrative and Comparative Biology, 41 (4): 877–889. “Chemical Interactions in the Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert.”

Folkers, Karl & Frank Koniuszy (1939) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 61: 1232–1235. “Erythrina Alkaloids. III. Isolation and Characterization of a New Alkaloid Erythramine.”

Follas, W.D. et al. (1977) Phytochemistry, 16 (9): 1459–1460. “Phenethylamines from the cactus genus Lobivia” (W.D. Follas, J.M. Cassady & J.L. McLaughlin)

Fong, H.H.S. et al. (1972) Lloydia, 35 (2): 117–149. “Alkaloid Screening. II” (H.H.S. Fong, M. Trojánkova, J. Trojánek & N.R. Farnsworth)

Font Query, P. (1979) Plantas Medicinales el Dioscorides Renovado. 5th Ed. Editorial Labor, S.A. Barcelona.

Forbes, T.D.A. et al. (1993) S. African J. Anim. Sci., 23: 196–200. “Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female angora goats.” (T.David A. Forbes, D.R. Tolleson, C.M. Hensarling & R.D. Randel) [from Clement et al. 1998]

Forbes, T.D.A et al. (1995) Journal of Arid Environments, 30: 403–415. “Seasonal variation in two phenolic amines in Acacia berlandieri.” (T. David A. Forbes, I.J. Pemberton, G.R. Smith & C.M. Hensarling.)

Förster, C.F. (1846) Handbuch der Cacteenkunde, 285: 519. [Second edition was in 1885]

Förster, C.F. (1861) Hamburger Garten- und Blumenzeitung, 164–165. “15. Cereus Lagenaeformis Förster”

Förster, C.F. & T. Rümpler (1885) See Rümpler 1886

Forster, E. (1919) Zeitschrifte für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 46 “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin.”

Förster, E. (1930) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 127 (1-2): 1–14. “Selbst-experiment im Mescalinrausch.” [elsewhere given as “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin”]

Forte, Robert (1997) Entheogens and the Future of Religion. Council on Spiritual Practices. ISBN 1-889725-01-3

Foster, Frank Pierce (ed.) (1897) Reference-book of Practical Therapeutics, Volume 2. D. Appleton & Co New York.

Fournier, Paul-Victor (1954) Les Cactées et las plantes grasses. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

Foy, J.M. & J.R. Parratt (1960) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 12 (6): 360–364. “A Note on the Presence of Noradrenaline and 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Plantain (Musa sapientum, var. paradisiaca).”

Franck, B. et al. (1965) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 685: 207–217. “Synthese von Isopilocerein und Pilocerein.” (Burchard Franck, Gottfried Blaschke and Klaus Lewejohann)

Frank, Gerhardt (1960) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 11(11): 168–170. [as Toumeya krainzianus]

Frank, Gerhardt & Alfred Lau (1979) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 30 (1): 6–7. [Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus ssp. flaviflorus]

Franke, G. (1934) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 150: 427–433. “Variierte Serienversuche mit Meskalin.”

Frank, M. et al. (1990) Equine Vet. J. 22 437–441. “Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects in the horse.”

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica (Mexico),. 20 (4): 321–325. [Hypoglycemic action of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire: study using raw extracts.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, R. Altamirano-Bustamante, N. Rodríguez-Bárcenas, R. Ariza-Andraca & R. López-Ledesma)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1988) Diabetes Care, 11 (1): 63–66. “Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.” (A.C. Frati-Munari, B.E. Gordillo, P. Altamirano & C.R. Ariza)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 20 (2): 197–201. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, L.M. Del Valle-Martínez, C.R. Ariza-Andraca, S. Islas-Andrade & A. Chávez-Negrete)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 20 (4): 297–300. [Duration of the hypoglycemic action of Opuntia streptacantha Lem.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, U. Ríos Gil, C.R. Ariza-Andraca, S. Islas Andrade & R. López Ledesma)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1990) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 21 (2): 99–102. [Activity of Opuntia streptacantha in healthy individuals with induced hyperglycemia] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, R. Licona-Quesada, C.R. Araiza-Andraca, R. López-Ledesma & A. Chávez-Negrete)

Frederic, A.C. (1902) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 21 [Cereus bolivianus] [From Britton & Rose] This is actually a reference to Schumann 1902 and is a mere mention of the name.

“Fredericus, C. & P. De Martius (1967 reprint)”
See as Schumann 1896.

Frederking, Walter (1953) Psyche (Stuttgart), 7: 342–364. “Ueber die Verwendung von Rauschdrogen (Meskalin and Lysergsäurediäthylamid) in der Psychotherapie.”

Frederking, Walter (1954) Monatsspiegel, 3: 5–57. “Meskalin in der Psychotherapie.”

Frederking, Walter (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 121 (3): 262–266. “Intoxicant Drugs (Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) in Psychotherapy.”

Freedman, Daniel X. & George K. Aghajanian (1959) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 18: 390.

Freedman, Daniel X. et al. (1958) Science, 127: 1173–1174. “Patterns of Tolerance to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mescaline in Rats.” (Daniel X. Freedman, George K. Aghajanian, Edward M. Ornitz and B.S. Rosner)

Freedman, Daniel X. et al. (1970) Biochemical Pharmacology, 19: 1181–1188. “Psychotomimetic Drugs and Brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine Metabolism.” (Daniel X. Freedman, Richard Gottlieb & Richard A. Lovell)

Freire, S.M.deF. et al. (1996) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 48: 624–628. “Sympathomimetic Effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and Catecholamines Isolated from Plant Extracts.” (Sonia Maria De Farias Freire, Luce Maria Brandão Torres, Caden Souccar and Antonio José Lapa)

Freise, F.W. (1935) Pharmazeutische Zentralblatte, 76: 704. “Das Vorkommen von Koffein in brasilianischen Heilpflanzen”

Freise, F.W. (1935) Pharmazeutische Zentralhalle Deutschlands, 76: 704. “Vorkommen von Koffein in brasilianischen Heilpflanzen.”

Frič, Alberto Vojtěch (1925) Kaktusová příloha, Život v přírodě, 8: 25–28. “Rod Anhalonium Lem.” [Grym gives as pp 23–28]

Fridericus, C. & P. De Martius (1967 reprint) refers to Carolus Fridericus Philippus De Martius’ Flora Brasiliensis. See under Martius.

Friedberg, Claudine (1959) Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquées, 6 (8-9): 439–450. “Rapport sommaire sur une mission au Pérou. (effectuée de novembre 1958 à juillet 1959)” Some list this as 6 (8-9):1

Friedberg, Claudine (1960) Comptes Rendus de la Société de Biogéographie, 324: 46–56. “Ethnobotanique péruvienne : répartition des espèces utilisées par l’homme dans la médecine et la magie, et ses rapports avec les zones floristiques.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1963) Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquées, 10 (1-9): 33–52, 245–258 & 344–386 : illustr. with 8 plates. “Mission au Pérou, mai 1961 – mars 1962.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1964) Sixth International Congress of Anthropology and Ethnological Sciences [Actes du VIème Congrès International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Paris, 1960] (Paris: Musée de l’Homme, Palais de Chaillot) 2 (2): 21-26. “Utilisation d’un cactus à mescaline au nord du Pérou. (Trichocereus pachanoï Brit. et Rose)” [also given as 1960] Also reprinted in 1979 Succulentes 2nd series, 1: 11–15

Friedberg, Claudine (1965) Travaux de l’Institut Français d’Etudes Andines, 7: 65–94. “Rapport sur une mission au Perou. Description du matériel recueilli, exposé sommaire des recherches entreprises.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1979) Actes du XLIIème Congrès International des Américanistes. Paris, 2–9 sept. 1976 [Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac] p. 427–443. “L’Imaginaire dans les thérapeutiques populaires: proposition de quelques thèmes de réflexion à travers l’exemple du complexe thérapeutique huancabambin (sierra de Piura au nord du Pérou).” Republished in Spanish as Friedberg 1980.

Friedberg, Claudine (1980) Medicina Traditional, 3 (9): 29–44. “Lo imaginario en las terapias populares.”

Friedhoff, Arnold J. & Menek Goldstein (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 5–13. “New Developments in metabolism of mescaline and related amines.”

Friedhoff, Arnold J. & Leo H. Hollister (1966) Biochemical Pharmacology, 15 (3): 269–273. “Comparison of the Metabolism of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine and Mescaline in Humans.”

Friedhoff, A.J. & E. Van Winkle (1962) Nature, 194: 897. “Isolation and characterization of a compound from the urine of schizophrenics”

Friedhoff, A.J. et al. (1972) Nature, 237: 454–455. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and N-Acetylmescaline by Mammalian Liver.” (Arnold J. Friedhoff, Jack W. Schweitzer & Jeanette Miller)

Friedhoff, A.J. et al. (1977) Biol. Psychiatry, 12: 643

Friedman et al. (1963) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 6: 227–229. CHECK. DELETE if not including synth of β-OH

Friedman, Milton & Thomas Szasz (1992) On Liberty and Drugs.

Friedrich, Heimo (1974) IOS Bulletin, 3(3): 79–93. “Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Echinopsidinae (Trichocereinae)”

Friedrich, Heimo (1974)b Kakteen und andere Sukk. 25: 50, 80

Friedrich, H. & W. Glaetzle (1983) Bradleya, 1: 91–104 “Seed morphology as an aid to classifying the genus Echinopsis Zucc.”

Friedrich, Heimo & Gordon Douglas Rowley (1974) I.O.S. Bull. 3: 97. [From Madsen 1989] This should be referenced as Rowley 1974. It is a simple name reassignment list]

Frigerio, Bianca Maria (1974–1975) PhD Thesis, Università degli Studi di Bologna. “Il peyote: sua importanza nel mondo indigeno precolombiano e postcolombiano.”

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1930), German Patent. 545,853 July 3, 1930; [CA (1932) 26: 3521.] [Patent for “α-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-β-aminoethane”.]

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1931) Austrian Patent 125,694, July 15, 1931. [CA (1932) 26: 1302] [Patent for “mescaline”]

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1932) Chemisches Zentralblatt, 1-2: 2867. “Darstellung von β-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-β-aminoethan.”

Frohne, D. (1977) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 102 (22): 849. “Pharmacologisch wirksame Substanzen aus Cactaceen.”

Fugh-Berman, Adriane (2000) Lancet 355: 134–38. “Herb-drug interactions”.

Fujita, M. et al. (1972) Yakugaku Zasshi, [J. Pharm. Soc. Japan ] 92 (4): 482–489. “On the Cactus-Alkaloids of Lophophora Williamsii var. caespitosa (Kobuki-ubadama).” (Mitiiti Fujita, Hideji Itokawa, Junko Inouse (née Oka), Yoshimasa Nozu, Natsue Goto & Kazuko Hasegawa)

Fung Pineda, Rose (1969) Dédalo, 5 (9-10): 5–207. “Las Aldas: su ibicación dentro del proceso historico del Perú antiguo.”

Furst, Peter T. (1965) Antropológica, 15: 29–80. “West Mexican Tomb Art as Evidence for Shamanism in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.”

Furst, Peter T. (1969) Verhandlungen des XXXVIII. Internationalen Amerikanistenkongresses, 2: 385–399. “A Possible Symbolic Manifestation of Funerary Endo-Cannibalism in Mexico.”

Furst, Peter T. (1971) Economic Botany, 25: 182–187. “Ariocarpus retusus, the “False Peyote” of Huichol tradition.”

Furst, Peter T. (ed.) (1972) Flesh of the Gods. The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens. Praeger, New York. [Revised 1990 Waveland Press. ISBN 0-88133-477-4.]

Furst, Peter T. (1972) “Symbolism and psychopharmacology: The toad as earth mother in Indian America.” pp. 61–68 in: XII Mesa RedondaReligión en Mesoamérica” Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología: Mexico

Furst, Peter T. (1974) “Hallucinogens in Precolumbian Art”, pages 55–101 in: King & Traylor 1974

Furst, Peter T. (1981) “Peyote und die Huichol-Indianer in Mexico” pp. 468–475 in G. Völger (ed.) Rausch und Realität Volume 2. Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum: Köln.

Furst, Peter (1989) American Ethnologist, 16: 386–387. “Book Review of Peyote Religion: A History, by Omer C. Stewart.”

Furst, Peter T. (1994) “Introduction: An Overview of Shamanism” in Gary Seaman & Jane S. Day (eds.) Ancient Traditions: Shamanism in Central Asia and the Americas. University of Colorado Press: Niwot, Colorado.

Furst, Peter T. & M. Anguino (1977) “To Fly as Birds: Myth and Ritual as Agents of Enculturation Among Huichol Indians of Mexico.” pp 95–181 in Wilbert (ed.) Enculturation in Latin America: An Anthology. UCLA Latin American Center Publications: Los Angeles.

Furst, Peter T. & Salomón Nahmed (1972) Mitos y arte huicholes. SepSetentas: Mexico.

Gabermann = Habermann

Gaebel, G. Otto (1906) Archiv der Pharmazie, 244 (6-7): 435–441. “Über das Hordenin. Vorläufige Mitteilung.”.

Gairaud, Catherine B. & Gerald R. Lappin (1953) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 18: 1–3. “The Synthesis of ω-Nitrostyrenes.”

Galati, E.M. et al. (2001) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76: 1–9. “Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study.” (E.M. Galati, M.T. Monforte, M.M. Tripodo, A. d’Aquino & M.R. Mondello)

Galati, E.M. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (17): 4903–4908. “Chemical Characterization and Biological effects of Sicilian Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. Fruit Juice: Antioxidant and Antiulcerogenic activity.” (Enza Maria Galati, Maria Rita Mondello, Daniele Giuffrida, Giacomo Dugo, Natalizia Miceli, Simona Pergolizzi & Maria Fernanda Taviano)

Gambelunghe, C. et al. (2013) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58 (1):270–278. “GC-MS and GC-MSMS in PCI Mode Determination of Mescaline in Peyote Tea and in Biological Matrices.” (Cristiana Gambelunghe, Remo Marsili, Kyriaki Aroni, Mauro Bacci & Riccardo Rossi)

Ganders, Fred R. (1975) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 47: 155–156. “The Identity of Echinocactus rapa.”

Ganguly, A.K. et al. (1965) Tetrahedron 21: 93–99. “Structure of Opuntiol, a Constituent of Opuntia elatior.” (A.K. Ganguly, T.R. Govindachari & P.A. Mohamed)

Garattini, S. & V. Ghetti (eds.) (1957) Psychotropic Drugs. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Psychotropic Drugs, Milan, 1957.

García, Jorge (1760) Manual para administrar los santos: Sacramentos, etc. Mexico City.

García, Jorge Meyrán (1973) Guia Botanica de Cactaceas y otras Suculentas del Valle de Tehuacán. (Sociedad Mexicana de Cactología.) An amazing book with a wealth of color photos. Excellent seed and propagation tips.

García Pantaleón, D.M. et al. (2009) J. PACD, 11: 45–52. “Chemical, biochemical, and fatty acids composition of seeds of Opuntia boldinghii Britton et Rose.”

Gardenerville Record-Courier (Nevada) (1938) 21 October. “Washoe Indians Are Still Using a Drug Known as Peodi.”

Gardner, R.L. et al. (1967) Phytochemistry, 6: 417.

Garforth, B. et al. (1935) J. Chem. Soc. 489 (synth)

Gartz, Jochen (1995) Integration, 6: 45. “Ein früher Versuch der Kommerzialisierung von Peyotl in Deutschland.”

Garver, D.L. & J.N. Davis (1979) Life Science, 24: 383

Garvie, L.A. (2006) Naturwissenschaften, 93 (3): 114–118. “Decay of cacti and carbon cycling.”

Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia (2005) Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. “Respuesta in vitro y determinación de compuestos químicos de Acanthocereus occidentalis (Britton and Rose) y Stenocereus gummosus (Engelm.) Gibson y Horak.” [from Garza Padrón 2010]

Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia (2010) PhD Thesis, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León. “Análisis Fitoquímico y Actividad Biológica de los Extractos de Tallos y Tejido in vitro de Astrophytum myriostigma (Lemaire, 1839) y Astrophytum capricorne (Dietrich, 1922) Fam. Cactaceae.”

Gasparic, Jiri & Jaroslav Churacek (1978) Laboratory Handbook of Paper and Thin-Layer Chromatography.

Gbahou, F. et al. (2006) British Journal of Pharmacology, 147 (7): 744–754. “Compared pharmacology of human histamine H3 and H4 receptors: structure-activity relationships of histamine derivatives.” (F. Gbahou, L. Vincent, M. Humbert-Claude, J. Tardivel-Lacombe, C. Chabret & J.M. Arrang)

Geber, William F. (1967) Science, 158: 265–266. “Congenital Malformations Induced by Mescaline, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, and Bromolysergic Acid in the Hamster.”

Geber, William F. (1969) Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 130 (4): 1168–1170. “Comparative Teratogenicity of Isoproteronol and Trypan Blue in the Fetal Hamster.”

Geesink, A. & W.A. den Hartog Jager (1939) Archives néerlandaises de physiologie, 24: 79–82. “Influence de la mescaline (triméthoxy-b-phényl-éthylamine) et de a diméthoxy-b-phényl-éthylamine sur la tension artérielle.” [CA (1939) 33: 79012.]

Gelfand, M. et al. (1985) The Traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe. His principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. (page 108) Mambo Press: Gweru. [M. Gelfand, S. Mavi, R.B. Drummond & B. Ndemera] [From DeSmet 1996]

Gellhorn, E. (1953) Physiological Foundations of Neurology and Psychiatry. University of Minnesota Press 1953

Genest, Klaus & D.W. Hughes (1968) Analyst, 93 (1109): 485–489. “Chromatographic Methods for the Identification of the New Hallucinogen, 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine, and Related Drugs.”

Gennaro, M.C. et al. (1996) Analytical Letters, 29(13): 2399–2409. “Determination of Mescaline in Hallucinogenic Cactaceae by Ion-Interaction HPLC.” (M.C. Gennaro, E. Gioannini, D. Giacosa & D. Siccardi)

Georgi, F. et al. (1949)a Schweitzerische medizinische Wochenschrift, 79: 121–123. “Psychophysische Korrelationen, 6. Modellversuche zum Schizophrenieproblem, Mescalinintoxikose und Leberfunktion.” (F. Georgi, R. Fischer and R. Weber) [see also (1949)b Excerpta Medica, sect. 8, 2: 951.]

Gerber, Peter (1980) Die Peyote-Religion. Völkerkundemuseum der Universität: Zurich.

German, V.F. (1971) J. Pharm. Sci. 60: 495

Gewitz, H.-S. & W. Völker (1961) Z. Naturforsch. 16b: 559.

Geyer, M.A. et al. (1978) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 207: 837–847. “The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline derived hallucinogens on sensory-integrative function: tactile startle.” (M.A. Geyer, L.R. Peterson, G.L. Rose, D.D. Horwitt, R.K. Light, L.M. Adams, J.A. Zook, R.L. Hawkins & A.J. Mandell)

Ghansah, E. et al. (1993) Neuropharmacology 32 (2): 169–174. “Effects of mescaline and some of its analogs on cholinergic neuromuscular transmission.” (E. Ghansah, P. Kopsombut, M.A, Malleque & A. Brossi)

Ghosal, S. & P.K. Banerjee (1969) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 22: 2029–2031. “Alkaloids of the Roots of Desmodium gangeticum.”

Ghosal, Shibnath & S.K. Bhattacharya (1972) Planta Medica, 22 (4): 434–440. “Desmodium alkaloids part II. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluations of D. gangeticum.”

Ghosal, Shibnath & Rakesh Mehta (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 1628–1629. “β-Phenethylamine and tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids of Desmodium cephalotes.”

Ghosal, S. & R.S. Srivastava (1973)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 62 (9): 1555–1558. “Chemical Investigation of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv.: β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids”

Ghosal, S. & R.S. Srivastava (1973)b Phytochemistry, 12: 193–197. “β-Phenethylamine, Tetrahydroisoquinoline and Indole Alkaloids of Desmodium tiliaefolium.”

Ghosal, S. et al. (1970)b Phytochemistry, 9: 429–433. “A General Method for the Isolation of Naturally Occurring Water Soluble Bases.” (S. Ghosal, P.K. Banerjee & S.K. Banerjee)

Ghosal, S. et al. (1972)d Planta Medica, 23 (4): 321–329. “Desmodium Alkaloids. IV. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of D. triflorum.” (S. Ghosal, R.S. Srivastava, S.K. Bhattacharya, and P.K. Debnath)

Ghosal et al* (1972)e “Alkaloids of Desmodium gangeticum DC.: Chemistry and Pharmacology.” pp. 107–111 in: Mothes et al. (eds.) (1972) “4. Internationales Symposium. Biochemie und Physiologie der Alkaloide. Halle (Saale), 25. bis 28. Juni 1969” Akademie-Verlag. Berlin 1972 (Kurt Mothes, Klaus Schreiber & Horst Robert Schütter (eds.) [* S.Ghosal, P.K.Banerjee, R.S.Rathore & S.K.Bhattacharya)

Ghosal, S. et al. (1974) Planta Medica, 26 (4): 318–326. “The active principles of Alhagi pseudalhagi: β-phenethylamine and tetrahydroisoquinoline bases” (S. Ghosal, R.S. Srivastava, S.K. Bhattacharya and P.K. Debnath)

Giacomelli, S. et al. (1998) Life Sciences 63 (3): 215–222. “Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs in vitro.” (S. Giacomelli, M. Palmery, L. Romanelli, C.Y. Cheng & B. Silvestrini)

Giarman, Nicholas J. & Daniel X. Freedman (1965) Pharmacological Reviews, 17 (1): 1-25. “Biochemical Aspects of the actions of psychotomimetic drugs.”

Gibson, Arthur C. & Karl E. Horak (1978) Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 65 (4): 999–1057. “Systematic Anatomy and Phylogeny of Mexican Columnar Cacti.” [K.G. Horak is a typo]

Gibson, Arthur C. & Park S. Nobel (1986) The Cactus Primer. Harvard University Press. 286 pages. ISBN# 0-674-08990-1.

Giese, Claudius Cristobal (1989)a Curare 12 (2): 81–87. “Die Diagnosemethode eines nordperuanischen Heilers” [From Rätsch 1998]

Giese, Claudius Cristobal (1989)b ‘Curanderos’: Traditionelle Heiler in Nord-Peru (Küste und Hochland) Hohenschäftlarn: Klaus Renner Verlag (Münchner Beiträge zur Amerikanistik, Bd. 20) [From Rätsch 1998 we have been unable to locate a copy of this book via interlibrary loan, or book search services or when directly contacting the publisher that Ratsch cited.]

Giesecke, J. (1976) Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B., 32: 2337

Gillespie, Allesia M. (1969) Analytical Letters, 2 (11): 609–622. “A Spectrofluorometric Study of Selected Hallucinogens.”

Gillin, John P. (1945) Moche: A Peruvian Coastal Community. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Institute of Social Anthropology Pub #3. 26 photo plates. 166p. ISBN-13: 9780020778851; ISBN: 0020778856.

Giral, F. & C.S. Alvarez (1943) Ciencia (Mexico), 4: 66. “Vitamin C content of Mexican legumes and other vegetables.” [From Meyer & McLaughlin 1982]

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1960) Clinical Research, 8: 365. “Metabolism
of dl-β-H3[sic]-norepinephrine in the human subject.” (Stanley E. Gitlow, Milton Mendlowitz, E. Gall, R.L. Wolf & N.E. Naftchi)

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1961) “The dynamics of norepinephrine metabolism.” In A.N. Brest & J.H. Moyer (eds) The Second Hahnemann Symposium on Hypertensive Disease. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. 335–342. (S.E. Gitlow, M.
Mendlowitz, A. Smith, E. Gall, R.L. Wolf & N.E. Naftchi)

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1971) Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50 (4): 859–865. “Human Norepinephrine Metabolism. Its Evaluation by Administration of Tritiated Norepinephrine.” (Stanley E. Gitlow, Milton Mendlowitz, Laura M. Bertani, Sherwin Wilk & Elizabeth K. Wilk)

Glaetzle. See Friedrich & Glaetzle

Glass-Coffin, Bonnie (1998) The Gift of Life. Female Spirituality and Healing in Northern Peru. University of New Mexico: Albuquerque. 246 page. ISBN 0-8263-1892-4 (hard.); 0-8263-1893-2 (paper)

Glass, Charles & Robert Foster (1977) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 49 (4): 161–176. “A Revision of the Genus Turbinicarpus (Backbg.) Buxb. & Backbg.”

Glennon, Richard A. (1987) “Psychoactive Phenylisopropylamines” pp. 1627–1634 (Chapter 175), in: Herbert Y. Meltzer (ed.) Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Raven Press, New York.

Glennon, Richard A. et al. (1978) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 21: 822–825. “Serotonin Receptor Binding Affinities of Several Hallucinogenic Phenylalkylamine and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Analogues.”

Glennon, Richard A. et al. (1980) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 23: 294–299 “Serotonin Receptor Affinities of Psychoactive Phenalkylamine Analogues.”

Glennon, R.A. et al. (1982) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 25: 1163–1168. “Behavioral and Serotonin Receptor Properties of 4-Substituted Derivatives of the Hallucinogen 1-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane.”

Glennon, R.A. et al. (1988) Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 29 (3): 443–449. “Stimulus Properties of 1-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-Aminopropane (MDA) Analogs” (Richard A. Glennon, Mamoun Yousif & Graham Patrick)

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Goh, K.L. (2002) Malaysian herbaceous plants. Malaysia: Advanco Press. [from Sim et al. 2010]

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Goldman, Edward Alphonso (1916) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 16 Issue 14. “Plant Records of an Expedition to Lower California.”
Washington, US Government Printing Office.

Goldstein, M. & J.F. Contrera (1962) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 237 (6): 1898–1902. “The Substrate Specificity of Phenylamine-β-hydroxylase.”

Goldstein, M. et al. (1961) Journal of Neurochemistry, 6: 253–254. “Formation of 3:4:5-trimethoxyphenylethanol from mescaline.” (M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, S. Pomerantz, C. Simmons & J.F. Contrera)

Gomm, A.S. & M. Nierenstein (1931) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 53 (12): 4408–441. “The exhaustive O-methylation of quercetin.” (from Dominguez et al. 1969)

Gonzales Huerta, Ines (1960) Revista del Viernes Médico [Lima], 11 (1): 133–137. “Identificación de la Mescalina Contenida en el Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro).”

Goodall, McC. (1950) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 4: 550. “Dihydroxyphenylalamine and hydroxytyramine in mammalian suprarenals.”

Goodall, McC. (1950) Nature, 166 (4226): 738. “Hydroxytyramine in mammalian heart.”

Goodall, McC. & Harold Alton (1968) Biochemical Pharmacology, 17 (6): 905–908. “Metabolism of 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) in human subjects.”

Goodall, McC. & Norman Kirschner (1957) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226: 213–221. “Biosynthesis of adrenaline and noradrenaline in vitro.”

Goodall, McC. & Norman Kirschner (1958) Circulation, 17: 366–371. “Biosynthesis of epinephrine and norepinephrine by sympathetic nerves and ganglia.”

Goodall, McC. & L. Rosen (1963) Journal of Clinical Investigation, 42: 1578–1588. “Urinary excretion of noradrenaline and its metabolites at ten-minute intervals after intravenous injection of dl-noradrenaline-2-C14 [sic].”

Goodwin, F.K. & W.Z. Potter (1979) p. 1863, in: Barchas, J. et al. (eds.) Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers. Pergamon Press, New York.

Gordon, M. (1960) , page 397 in A. Burger (ed.) Medicinal Chemistry. Interscience Publishers, Inc. NY.

Gorman, Peter (1995) The Best of High Times. (Best of #17) The Psychedelics Issue. 74–78. “Divine Smoke and God’s Flesh. Psychedelics and religion.” (Originally ran in the January 1990 issue of High Times)

Gottlieb, Adam (1997) Peyote and Other Psychoactive Cacti Twentieth Century Alchemist. ISBN 0-914171095-X. 85 pages.

Gottlieb, A. (1998) Peyotlevye Kaktusy

Grace, G.S. (1934) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 50: 359–372. “The Action of Mescaline and Some Related Compounds.”

Gracie & Zarkov (1984; rev. 1985) Notes from the underground. A series of groundbreaking papers which can be found many places including: http://www.hyperreal.org/psychedelics/gracie.n.zarkov.html & http://www.deoxy.org/gz.html

Grant, Campbell (1965) The Rock Paintings of the Chumash. A Study of a California Indian Culture. University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Grant, Mary Lee (2000) Ft. Worth Star Telegram, 23 January “Peyote thrives in South Texas.”

Greenblatt, E.N. & A.C. Osterberg (1961) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 131: 115–130. “Correlations of Activating and Lethal Effects of Excitatory Drugs in Grouped and Isolated Mice.”

Greig, Margaret E. & Anna J. Gibbons (1959) American Journal of Physiology, 196: 803–806. “Effect of various psychotomimetic drugs on rate of appearance of carbon-14 in the brains of mice after administration of C14 glucose.” [should be written 14C.]

Grieve, Maud (1931) A Modern Herbal: the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs & trees with all their modern scientific uses. J. Cape.

Gribel, N.V. & V.G. Pashinski (1986) Vopr Onkol, 32 (12): 38–40. “Antimetastatic properties of Aloe juice.”

Grinspoon, Lester & James Bakalar (eds.) (1997) Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered. [First published in 1979] Lindesmith Center. ISBN 0-9641568-5-7.

Grym, Rudolph (1997) Rod/ Die Gattung Lophophora. Vydavatelstvo Roman Štaník, Bratislava. (In German & Czech.) [125 pages; packed with B&W and color photos] ISBN 80-900033-9-6 (This ISBN, as printed in the book, is a typo according to Books-In-Print). [Features a nice chemical summary by Roman Štarha pp. 85–90.]

Guerra, Francisco (1967) British Journal of Addictions, 62: 171–187. “Mexican Phantastica – A Study of the Early Ethnobotanical Sources on Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Guerra, F. & H. Olivera (1954) Las Plantas fantasticas de Mexico. Imprenta del Diario Español

Guillarmot, J. (1897) Thèse Doct. Méd., Lausanne. “La Pellotine chez les aliénes.”

Guillaumin Cactees (1935) [pages 60 & 61: Cereus macrogonus.]

Gundidza, M. (1985) Central African Journal of Medicine, 31: 238–239. “Phytochemical screening of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1986) Planta Medica, 558. “Insecticidal activity of Monadenium lugardae.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1990) Fitoterapia, 61: 442–444. “Action of Monadenium lugardiae latex on guinea-pig ileum.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1991) Central African Journal of Medicine, 37: 141–144. “Effect of methanol extract from Monadenium lugardiae on contractile activity of guinea-pig ileum.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gupta, M.P. et al. (1996) International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 34: 18–27. “Screening of Panamanian medicinal plants for brine shrimp toxicity, crown gall tumor inhibition, cytotoxicity and DNA intercalation.” (M.P. Gupta, A. Monge, G.A. Karikas, A. Lopez de Cerain, P.N. Solis & E. De Leon) [from Sim et al. 2010]

Gupta, R.S. et al. (2002) Pharmaceutical Biology, 40 (6): 411–415. “Antispermatogenic Effect and Chemical Investigation of Opuntia dillenii.” (R.S. Gupta, Rakhi Sharma, Aruna Sharma, Rakesh Chaudhudery, A.K. Bhatnager, M.P. Dobhal, Y.C. Joshi & M.C. Sharma)

Gusinde, Martin (1939) Der Peyote-Kult: Entsehung und Verbreitung.

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos (1950) América Indígena, 10 (3): 215–220. “Área de mescalinismo en el Peru.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1947) Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 10 (4): 422–468. “Alteraciones mentales producidas por la ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1948)a Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 11 (2): 155–170. “Psicosis experimental producida por ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1948)b Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 11 (3): 390–401. “El test de Rorschach en la intoxicación producida por ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, C. et al. (1951) Revista de Neuro-psiquiatria, 14(3): 427–441. “Estudio psicopatológico y experimental de un caso en que se ha aplicado el alcaloide de la Opuntia Cylindrica.” (C. Gutiérrez-Noriega, G. Cruz Sánchez & L.A. Guerro)

Guttman, Erich (1921) Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 68: 235, 816. “Experimentelle Halluzination durch Anhalonium Lewinii.” [see also (1921) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 47: 145.]

Guttman, Erich (1921) Journal of Mental Science, 82: 1–19. “Artificial psychoses produced by mescaline.”

Guttman, E. & W.S. Maclay (1936) Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, 16: 193–212. “Mescaline and depersonalization: therapeutic experiments.”

Guzmán-Maldonado, S.H. et al. (2010) Journal of Food Science, 75 (6): C485-C492. “Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-México Region.” (S.H. Guzmán-Maldonado, A.L. Morales-Montelongo, C. Mondragón-Jacobo, G. Herrera-Hernández, F. Guevara-Lara & R. Reynoso-Camacho)

Haagen-Smit, A.J. & M. Olivier, private communication with L. Reti.

Habermann, Vlastimil (1974)a Kaktusy, 10: 1, 2, 3, 4, 12–14, 28–33, 65–67, 81–83. “Alkaloidy kaktusů.” From Štarha’s cactus alkaloid summary.

Habermann, Vlastimil (1974)b Kaktusy, 10: 123–127, 144. [“Lophophora fricii Habermann species nova.”] (From Anderson 1980 & Grym)

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)a Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 47: 157–160; “Two Red Flowering Species of Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)b Kaktusy, 11: 3–6, 24. “Lophophora jourdaniana Habermann species nova.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)c Kaktusy, 54–57, 80–82 “Rod Lophophora Coulter.” [From Grym 1997]

Habermann, Vlastimil (1977) Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník,  44: 17–21. “Přispěvek ke studiu halucinogenního účinku peyotlu.” [“A Contribution to the Study of the Hallucinogenic Effect of Peyote (Lophophora Coulter).”] [The reference to this as is listed in Anderson 1980 adds page 144; but I lack this article to check.]

Habermann, Vlastimil (1978)a БИОХИМИЯ [Biokhimiya / Biochimia (SSSR)], 43 (2): 246–251. “ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ МЕСКАЛИНА И ПЕЛЛОТИНА В РАСТЕНИЯХ РОДА LOPIIOPHORA COULTER (СЕМ. САСТАСЕАЕ) ПРИ ПОМОЩИ ОСЦИЛЛОГРАФИЧЕСКОЙ ПОЛЯРОГРАФИИ” [“Estimation of Mescaline and Pellotine in Lophophora Coulter Plants (Cactaceae) by Oscillographic Polarography.”] Štarha nd gives as “Stanoveni meskalinu pellotinu v r. rodu Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1978)b Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník, 46: 94–102. “Oscilografická polarografie meskalinu, pellotinu a některých strukturně blízkých alkaloidů rostlin rodu Lophophora.” My copy begins with page 95 so perhaps it is missing an illustration page?

Habermann, Vlastimil (1979) Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník, 47: 61–63. “Oscilografická polarografie některých tetrahydroisochinolinových alkaloidů rostlin rodu Lophophora (Coulter).”  

Habibi, Y. et al. (2002) Carbohydrate Research, 337 (17): 15938. “Isolation and structure of D-xylans from pericarp seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, M. Mahrouz, & M.R. Vignon)

Habibi, Y. et al. (2004)a Carbohydrate Research, 339 (6): 1119–1127. “Structural features of pectic polysaccharides from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, A. Heyraud, M. Mahrouz & M.R. Vignon)

Habibi, Y. et al. (2004)b Carbohydrate Research, 339 (6):1201–1205. “An arabinogalactan from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, M. Mahrouz, M.F. Marais & M.R. Vignon)

Hadáček, J. et al. (1955) Chemicke Listy, 49: 271-272. “Přispěvek k syntéze meskalinu.” [“Synthesis of mescaline.”]

Haggendal, J. (1963) Acta Physiol. Scand. 59: 261-268. “The presence of 3-O-methylated noradrenaline (nor-metanephrine) in normal brain tissue.”

Hahn, George & Albert Hansel (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 71: 2183–2191. “Synthese von 1-Alkyl-isochinolen und 1.1’-Polymethylen-di-isochinolen.” 

Hahn, George (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 1210–1211. “Synthese des Mescalins. (Entgegnung auf die “Berichtigung” von K.H. Slotta u. G. Szyszka).”

Hahn, George & Fritz Rumpf (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, B 71 (10): 2141-2153. “Über β-(Oxy-phenyl)-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. V. Mitteil.: Kondensation von Oxyphenyl-äthylaminen mit α-Ketosäuren.” [includes synthetic procedure for mescaline.]

Hahn, George & Otto Schales (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 1486–1493. “Über β-[Oxy-phenyl]-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. II. Mitteil.: Synthese weiterer Amina und der entsprechenden [Oxy-phenyl]essigsäuren aus natürlichen Allylverbindungen.”

Hahn & Stiehl (1936) Ber. 69: 2640. Something is wrong about this citation. LOCATE CORRECT PAPER.

Hahn, George & Heinrich Wassmuth (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 696–708. “Über β-(Oxyphenyl)-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. I. Synthese des Mezcalins.”

Haigler, H.J. & George K. Aghajanian (1973) European Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 53–60, “Mescaline and LSD: direct and indirect effects on serotonin-containing neurons in brain.” 

Haigler, Henry J. & George K. Aghajanian (1980) European Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 53–60. “Mescaline and LSD: direct and indirect effects on serotonin-containing neurons in brain.” [from Aghajanian 1994]

Hajanarvis, L.S. (1964) Current Sci. (India) 33: 584. “Free organic acids in some xerophytes.” [From Meyer & McLaughlin 1982]

Halda (1997) Acta Mus. Richnov. Sect. Nat. 4(2): 71. [From 1998 Repertorium Plantarum Succulentarum XLIX] Lophophora viridescens (Halda) Halda

Haley, T.J. (1957) Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, 13: 107.

Halstead, W.C. et al. (1942)a Journal of Neurophysiology, 5: 349–356. “Modification of cortical activity by means of intermittent photic stimulation in the monkey.” (W.C. Halstead, G.W. Knox & A.E. Walker)

Halstead, W.C. et al. (1942)b Journal of Neurophysiology, 5: 483–486. “Effects of intensity and wave length on driving cortical activity in monkeys.” (W.C. Halstead, G.W. Knox, J.I. Woolf & A.E. Walker)

Hamilton, M.G. & M. Hirst (1976) European Journal of Pharmacology, 39: 237–243. “Effects of salsolinol on smooth muscle responses to various biogenic amines.” 

Hamilton, M.G. & M. Hirst (1977) European Journal of Pharmacology, 44: 279–281. “Antagonism of smooth muscle responses to oxytocin and vasopressin by salsolinol.” 

Hamilton, M. G. et al. (1976) Pharmacologist, 18: 102–104. “Effect of salsolinol on the field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum.” (M.G. Hamilton, A.M. Marshall, K. Blum & M. Hirst)

Hamilton, M.G. et al. (1978) Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res., 2: 133–137. “Identification of an isoquinoline alkaloid after chronic exposure to ethanol.” (M.G. Hamilton, K. Blum and M. Hirst) 

Hammerschlag, Carl (1988) The Dancing Healers: A Doctor’s Journey of Healing with Native Americans. Harper Collins ISBN 0-06-250395-2. 170 pages.

Hanna, Jon (1996) (1998) Psychedelic Resource List 

Hansen, P. (1996) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 47: 263–271. “Erscheinungsformen der Gattung Lophophora.” [L. fricii var. decipiens Hansen & L. williamsii f. jourdaniana Hansen] [from Grym 1997]

Hansen, P. (1998) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 49 (8): 169–174. “Eine enorme Variationsbreite: Beobachtungen an Lophophora Williamsii (Lemaire ex Salm-Dyck) Coulter.” 

Hansen, P. (1999) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 50 (9): 213–218. “Die Formenvielfalt von Lophophora diffusa (Croizat) Bravo 

Hansen, P. (2000) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 51 (9): 225–232. “Lophophora fricii Habermann und die umstrittene Varietät Lophophora Williamsii var decipiens Croizat.”

Hapke, H.J. (1995) DTW – Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrifte, 102: 228–232. “Pharmacological effects of hordenine.”

Hara, H. et al. (1982) Heterocycles, 17: 293–296. “A Biomimetic Synthesis of (±)-Tetrahydrotakatonine, (±)-O-Methylgigantine, and Tehuanine.” (Hirohi Hara, Akira Tsunashima, Hiroshi Shinoki, Osamu Hoshino & Bunsake Umezawa)

Hardman, H.F. et al. (1973) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 25: 299–300. “Relationship of the Structure of Mescaline and Seven Analogs to Toxicity and Behavior in Five Species of Laboratory Animals.”(Harold F. Hardman, Coryce O. Haavik and Maurice H. Seevers) [This study was performed on behalf of the US Army in the 1950’s and declassified in 1969.]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1991) The Ingens Bull. 4: 27–28. “Psychoactive Mesembs.” [From Hargreaves 1998]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1993) The Euphorbiaceae Study Group Bull. 6 (1): 14–18. “Euphorbia davyi and other khadi sources.” [From Hargreaves 1998]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1998) Plants Used to Make Khadi. [Paper presented at the Huntington’s Annual Succulent Symposium 1998. Copy kindly furnished by author.]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1999) Eleusis, 3: 100–104. “Piante impiegate nella preparazione del Khadi (Sud Africa). Plants used to make Khadi (South Africa)” [ [This was originally a paper presented at the Huntington’s Annual Succulent Symposium in 1998]

Harlay (1902) Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie 6 (16): 193–198. “Sur le mucilage du Cactus à raquettes.” [From Hobschette 1929]

Harley-Mason, J. et al. (1958) Confina Neurologica, 18: 152–155. “I. The Metabolism of mescalin in the human. II. Delayed reactions to mescalin.” (J. Harley-Mason, A.H. Laird & J.R. Smythies.)

Harley, K.L.S. & A.J. Thorsteinson (1967) Can. J. Zoo. 45: 305.

Harmon, James E. (1957) Journal of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America 29: 167–170. “The Persecuted Peyote.”

Harner, Michael (1980) Way of the Shaman: A guide to power and healing. Harper & Row; NY

Harner, Michael J. (Ed) (1973) Hallucinogens and Shamanism. New York/ Oxford University Press 1973. ISBN 0-19-501649-1.

Harrison, C.M.H., et al. (1976) Nature, 260: 138–139. “Mescaline as a mitotic spindle inhibitor.” (C.M.H. Harrison, B.M. Page & H.M. Keir)

Hart, Jeffrey A. (1979) Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University, 27 (10): 261– 307. “The ethnobotany of the Flathead Indians of Western Montana.”

Hartwell, J.L. (1968) Lloydia, 31 (2): 71–170. “Plants used against cancer. A survey.” (part of a larger series)

Hartwich, C. & E. Zwicky (1914) Apotheker-Zeitung 29: 925–926, 937–939, 949–950 & 961–962. “Über Channa, ein Genussmittel der Hottentotten.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Hatfield, G.M. et al. (1977) Lloydia, 40 (4): 374–383. “An investigation of Sophora secundiflora seeds (Mescal Beans.)”

Havard, Valery (1869) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 23 (2): 33–46. “Drink Plants of the North American Indians.”

Hayes, Alden (1940) New Mexico Anthropologist, 4 (2): 34–36. “Peyote Cult on the Goshiute Reservation at Deep Creek.”

Hazum, E. et al. (1981) Science, 213 (28): 1010–1012. “Morphine in Cow and Human Milk: Could Dietary Morphine Constitute a Ligand for Specific Morphine (m) Receptors?” (Eli Hazum, Julie J. Sabatka, Kwen-Jen Chang, David A. Brent, John W.A. Findlay & Pedro Cuatrecasas) 

Heacock, R.A. & Janet E. Forrest (1973) Journal of Chromatography, 78: 241-250. “The use of electron-acceptor reagents for the detection of some hallucinogens.”

Heacock & Hutzinger (1961) Chem. Ind. (London) 595.

Hebbard, Frederick W. & Roland Fischer (1966) Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 9 (2): 145–156. “Effects of Psilocybin, LSD and Mescaline on small involuntary eye movements.” [Experienced users might find their graphic presentations intriguing.]

Hecker, R.J. et al. (1970) J. Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 16: 52.

Hedendal, B.E. in Health Consciousness Vol 13 (1): 14–17.

Heffter, Arthur (1894)a Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 34: 65–86. “Ueber Pellote. Ein Beitrag zur pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Cacteen.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1894)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 27: 2975–2979. “Ueber zwei Cacteenalkaloïde.” [Pellotine from A. williamsii (0.89%) and Hordenine (Anhaline) from A. fissuratum (0.2 gm from 1 kg)] 

Heffter, Arthur (1896) Ber. 29: 221-227; See in Heffter 1896a.

Heffter, Arthur (1896)a Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 29: 216–227. “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde II. Mitteilung” [Pellotine and Mescaline.] 

Heffter, Arthur (1896)b Therapeutische Monatshefte, 10: 327–328. “Ueber Pellotin” 

Heffter, Arthur (1896)c Apotheker Zeitung, 11: 746. “Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis der Cactaceen.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1898)a Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Archiv fur experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 40: 385–429. “Ueber Pellote. Beitrage zur chemischen und pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Cacteen. II. Mittheilung.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1898)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 31: 1193–1199. “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde. (III. Mittheilung.)” [Pellotine, Mescaline, Anhalonidine, Lophophorine, Anhalonine.] 

Heffter, Arthur (1901) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 34: 3004–3015 “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde. (IV. Mittheilung.)” [Anhalamine, Mescaline, Anhalonidine.]

Heffter, Arthur (ed.) (1924) Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie. Volume Two Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Heffter, Arthur & R. Capellman (1905) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 38 (3): 3634–3640. “Versuch zur synthese des mezcalins.”

Hegnauer, R. (1964) “40. Cactaceae”, pp. 324–336: in Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen [Vol. 3: Dicotyledonae: Acanthaceae–Cyrillaceae] Birkhauser Verlag: Basel & Stuttgart.

Heinrich, C. et al. (1999) Eleusis, 3: 27–68. “Giasone, L’Uomo-Droga/ Jason, The Drug Man” (Clark Heinrich, Carl A.P. Ruck & Daniel B. Staples)

Hell, Christina (1988) Hirsch, Mais, Peyote in der Konzeption der Huichol. Klaus Renner Verlag: Hohenschläftlarn.

Helmlin, Hans-Jörg & Rudolf Brenneisen (1992) Journal of Chromatography, 593: 87–94. “Determination of psychotropic phenylalkylamine derivatives in biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection.” (Results were min/max from 6 samples purchased in Switzerland via retail outlets or obtained from private collections. No further details or any discussion of particulars was included.)

Hennings, Paul (1888) Gartenflora, 37: 410–412. (fig. 92–93) “Eine giftige Kaktee, Anhalonium Lewinii N. Sp.”

Henry, J.L. et al. (2003) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27: 381–382. “The analysis and distribution of mescaline in postmortem tissues.“ (J.L. Henry, J. Epley & T.P. Rohrig)

Henry, Thomas Anderson (1949) The Plant Alkaloids. Fourth Edition (Second Edition was 1924)

Herbert, Richard B. & Abdullah E. Kattah (1990) Tetrahedron 46 (20): 7105–7118. “The Biosynthesis of Sceletium Alkaloids in Sceletium subvelutinum L. Bolus.”

Hermle, L. et al. (1981) Teratology. A Journal of Abnormal Development, 23 (3): 287–291. “Teratogenic effects of mescaline, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in the hamster.” (L. Hermle, M. Funfgeld, G. Oepen, H. Botsch, E. Gouzoulis, E. Fehrenbach, K.S. Hirsch & H.I. Fritz)

Hermle, L. et al. (1992) Biological Psychiatry, 32: 976–991. “Mescaline-Induced Psychopathological, Neuropsychological, and Neurometabolic Effects in Normal Subjects: Experimental Psychosis as a Tool for Psychiatric Research.” (Leo Hermle, Matthias Ftinfgeld, Godehard Oepen, Hanno Botsch, Dieter Borchardt, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis, Rose A. Fehrenbach & Manfred Spitzer)

Hernández, Francisco (1900) Anales del Instituto Médico Nacional, 4 (11): 204. “De Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae.” Reprint of 1790 [from LaBarre]

Hernández, Francisco (1900) Historia, 1577. Abridgement: Rerum medicarum Novae Hispaniae thesaurus, seu(nova) plantarum, animalium, mineralium Mexicananorum historia. Mascardi: Rome [from Stewart — but I cannot locate the cited information in this book.]

Hernandez, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1615) Quatro libros De la naturaleza y viritudes.

Hernandez, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1650) Rerum medicarum Novae Hispani[ae] thesaurus, sev plantarum, animalium, mineralium Mexicananorum historia.

Hernández, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1790) De Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae, 3: 70–71. “Peyotl Zacatecensis.” Madrid; Ibarrae. 572 pages

Hernández, Francisco died in 1578.

Herre, H. (1971) The Genera of the Mesembryanthemaceae.Tafelberg-Uitgewers Beperk Cape Town. ISBN 0 624 00002 8 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1930)a Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 6 (II): 43–49. “Datos quimicos sobre el Echinopsis eyriesii (Turpin) Zucc” [1930 CA 24: 4077]

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1930)b Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 6: 75–85. “Datos quimicos sobre el Gymnocalycium gibbosum (Haw.) Pfeiff.” [1930 CA 24: 4077]

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1931) Revista Farmaceutica (Buenos Aires), 74: 87–99. “Nota sobre algunas reacciónes microquímicas de la mezcalina.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1932a) Revista Farmaceutica, (Buenos Aires) 74: 251-261. “Datos quimicos sobre el Gymnocalycium multiflorum (Hook.) Britton and Rose.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1932b) Revista Farmaceutica, (Buenos Aires) 74: 375–381. “Datos quimicos sobre Trichocereus sp. aff. T. Terschecki.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1943) Microchemical Notes on Doping’. Separate (Buenos Aires) 58 pages plus 100 pages of microphotographs. Preparation of reagents and microchemical reactions for a variety of compounds including mescaline. In Spanish. [From (1944) CA 38: 16077.] LaBarre lists a publication (undated) by this author titled; Notas Microquimicas sobre “Doping”, Buenos Aires, 267 pp.”

Hesse, O. (1871) Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 4 (2): 693-697. “Chemische Studien über die Alkaloide des Opiums.”

Hesse, O. (1872) Ann. Chem. Suppl. 8: 261 

Hewitt, Terry (1993)(1997) The Complete Book of Cactus & Succulents. 176 pages. Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London. ISBN 0-7894-1657-3. Beautifully illustrated book but hardly “complete”.

Heyl, George (1901) (E. Reichardt) Archiv der Pharmazie, [says Archiv der Pharmacie on the spine] 239: 451–473. “Über das Vorkommen von Alkaloiden und Saponinen in Cacteen.” 

Heyl, George (1928) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, [says Archiv der Pharmazie, on the spine] 266 (3): 668-673. “Über das Alkaloid von Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. und Rose. (Cereus giganteus Engelm.)”

Heym, J. et al. (1984) European Journal of Pharmacology, 101: 57–68. “Some behavioral effects of hallucinogens are mediated by a postsynaptic serotonergic action: evidence from single unit studies in freely moving cats.” (James Heym, Kurt Rasmussen & Barry l. Jacobs)

Hiller, K. et al. (1973) Die Pharmazie, 28: 409–410. “Erynginol A – Ein neues Triterpensapogenin.” (K. Hiller, M. Keipert, S. Pfeiffer, L. Tökés & J. Nelson)

Himwich, Harold E. (1956) in Cholden (ed.) Proceedings of the Round Table on lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline in experimental psychiatry, held at the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association, Atlantic City, New Jersey, May 12, 1955. NewYork: Grune & Stratton.

Himwich, Harold E. (1958) Science, 127 (3289): 59–72. “Psychopharmacologic drugs.”

Hipólito L. et al. (2007) Current Drug Metabolism, 8 (7): 716–727. “Brain, metabolism of ethanol and alcoholism: an update.” (L. Hipólito, M.J. Sánchez, A. Polache & L. Granero)

Hipólito, L. et al. (2012) Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (1): 362–378. “Revisiting the controversial role of salsolinol in the neurobiological effects of ethanol: old and new vistas.” (L. Hipólito, M.J. Sánchez-Catalán, L. Martí-Prats, L Granero & A. Polache)

Hirao, Hiroshi (1979) Color Encylopaedia of Cacti. Seibundo Shinkosha Publ. Co. Ltd. An awesome assemblage of color photos on almost every page, many with flowers, numerous crested specimens and odd Astrophytums we have seen nowhere else. Despite the text being entirely in Japanese this incredible book belongs in the library of any cactophile.

Hirsch, K.S. & H. Ira Fritz (1974) Teratology. A Journal of Abnormal Development, 9 (3): A-19– A-20. “A comparison of mescaline with epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in the hamster.”

Hjort, A.M. (1934) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 52: 101-112. Said to describe the physiological and toxicological properties of some N-methylated phenethylamines. Our available copies of this jourrnal only go back to 1940.

Hjort, A.M. et al. (1942) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Experimental Therapeutics, 76: 263–269. “Relative Pharmacological Effects of 1-Methyl-3,4-Dihydro- and 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-Isoquinoline Derivatives.” (Axel M. Hjort, Edwin J. DeBeer, Johannes S. Buck & Lowell O. Randall)

Ho, B.T. et al. (1970) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 13 (1): 26–30. “Analogs of α-Methylphenethylamine (Amphetamine). I. Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Methoxy and/or Methyl Analogs.” (Beng T. Ho, William M. McIsaac, Rong An, L. Wayne Tansy, K.E. Walker, Leo F. Englert, Jr. & Michael B. Noel)

Hobschette, A. (1929) Les Cactacées Médicinales. Gaston Doin & Cie., Paris. 79 pages.

Hoch, Paul H. (1951) American Journal of Psychiatry, 107: 607–611. “Experimentally produced psychoses.” [Ibidem 108 (1952) 579.]

Hoch, Paul H. (1955) American Journal of Psychiatry, 111 (10): 787–790. “Experimental psychiatry.” 

Hoch, Paul H. et al. (1952)a American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 579–584. “Effects of mescaline and lysergic acid (d-LSD-25)” (Paul H. Hoch, James P. Cattell & Harry H. Pennes)

Hoch, Paul H. et al. (1952)b American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 585–589. “Effects of drugs: theoretical considerations from a psychological viewpoint.” (Paul H. Hoch, James P. Cattell & Harry H. Pennes) 

Hodgkins, J.E. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, 14: 1321–1324. “Two new alkaloids in cacti.” (J.E. Hodgkins, S.D. Brown and J.L. Massingill)

Hoebel, E. Adamson (1950) Western Humanities Review, 3: 126–130. “The Wonderful Herb: An Indian Cult Vision Experience.”

Hoffer, Abram & Humphrey Osmond (1967) The Hallucinogens. New York: Academic Press

Hoffer, Abram et al. (1954) Journal of Mental Science, 100 (418): 29–45. “Schizophrenia: A new approach, II. Result of a year’s research.” (Abram Hoffer, Humphrey Osmond & John Smythies)

Hoffmann, Inge (1984) Cactus & Succulent Journal (US), 56 (2): 57–59. “Argentina: Cactus Hunter’s Paradise, Part II.” 

Hofmann, Albert (1961) Journal of Experimental Medical Science, 5: 31. 

Hogshire, Jim (1994) Opium for the Masses: A Practical Guide to Growing Poppies and Making Opium. Loompanics Unlimited. 112 pages.

Hogshire, Jim (1999) Pills a Go Go: Fiendish Investigation into Pill Marketing, Art, History, and Consumption. Feral House. 320 pages.

Holden, W.C. (1937) Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society, 9: 48–73. “Excavation of Murrah Cave.”

Holdstock, T.M. & H.M. Stevens (1975) Forensic Sciences, 6 (3): 187–195. “The recovery of alkaloids after their location on thin layer chromatograms.”

Holguín, D. Gonzalez (1989) Vocabulario de la lengua general de todo el Peru llamada lengua quichua o del Inca [first ed. 1608] Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos: Lima. 

Hollister, Leo E. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences, 96: 80–88. “Drug-induced psychoses and schizophrenic reactions: a critical comparison.”

Hollister, Leo E. (1969) Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, (Jan.-Feb.): 24–29. “Steroids and Moods: Correlations in Schizophrenics and Subjects Treated With Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), Mescaline, Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Synhexyl.” 

Hollister, Leo E. & Arnold J. Friedhoff (1966) Nature, 210: 1377–1378. “Effects of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine in man” [Observed no effects. Used both mescaline and placebo for controls.]

Hollister, Leo E. & Alan M. Hartman (1962) Comprehensive Psychiatry,  3 (4): 235–241. “Mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin: comparison of clinical syndromes, effects on color perception and biochemical measures.”

Holmes, E.M. (1897) Pharm. Journ. 5: 165–167. “Cactus grandiflorus.” [From Hobschette 1929]

Holmes, E.M. (1921) Journal of the American Medical Association, 10 (2): 103–105, “Mexican Herbs and Drugs.”

Hooker, William Jackson (1847) Curtis’s Botanial Magazine, 73 [Volume III of the Third Series (or Volume LXXIII of the whole work)]: Pages 85–87: Entry 4296. “Tab. 4296. Echinocactus Williamsii.” (Published by Reeve, Benham & Reeve, London)

Hopf, A. and Eckert, H. (1969) Psychopharmacologia, 16: 201-222. “Autoradiographic Studies on the Distribution of Psychoactive Drugs in the Rat Brain. III. 14C-Psilocin.”

Horan, H. & D.G. O’Donovan (1971) J. Chem. Soc. (C) 2083–2085. “Biosynthesis of dolicotheline.”

Horan et al. 1971 in the literature referred to Horan & O’Donovan 1971

Hörhammer, L. et al. (1966) Chemische Berichte, 99 (4): 1384–1387. “Über die Synthese von Isorhamnetinglykosiden, I. Isolierung und Synthese zweier Flavonol-glykoside von Cereus grandiflorus Mill.“ (Ludwig Hörhammer, Hildebert Wagner, Hans-Günter Arndt & Loránd Farkas)

Hori, K. (1937) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 41: 13. “Ueber experimentelle Mescalinvergiftung: Versuch am Menschen.”

Hori, K. (1938) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 42: 4. “Versuch an Tieren.”

Hornemann, K.M. Kelley et al. (1972) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 61: 41–45. “Cactus Alkaloids XII. β-Phenethylamine Alkaloids of the Genus Coryphantha” (K.M. Kelley Horneman, J.M. Neal & J.L. McLaughlin)

Horning, E.C. (ed.) (1955) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III. John Wiley & Sons.

Hortus refers to Liberty Hyde Bailey & Ethel Zoe Bailey (1976) Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Revised and expanded by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1290 pages.

Hoshikawa 1964 is the Chemical Abstracts of Hoshikawa 1962.

Hoshikawa, Hideo (1962) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, 58: 241-260 [“Pharmacological studies of hallucinogens. I. Influences of mescaline on the central nervous system with special references to the psychic factors.”]; 58: 261-274 [“II. General pharmacological properties of mescaline.”]; 58: 275–288 [“III. Bibliographic considerations of mescaline.”] [Chemical Abstracts (1964) 60: 7338e-j]

Hosko, Michael J. Jr. & Richard Tislow (1956) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 15: 440. [Abstract; entry 1432] “Acute Tolerance to Mescaline in the Dog.”

Howard, James H. (1956) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12: 432–436. “An Oto-Omaha Peyote Ritual.”

Howard, James H. (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 75–87. “The mescal bean cult of the Central and Southern Plains: an ancestor of the peyote cult?”

Howard, James H. (1962) Journal of American Folklore, 75 (296): 10–14. “Peyote jokes.” 

Howe, R.C. et al. (1977)a Phytochemistry, 16 (1): 151. “N-Methyltyramine and hordenine from Mammillaria microcarpa.” (Roberta C. Howe, Jerry L. McLaughlin & Duwayne Statz) 

Howe, R.C. et al. (1977)b Planta Medica, 31 (3): 294–296. “Cactus alkaloids. XXXIV. Hordenine HCl from Coryphantha
vivipara var. arizonica.” (Roberta C. Howe, Richard L. Ranieri, Duwayne Statz & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Hrdlička, Aleš (1908) Bulletin, Bureau of American Ethnology, No. 34. “Physiological and Medical Observations among the Indians of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico.” [from Schultes 1938)

Hsu, H.-Y. et al. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica, A concise guide.  Oriental Healing Arts Institute & Keats Publishing.  ISBN 0-87983-710-1. (Hong-yen Hsu, Yuh-pan Chen, Shuenn-jyi Shen, Chau-shin Hsu, Chien-chih Chen & Hsien-chang Chang)

Hubner, C.F. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4667–4669. “Studies of imidazole compounds. V. A new and improved synthesis of 4-(2-substituted aminoethyl)-imidazoles.”

Huebner, C.F. et al. (1949) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 71: 3942–3944. “Studies of imidazole compounds. IX. Derivatives of 4-ethylimidazole.” (C.F. Huebner, R.A. Turner & C. Scholz)

Huerta 1960 see as Gonzales Huerta 1960

Hughes et al. (1977) Can J. Chem. 55: 3304

Hulsey, D. et al. (2011) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5 (2): 677–683. “Clinal geographic variation in mescaline concentration among Texas populations of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae).” (Diana Hulsey, M. Abul Kalam, Paul Daley, Norma Fowler & Martin Terry)

Humphreys, Ray M. (1916) Denver Times, 2 December. “Peyote Replaces Whiskey on Reservation: Indians Get ‘Jags’ With the Mescal Bean.” [An interview with Chief Special Officer Henry A. Larson of the BIA]

Hunt, David (1992) CITES Cactaceae Checklist.

Hunt, David (2000) CITES Cactaceae Checklist. Second Edition. RBG Kew & the IOS. ISBN 1 900347 45 8

Hunt, David et al. (2006) The New Cactus Lexicon. dh books. ISBN 0 9538134 4 4. 2 volumes- text & atlas.

Hunt, Linda (1991) Secret Agenda: The United States Government Nazi Scientists and Operation Paperclip. St. Martin’s Press.

Huson, Paul (2001) Mastering Herbalism: A Practical Guide. Madison Books. ISBN-10: 1568331819; ISBN-13: 978-1568331812. 372 pages

Huszti, Z. and Borsy, J. (1968) J. Neurochem. 15: 1407–1413.

Hutchings, R.H (1897) State Hospital Bulletin, Utica, 2: 45–48. “Report on the use of pellotine as a sedative and hypnotic”

Huxley, Aldous (1954) The Doors of Perception. Chatto and Windus, London, England [also Harper, New York]

Huxley, Aldous (1956) Heaven and Hell. Chatto and Windus, London.

Hyde, J. et al. (1949) J. Neurophysiol. 12: 17 [from Patel]

Hyde, Robert (1960) “Psychological and Social Determinants of Drug Action.” pp. 297–312 in G.J. Sarwer-Foner (ed.) The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drugs 

Icke, Roland N. & Burnett B. Wisegarver [with Gordon A. Alles) (1955) “β-Phenethyldimethylamine (Phenethylamine, N,N-dimethyl-).” pp. 723–725, in E.C. Horning (ed.) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III. 

Ih-Sheng et al. (in literature) see as Chen et al.

Iliff, Flora Gregg (date?) People of the Blue Water. My adventures among the Walapai and Havasupai Indians. Harper & Brothers: New York

Imai, T. et al. (2006) Journal of Natural Medicine, 60: 49–53. “Triterpenoid saponins from cultural plants of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae).” (Takeo Imai, Sachie Okazaki, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Imaizumi, Reiji et al. (1958) Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 8: 22–30. “Formation of Hydroxytyramine from tyramine in the Adrenal gland.”

Impellizzeri, G. & M. Piattelli (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 2499–2502. “Biosynthesis of Indicaxanthin in Opuntia ficus-indica fruits.”

Impellizzeri, G. et al. (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (9): 2295–2296. “Acylated Betacyanins from Drosanthemum floribundum.” (Guiseppe Impellizzeri, Mario Piatelli & Sebastiano Sciuto)

Imperato, Pascal James (1977) African Folk Medicine. York Press: Baltimore. 251 pages. ISBN 0-912752-08-4

Ingle, P.H. & H. Taylor (1963) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 15: 620–623. “Synthesis of some histamine derivatives having potential histamine-like or antihistamine activity.” 

Innes, Clive (1981) The Complete Handbook of Cacti and Succulents. Ward Lock Ltd., London. ISBN 0-442-24122-4

Innes, Clives & Charles Glass (1991) Cacti. Portland House; New York. ISBN 0-517-05650-X. L.w.var. williamsii (in flower) & L. w. var. diffusa & L.w. var caespitosa (all color) p. 150

Inubushi, Y. & K. Fujitani (1958) J. Pharm. Soc. Japan (Yakugaku Zasshi,) 78: 486-?. “An unexpected reaction in a Pomeranz-Fritsch isoquinoline synthesis.”

Ippen, H. (1968) Index Pharmacorum-Synonyma, Struktur und Wirkung der organisch-chemischen Arzneistoffe. Stuttgart: George Thieme Verlag. (From Usdin & Efron 1979)

Isbell, Harris (1959) Psychopharmacologia, 1(1): 29–38. “Comparison of the Reactions Induced by Psilocybin and LSD-25 in Man.”

Isbell, Harris et al. (1962) Psychopharmacologia, 2: 147–159. “Cross tolerance between LSD and psilocybin.” (Harris Isbell, A.B. Wolbach, A. Wikler & E.J. Miner)

Isibasi, T. (1937) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 41: 38-?. “Beitraege zur Kentniss der experimentellen Meskalinvergiftung an Normalen.”

Ito, Yoshio (1952) Cacti, 96 [Lophophora Williamsii var. caespitosa Y.Ito] from Anderson 1980 & Grym 1997]

Iversen, L.L. & J. Glowinski (1966) J. Neurochem. 13: 671.

Iversen, L.L. & B. Jarrott (1970) Biochem. Pharm. 19: 1841. 

Iversen, L.L et al. (1966) J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 151: 273. (L.L. Iversen, J. Glowinski and J. Axelrod)

Iwamoto, H.K. (1942–1944) Thesis, Graduate School of the University of Maryland, 43 [Abstract] “The synthesis of analogs of mescaline.” [From LaBarre (1975)]

Iwasa, K. et al. (2001) Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry, 9 (11): 2871-2884. “Simple isoquinoline and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids as potential antimicrobial, antimalarial, cytotoxic, and anti-HIV agents.” (K. Iwasa, M Moriyasu, Y Tachibana, HS Kim, Y Wataya, W Wiegrebe, KF Bastow, LM Cosentino, M Kozuka & KH Lee)

Izumi, Seiichi and Toshiko Sono (1960) Andes 2. Excavations at Kotosh, Peru 1960. 

Jacob, J. (1966) Proceedings of the European Society for the Study of Drug Toxicity, 8: 30–58

Jacob, J. & C. Lafille (1963) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 145: 528-?. 

Jacob, J. et al. (1962) Medicina Experimentalis 7: 296-?. 

Jacob, J. et al. (1964) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 148: 14-?.

Jacobsen, Erik (1963) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 4: 480–503. “The Clinical Pharmacology of the Hallucinogens.”

Jacobsen, Hermann (1960) A Handbook of Succulent Plants: Descriptions, Synonyms and Cultural Details For Succulents Other Than Cactaceae. Volume 3. Mesembryanthemums (Ficoidaceae). Blandford Press, London. 

Jacquet, R. (1934) Recharches botaniques et chimiques sur quelques Cactaceées. Thèse franc. Pharm., Paris 176 pp. 

Jaensch, W. (1920) Zentralblatt für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 23: 119–120. “Pharmakologische Versuche über die Beziehungen optischer Konstitutionsstigmen zu den Halluzinationen.”

James, Jennifer (1996) Peyote and Mescaline. A brief Account of the History and Uses of theDivine Cactus.” Do It Now. 0-89230-210-0. Do It Now Foundation Box 27568, Tempe, AZ 85285 602 491-0393 D.I.N. Publications. A one page (double sided) informational brochure.

James, W. O. (1948) Nature, 161 (4100): 851–852. “Demonstration
and separation of noradrenaline, adrenaline, and
methyladrenaline.” 

Janiger, Oscar & Marlene Dobkin de Rios (1975) Economic Botany, 30: 149–151. “Nicotiana an Hallucinogen?”

Janniger, Otto & Gertrude Paltin (1971) A Bibliography of LSD, Mescaline, from the Earliest Researches to the Beginnings of Suppression. Fitz Hugh Memorial Library: San Francisco

Janot, M. & M. Bernier (1933) Bulletin des sciences pharmacologiques, 40: 145–153. “Essai de localisation des alcaloïdes dans le peyotl.” 

Jantz, H. (1940)a Klinische Wochenscrift, 19: 774. “Zur pathophysiologie des Meskalinrausches.” [also (1940)b Medizinische Klinik (Berlin) 36: 790.]

Jantz, H. (1941) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 171: 28–56. “Veränderung des Stoffwechsels im Meskalinrausch beim Menschen und im Tierversuch.”

Jarrard, L.E. (1963) Psychopharmacology, 5: 39–46.

Jayasuriya, H. et al. (2005) Journal of Natural Products, 68 (8): 1247–1252. “Diterpenoid, steroid, and triterpenoid agonists of liver X receptors from diversified terrestrial plants and marine sources.” (H. Jayasuriya, K.B. Herath, J.G. Ondeyka, Z. Guan, R.P. Borris, S. Tiwari, W. de Jong, F. Chavez, J. Moss, D.W. Stevenson, H.T. Beck, M. Slattery, N. Zamora, M. Schulman, A. Ali, N. Sharma, K. MacNaul, N. Hayes, J.G. Menke & S.B. Singh)

Jeffcoate, W. J. et al. (1979) Lancet, 1: 1157–1159. “Prevention of effects of alcohol intoxication by naloxone.” (W.J. Jeffcoate, M.H. Cullen, M. Herbert, A.G. Hastings & C.P. Walder)

Jeffs, Peter W. (1981) Alkaloids (N.Y.) 19: 26. [From Southon & Buckingham]

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 91 (14): 3831–3839. “Structure of the Mesembranols and the Absolute Configuration of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids.” (P.W. Jeffs, Richard L. Hawks & D.S. Farrier)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1970) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 35 (10): 3512–3518. “Alkaloids of Sceletium Species. III. The Structures of Four New Alkaloids from S. strictum.” (P.W. Jeffs, G. Ahmann, H.F. Campbell, D.S. Farrier, G. Ganguli & Richard L. Hawks)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 93 (15): 3752–3758. “Biosynthesis of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids. The Amino Acid Precursors.” (Peter W. Jeffs, W.C. Archie, Richard L. Hawks & D.S. Farrier)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)b Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 228–230. “Biosynthesis of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids, Mode of Incorporation of Phenylalanine, and Examination of Norbelladines as Precursors.” (Peter W. Jeffs, H.F. Campbell, D.S. Farrier & G. Molina)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)c Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1466–1467. “The Structure of Sceletium Alkaloid A4, a Pyridine Alkaloid from Sceletium namaquense: Direct Method X-Ray Determination.” (Peter W. Jeffs, P.A. Luhan, Andrew T. McPhail & N.H. Martin)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1974)a Journal of Organic Chemistry, 39 (18): 2703–2710. “Sceletium Alkaloids. VI. Minor Alkaloids of S. namaquense and S. strictum.” (Peter W. Jeffs, T. Capps, D.B. Johnson, J.M. Karle, N.H. Martin & B. Rauckman)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1974)b Phytochemistry, 13: 933–945. “Incorporation of Phenylalanine and Examination of Norbelladines as Precursors of the Mesembrine Alkaloids.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Henry F. Campbell, David S. Farrier, Gouranga Ganguli, Ned H. Martin & Gerado Molina)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1978) Phytochemistry, 17: 719–728. “Cinnamic Acid Intermediates as Precursors to Mesembrine and Some Observations on the Late Stages in the Biosynthesis of the Mesembrine Alkaloids.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Jean M. Karle & Ned H. Martin)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1982) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 47: 3611–3617. “Sceletium Alkaloids. Structures of Five New Bases from Sceletium namaquense.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Thomas M. Capps & Richard Redfearn)

Jensch, H. (1929) (1931) German Patent 526,172, April 7, 1929; CA (1931) 25: 4284. 

Jensch, H. (1936) Medizin und Chemie, 3: 408–411. “Zur Synthese der Mezcalins.”

Jensen, H. (1935) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 57 (10): 1765–1768. “Chemical studies on toad poisons. VII. Bufo arenarum, Bufo regularis, and Xenopus laevis.”

Jensen, H. & K.K. Chen (1929) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 82: 397–401. “A Chemical Study of Ch’an Su, The Dried Venom of the Chinese Toad, with Special Reference to the Isolation of Epinephrine.”

Jiang, J. et al. (2006) Steroids, 71: 1073–1077. “Two novel C29-5β-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.” (Jianqin Jiang, Yanfang Li, Zhen Chen, Zhida Min & Fengchang Lou)

Jiang, J.Q. et al. (2003) Yao Xue Xue Bao, 38 (9): 677–679. [A new alkaloid from Opuntia vulgaris.] Article is in Chinese.(J.Q. Jiang, W.C. Ye, Y.H. Liu, Z. Chen, Z.D. Min & F.C. Lou) [from PubMed]

Jiao, R.H. et al. (2006) Organic Letters, 8 (25): 5709–5712. “Chaetominine a cytotoxic alkaloid produced by endophytic Chaetomium sp. IFB-E015.”

Jilek, Kugler, Hofer & Lawder (1963) Confinia Neurologica, 23: 201-220 in the literature meant Knoll et al. 1963. 

Jimenez, A.C. See as Caycho Jimenez, A.

Joachimoglu, G. & E. Keeser (1924) “Kakteenalkaloide” pp. 1104–1113, in A. Heffter’s Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie, Bd. II. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1924. 0

Johnson et al. (1970) Psychopharm. 17: 434. [G. Johnson, A.J. Friedhoff, M. Alpert and J. Marchitello)

Johnson, Harry (1958–1968) entries from the Johnson Cactus Gardens catalogs.

Johnson, Treat Baldwin & H.H. Guest (1909) American Chemical Journal, 42: 340–353. “Researches on Amines: Synthesis of Methylphenylethylamine.”

Johnson, Timothy (1999) CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference. CRC Press, Boca Raton. ISBN 0-8493-1187-X. 1211 pages.

Johnson, William E. “Pussyfoot” (1912) Indian School Journal, 12 (7): 239–242; (8): 289–293. “History, Use and Effects of Peyote.”

Jolad, S.D. & Cornelius Steelink (1969) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 34 (5): 1367–1369. “Thurberin, a New Pentacyclic Triterpene from Organ Pipe Cactus.” 

Jolly, F. (1896)a Therapeut. Monatsh., 10: 328–329. “Ueber die schlafmachende Wirkung des Pellotinum muriaticum.” 

Jolly, F. (1896)b Deut. Med. Wochenschrift 22: 375–376. “Ueber Pellotin als Schlafmittel.”

Jones, A.M. (1954) Africa 24: 26–47. “African Rhythm.”

Jones, Orlando (1890) British Medical Journal, January 11: 70. [From Hobschette 1929] 

Jonsson, Gösta & Torbjörn Malmfors (1970) Histochemie. 24 (1): 1–6. “Determination of small amounts of noradrenaline using a fluorescence histochemical method.”

Joralemon, Donald & Douglas Sharon (1993) Sorcery and shamanism: curanderos and clients in northern Peru. University of Utah Press. [A book review appeared in (1996) Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10 (1): 100–102.]

J PACD = Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development.

Julian, Percy L. (1943) Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 34: 122–125. “On the Progenitors of Certain Plant Alkaloids and the Mechanisms of the Formation in the Plant Structure.”

Julien, R.M. (1998) A Primer of Drug Action. 8th edition. W.H. Freeman, NY

Kagan, et al. (1975) J. Organometallic Chem, 90 (3): 353–365. “Reduction asymetrique catalysee par des complexes de metaux de transition IV. synthese d’amines chirales au moyen d’un complexe de rhodium et d’isopropylidene dihydroxy-2,3 bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,4 butane (diop)” ()

Kaiser, R. & C. Nussbaumer (1990) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 73: 133–139. “1,2,3,4,4a,5,8,8a-octahydro-4β,8aα
dimethylnaphthalen- 4aβ-ol (=dehydrogeosmin), a novel compound occurring in the flower scent of various species of Cactaceae.” [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Kaiser, R. & L. Tollsten (1995) Flavour Fragrance Journal, 10: 153–164. “An introduction to the scent of cacti.” [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Kakuta, K. et al. (2012)a Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 22: 4793–4800. “New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.” (Kazutaka Kakuta, Masaki Baba, Satoru Ito, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama & Kunio Takahashi)

Kakuta, K. et al. (2012)b Heterocycles, 85 (6): 1377. “New Triterpenoid Saponins from Stenocereus eruca.” (Kazutaka Kakuta, Takeshi Koike, Kaoru Kinoshita, Satoru Ito, Kiyotaka Koyama & Kunio Takahashi)

Kaláb, D. (1956) Die Pharmazie, 11 (4): 268–269. “Oscillopolarographisches Verhalten von Mezkalin.”

Kalam, M.A. et al. (2012) “Mescaline concentrations in small regrowth crowns vs. mature crowns of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae): cultural, economic, and conservation implications.” Paper presented to the Bangladesh Chemical Society, 8 December 2012. (M.A. Kalam, M. Klein, D. Hulsey, P. Daley, K. Trout & M. Terry)

Kalam, M.A. et al. (2013) Journal of Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 7(1): 435–440. “A preliminary report of mescaline concentrations in small regrowth crowns vs. mature crowns of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae): cultural, economic, and conservation implications.” (M.A. Kalam, Molly T. Klein, Diana Hulsey, Keeper Trout, Paul Daley & Martin Terry)

Kalischer, S. (1895) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 5: 59–60. “Über giftige Kakteen.”

Kametani et al. (1977) JCS Perkins Trans. 1: 579 

Kametani, T. et al. (1966) Yakugaku Zasshi, 86 (10): 913–918. “Studies on the Syntheses of Heterocyclic Compounds. CLI. Selective Demethylation of 3,4-Dihydro-6,7,8-trimethoxyisoquinoline and Modified Total Synthesis of Anhalamine.” (Tetsuji Kametani, Nagatoshi Wagatsuma & Fujinori Sasaki)See also [CA 66: 28631t]

Kametani, Tetsuji (1969) The Chemistry of the Isoquinoline Alkaloids. Hirokawa Publ./ Elsevier Publ.

Kampik, G. (1973) Allg. Homöopath. Ztg. 218: 249. [Not obtained yet.]

Kan, M. et al. (1989) Sculpture of Ancient West Mexico. County Museum of Art: Los Angeles. (Michael Kan, Clement Meighan & H.B. Nicholson)

Kandaswami, C. & E. Middleton, Jr. (1994) Advanced Experimental Biology & Medicine, 366: 351–376. “Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of plant flavonoids.”

Kang, Sungzong & Jack Peter Green (1970) Nature, 226: 645. “Correlation between Activity and Electronic State of Hallucinogenic Amphetamines.”

Kang, Sungzong & Jack Peter Green (1973) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 67: 62–67. “Steric and Electronic Relationships among Some Hallucinogenic Compounds.”

Kant, F. (1931) Archive für Psychiatrie, 91: 694. “Uber Reaktionsformen in Giftrausch.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & Henry M. Fales (1968)a The Chemical Society, London. Chemical Communications, [Journal of the Chemical Society D], 24: 1688–1689. “Krebs cycle conjugates of mescaline. Identification of fourteen new peyote alkaloid amides.” 

Kapadia, Govind J. & Henry M. Fales (1968)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 57 (11): 2017–2018. “Peyophorine, a tetrahydroisoquinoline cactus alkaloid containing an ethyl group.” 

Kapadia, Govind J. & Henry M. Fales (1970) Lloydia, 33 (4): 492. (Proceedings.) “Peyote and Related Alkaloids. Structure and Synthesis of Some New Krebs Cycle Conjugates of Mescaline.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & M.B.E. Fayez (1970)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59 (12): 1699–1727. “Peyote constituents. Chemistry, biogenesis and biological effects.” 

Kapadia & Fayez 1970 J. Pharm Sci. 58:1158 in the literature meant Kapadia et al. 1969a 

Kapadia, Govind J. & M.B.E. Fayez (1973) Lloydia, 36 (1): 9–35. “The chemistry of the peyote alkaloids.”

Kapadia, G.J. & R.J. Highet (1967) Lloydia, 30: 287–288 (Proceedings.) “Peyote Alkaloids IV. Structure of Peyonine, a novel β-Phenethylpyrrole from Lophophora Williamsii.”

Kapadia, G.J. & R.J. Highet (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 57:191–192. “Structure of peyonine, novel phenethylpyrrole from Lophophora Williamsii.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & Mehdi H. Hussain (1972) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 61 (7): 1172–1173. “Peyote and Related Alkaloids XIV: Mescaloxylic acid and mescaloruvic acid, the novel amino acid analogs of mescaline.” (Mescaloruvic acid and mescaloxylic acid as trace constituents.)

Kapadia, Govind J. & G.S. Rao (1965) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 54 (12): 1817–1819. “Gas-liquid chromatography and structure retention time relationship of Anhalonium alkaloids and related bases.” 

Kapadia, Govind J. & Narenda J. Shah (1967) Lloydia, 30: 287. (Proceedings.) “Peyote Alkaloids III. Isolation and Synthesis of Peyonine, a novel β-Phenethylpyrrole from Lophophora Williamsii.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & Narenda J. Shah (1968) 115th Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Miami Beach, Fla.): Abstract no. 16, p. 104-?. “Peyote alkaloids V. Preparation of mescaline and selective ether cleavage of pyrogallol trimethyl ethers with lithium aluminum hydride.” 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (2): 254–262. “Anhalotine, lophotine and peyotine, quaternary alkaloids of Lophophora Williamsii.” (Govind J. Kapadia, N.J. Shah & T.B. Zalucky) 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1969) Paper presented at the 116th Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Montreal, Canada. May 18–22. “Identification and synthesis of 3-demethylmescaline, a plausible intermediate in the biosynthesis of the cactus alkaloids.” (from Kapadia & Fayez)

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1969)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 58 (9): 1157–1159. “Peyote alkaloids. IX. Identification and synthesis of 3-demethylmescaline, a plausible intermediate in the biosynthesis of the cactus alkaloids.” (G.J. Kapadia, Y.N. Vaishnav & M.B.E. Fayez) 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1969)b Lloydia, 32: 525. (1-Methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1-carboxylic acid in L. williamsii proposed as immediate precursor to anhalonidine.) (Govind J. Kapadia, M.B.E. Fayez, Y.S. [?N] Vaishnav, H.M. Fales & G. Subba Rao) 

Kapadia et al.11th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (Vienna, Austria) July 1970, To be published” (in the literature) See as Kapadia et al. (1970)a Lloydia, 33 (4): 492.

Kapadia, G. Rao, Leete, Fayez, Vaishnav and Fales, to be published. (in the literature) See as Kapadia, G. et al. (1970) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 92 (23): 6943–6951

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1970)a Lloydia, 33 (4): 492. (Proceedings.) “Peyote and Related Alkaloids. XII. Structure and Synthesis of Peyoglunal, a New Cactus β-Phenethylpyrrole.” (G.J. Kapadia, B.K. Chowdury, M.B.E. Fayez & H.M. Fales)

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1970)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 92 (23): 6943–6951. “On the origin of carbon 1 in tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids.” (G.J. Kapadia, G.S. Rao, E. Leete, M.B.E. Fayez, Y.N. Vaishnav & H.M. Fales) 

Kapadia, G. et al. (1971) Paper presented at the 118th Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, San Francisco, California, March 27-April 2. “Some newer synthetic cactus alkaloid analogs.” (from Kapadia & Fayez) 

Kapadia et al. 1972, given in the literature, refers to Kapadia & Hussain 1972 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1973) Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry , 10 (1): 135–136 “Peyote and related alkaloids. XV. O-Methylpeyoxylic acid and O-Methylpeyoruvic acid, the new cyclic amino acid analogs of mescaline.” (Govind J. Kapadia, G.S. Rao, M.H. Hussain, & B.K. Chowdury) 

Kapadia et al. 1977, given in the literature, refers to Kapadia & Hussein 1972

Kappe, T. & M. D. Armstrong (1965) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 8: 368–374. “Ultraviolet absorption spectra and apparent acidic dissociation constants of some phenolic amines.”

Karady, Sandor (1962) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 27 (10): 3720–3722. “Synthesis of 5-Ethyl-8-methoxycorydaldine.”

Karle, Jean M. (1977) Acta Crystallographia, B33: 185–188. “(±)-N-Demethyl-N-formylmesembrenone.”

Karle, Jean M. (1976) Ph.D. Dissertation. [From Karle 1977]

Karsten, G.K. (1895) Flora Deutschland Second Edition 457

Kasprzyk, Z. & J. Pyrek (1968) Phytochem. 7: 1631. [From Kasprzyk et al. 1970]

Kasprzyk, Z. et al. (1970) Phytochemistry, 9 (9): 2065–2066. “The Identity of Calenduladiol and Thurberin: A Lupenediol Found in Marigold Flowers and Organ Pipe Cactus.” (Zofia Kasprzyk, Jan Pyrek, S.D. Jolad & Cornelius Steelink)

Katz, Richard (1982) Boiling Energy: Community Healing among the Kalahari !Kung. Harvard University Press

Kauder, Ernest (1899) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 237: 190–198 “Über alkaloide aus Anhalonium Lewinii.”

Kauder, Ernest (1899)b Chemische Central-Blatt, 1: 1244 “Über alkaloide aus Mescal-buttons.” I have not been able to locate this paper as cited in the literature. Something may be in error about the citation.

Kaufmann, A. & R. Radosevic (1916) Ber. 49: 675 “Zur synthese von isochinolin- derivaten. I.” 

Kaufman, Teodoro S. (2004) Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 15 (8): 1203–1237. “Synthetic pathways to salsolidine.” 

Kavlin 2000 should read White 2000

Kavlin, Miguel was quoted in White, Timothy (2000) Shaman’s Drum, 57: 33–46. “Dancing with the Condor and Eagle: An Interview with Bolivian Ceremonialist Miguel Kavlin.”

Kawai & Chosaburo 1968 in literature meant Kawai & Yamamoto 1968

Kawai, Nobufumi & Chosaburo Yamamoto (1968) Brain Research, 7: 323–325. “Antagonism between serotonin and LSD studied in vitro in thin sections from the superior colliculus of guinea pig.” 

Keenan, C.W. et al. (1976) General Chemistry Fifth Edition. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-043613-1. (Charles W. Keenan, Jesse H. Wood and Donald C. Kleinfelter) 

Keller, William J. (1972) Ph.D. dissertation; University of Seattle, Washington

Keller, William J. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (1): 37–42. “The Involvement of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine in Normacromerine Biosynthesis.”

Keller, William J. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 413–414. “N-Methyltyramine: Formation in Opuntia clavata and Metabolism in Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii.

Keller, William J. (1982) Phytochemistry, 21 (12): 2851-2852. “Biosynthesis of N-Methylphenthylamine in Dolichothele sphaerica. 

Keller, William J. & Gary G. Ferguson (1976) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 65 (10): 1539–1540. “Selectivity of 4-Methoxyphenthylamine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase.”

Keller, William J. & Gary G. Ferguson (1977) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 66 (7): 1048–1050. “Effects of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenthylamine Derivatives on Monoamine Oxidase.”

Keller, William J. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1972) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 61 (1): 147–148. “Isolation of (-)-normacromerine from Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii. 

Keller et al. 1972 in the literature refers to Keller & McLaughlin 1972.

Keller, W.J. et al. (1973)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 62 (3): 408–411. “Cactus Alkaloids. XV. β-Phenethylamines from Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii.” (W.J. Keller, J.L. McLaughlin & L.R. Brady.)

Keller, W.J. et al. (1973)b Lloydia, 36 (4):397–409. “Cactus Alkaloids. XX. The biosynthesis of catechol-O-methylated β-hydroxyphenethylamines (normacromerine and macromerine) in Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii.” (W.J. Keller, L.A. Spitznagle, L.R. Brady & J.L. McLaughlin) 

Keller et al. 1978 in the literature refers to Keller 1978.

Kellog, R. et al. (1965) Nature, (London) 208: 1129–1130. “Form Similarity Between Phosphenes of Adults and Pre-School Children’s Scribbling.” (R. Kellog, M. Knoll & J. Kügler)

Kelsey, F.E. (1959) The South Dakota Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy, 12: 231-233. “The Pharmacology of Peyote.” 

Kennedy, Alison Bailey (1982) Current Anthropology, 23 (3): 273–290. “Ecce Bufo: The Toad in Nature and in Olmec Iconography.”

Kerr, S.J. (1972) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 247: 4248–4252. “Competing methyltransferase systems.”

Keup, W. (1959) “The possible role of a LSD-protein complex in LSD model psychosis.” page 338, in: Bradley, P.B. et al. (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Neuro-psychopharmacology. (Rome, September 1958).

Khanna, K.L. et al. (1969) The Chemical Society, London. Chemical Communications, [Journal of the Chemical Society, D] 6: 315. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline.” (K.L. Khanna, H. Rosenberg & A.G. Paul.)

Khanna, K.L. et al. (1970) Phytochemistry, 9: 1811–1815. “Biosynthesis of Phenolic Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids of Peyote.” (K.L. Khanna, M. Takido, H. Rosenberg & A.G. Paul)

Khashaba, A.M. et al. (1996) Current Psychiatry, 3 (1): 89–98. “Plasma Amine Oxidase Activity in Some Psychiatric Patients.” (A.M. Khashaba, A.A. Shalanda, I.Z. El-Niggar, W.M. Ibrahim & M.H. Fawzi)

Kiesling, Roberto (1977) Thesis no: 0351: Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, “El género Trichocereus en la República Argentina”

Kiesling, Roberto (1978) Darwiniana, 21 (2-4): page numbers? “El genero Trichocereus” I: Las especies de la Republic Argentina.” [From Ritter]

Kimnach, Myron (1957) Cactus & Succulent Journal, of America 29: 146. Review of Backeberg’s ‘Descriptiones Cactacearum Novarum I’ (1956)

Kindler, K. (1927) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 265: 389–415. “Über neue und verbesserte Wege zum Aufbau von pharmakologisch wichtigen Aminen. I.”

Kindler, Karl & Wilhem Peschke (1932)a Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 270: 340–353. “Über neue und über verbesserte wege zum Aufbau von pharmakologisch wichtigen Aminen IV. Über synthesen von Tyramin und Epinen.”

Kindler, Karl & Wilhem Peschke (1932)b Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 270: 410–413. “Über neue und über verbesserte wege zum Aufbau von pharmakologisch wichtigen Aminen. VI. über Synthesen des Meskalins”

King, M.E. & I. R. Traylor (eds.) (1974) Art and Environment in Native America. Special Publications, Number 7, The Museum of Texas, Tech Univ.

King, R. Merrill (1957) Cactus and Succulent Journal, of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America. 29 (4): 102–104. “Studies in the Tissue Culture of Cacti.”

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1992) Journal of Natural Products, 55 (7): 953–955. “New Triterpenes from Trichocereus bridgesii.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1995) Journal of Natural Products, 58 (11): 1739–1744. “New Triterpenes From Trichocereus pachanoi.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Takaomi Takizawa, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo, Hiroshi Yuasa & Ken-Ichi Kawai)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1998) Pharmaceutical Biology, 36 (1): 50–57. “Antinociceptive Effect of Triterpenes from Cacti.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Michiko Akiba, Masaaki Saitoh, Yang Ye, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1999) Phytomedicine, 6: 73–77. “Inhibitory effect of some triterpenes from cacti on 32P-incorporation into phospholipids of HeLa cells promoted by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.” (K. Kinoshita, K. Koyama, K. Takahashi & H. Nishino)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (2000) Journal of Natural Products, 63:701–703. “A new triterpenoid saponin from Isolatocereus dumortieri.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Kircher, Henry W. (1969) Phytochemistry, 8: 1481–1488. “The Distribution of Sterols, Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Senita Cactus, Lophocereus schottii, over its Range in Sonora Mexico.”

Kircher, Henry W. (1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 1078–1080. “Triterpene glycosides and queretaroic acid in organ pipe cactus.“ 

Kircher, Henry W. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2707–2712. “Triterpenes in Organ Pipe Cactus.”

Kircher, Henry W. (1982) “Chemical Composition of Cacti and Its Relationship to Sonoran Desert Drosophilia.” pp. 143–158, in J.S.F. Barker & W.T. Starmer (eds.) Ecological Genetics and Evolution. The Cactus-Yeast-Drosophila Model System. Academic Press. ISBN 0 12 078820 9. 

Kircher, Henry W. & Harold L. Bird, Jr. (1982) Phytochemistry, 21 (7): 1705–1710. “Five 3β,6α-Dihydroxysterols in Organ-Pipe Cactus.”

Kircher, Henry W. & William B. Heed (1970) “Phytochemistry and Host Plant Specificity in Drosophila.” pp. 191-209, in: Cornelius Steelink & V.C. Runeckles (eds.) Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Volume 3.

Kircher, H.W. et al. (1967) Journal of Insect Physiology 13: 1869–1874. “Senita Cactus Alkaloids: Their Significance to Sonoran Desert Drosophila Ecology.” (Henry W. Kircher, William B. Heed, Jean S. Russell and John Grove)

Kirkwood, S. & L. Marion (1950) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72: 2522–2524. “The biogenesis of alkaloids. I. The isolation of N-methyltyramine from barley.”

Kissinger, P.T. (1977) Anal. Chem. 49: 447A-456A. “Amperometric and coulometric detectors for high-performance liquid chromatography.” 

Klein, M.T. et al. (2013)a “Mescaline Concentrations in Different Organs of Lophophora Williamsii: Implications for Cultural Use and Conservation.” Paper presented to meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, (Molly T. Klein, M.A. Kalam, N. Fowler & M. Terry)

Klein, Molly T. (2013)b “Mescaline Concentrations in Different Organs of Lophophora Williamsii: Implications for Cultural Use and Conservation.” Thesis. Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas.

Klein, Molly T. (2015) Haseltonia, 20: 34–42. “Mescaline concentrations in three principal tissues of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae): Implications for sustainable harvesting practices.” (Molly T. Klein, M. Kalam, Keeper Trout, Norma Fowler & Martin Terry) [~4 Mb — http://www.cactusconservation.org/CCI/library/pdf/Klein_et_al_2015_Haseltonia_20_34-42.pdf]

Kloesel, Lawson (1958) American Journal of Pharmacy” 130: 307–316. “Some Notes On Peyote” [From Anderson 1980]

Klüver, Heinrich (1926) American Journal of Psychology, 37 (4): 502–515. “Mescal Visions and Eidetic Visions.”

Klüver, Heinrich (1928)a Mescal, and Mechanisms of Hallucinations. [reprinted 1966 University of Chicago Press.] 

Klüver, Heinrich (1928)b Mescal, The “Divine” Plant and its Psychological Effects. London. 

Klüver, Heinrich (1942) “Mechanisms of Hallucinations.” pp. 175–207 in Studies in Personality: Essays in Honor of Lewis M. Terman. NewYork: McGraw-Hill. 

Klüver, Heinrich (1966) Mescal and Mechanisms of Hallucination. Phoenix Books: University of Chicago Press 108 pages. 

Knabe (1959) Arch. Pharm. 292: 652. 

Knize, Karel (nd) Index to Field #s of Collected Specimens 1967–1977 

Knoll, Max (1958) Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 17: 110–126. “Anregung geometrischer Figuren und anderen subjektiver Lichtmuster in elektrischen Feldern.” 

Knoll, Max (1967) Eranos Jahrbuch, 1965. 34: 361–397 + 27 pages of illustrations. “Die Welt der Inneren Lichterscheinungen.” [“The World of Inner Light Sensations.”] [Eranos-Jahrbuch 1965. Form als Aufgabe des Geistes ©1967. Publ. Rhein-Verlag Zürich 1966] [See also his contained references.]

Knoll, Max & Kügler, J. (1959) Nature, (London) 184: 1823–1824. “Subjective Light Pattern Spectroscopy in the Electroencephalic Range.”

Knoll, Max et al. (1963) Confina Neurologica, 23 (3): 201-226. “Effects of Chemical Stimulation of Electrically-Induced Phosphenes on Their Bandwidth, Shape, Number and Intensity.” (M. Knoll, J. Kugler, O. Höfer & S.D. Lawder)

Knoll, Max et al. (1962) Elektromedizin, 7 (4): 235–242. “Reproductionbarkeit von elektrisch angeregten Lichterscheinungen (Phosphene) bei zwei Versuchspersonen innerhalb von 6 Monaten.” (Max Knoll, O. Hofer, D. Lawder & J.M. Lawder)

Knoll, Max et al. (1962) Journal of Analytic Psychology, 7: 55–69. “Note on the Spectroscopy of Subjective Light Patterns.” (Max Knoll, J. Kügler, J. Echmier & O. Hofer)

Knorr et al. (1969) (in the literature) meant Korr et al. 1969

Knox, Michael J. & W. Dennis Clark (1986) Biochemical Systematics & Ecology, 14: 25–27. “Population Variation in β-Phenethylamines from Mammillaria microcarpa.”

Knox, MJ et al. (1983) Journal of Chromatography, 265: 357–362. “Quantitative analysis of β-phenethylamines in two Mammillaria species (Cactaceae)” (M.J. Knox, W.D. Clark & S.O. Link)

Köhres, Gerhard (not dated) Eine Studie über das Blüh- und Fortpflanzungsverhalten der Gattung Lophophora.

Koessler, Karl K. & Milton T. Hanke (1919) The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 39: 585–592. “Studies on Proteinogenous Amines. V. The Preparation of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine hydrochloride (Tyramine hydrochloride)”

Kondo & Shinozaki (1929) J. Pharmac. Soc. Japan, 49: 267–269. “Preparation of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine”

Kopin, I.J. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 137: 34–40. “Fate of Norepinephrine-H3 in the Isolated Perfused Rat Heart” (Irwin J. Kopin, Georg Hertting and Edna K. Gordon) see also (1962) Fed. Proc. 21: 332. [Ed. Note: this should be written 3H.]

Korr, H. et al. (1969) Psychopharmacologia, 16: 183–200. “Autoradiographische Untersuchungen zur Verteilung von Mescalin und dessen Einfluß auf die zentrale Erregung bei Mäusen.” (H. Korr, E. Lehr, N. Seiler & G. Werner)

Kovács, Ödön & Gábor Fodor (1951) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 84 (9): 795–801. “Beitrag zur Synthese der Tetrahydroisochinolin-Alkaloide unter physiologischen Bedingungen”

Kovacsics, G.B. & J.K. Saelens (1968) Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 174 (2): 481–490. “Measurement of the levels and turnover of norepinephrine in discrete areas of rat brain using an enzymatic assay.”

Koyama, K. et al. (1993) Journal of Natural Products, 56 (12): 2201–2203. “New triterpenes from cactaceous plants.” (Kiyotaka Koyama, Toshiyuki Yama, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa) 

Krainz, Hans (various) Die Kakteen. (These are serial folios rather than a bound book.)

(1962) 1. IV. CVa “Trichocereus thelegonus (Weber) Britton & Rose.”

(1964) 1. III. CVIIIb “Gattung Lophophora

(1975) 1. X. CVIIIb Lophophora Williamsii (Lemaire ex Salm-Dyck) Coulter var. williamsii

(1975) 15. I. CVa “Trichocereus macrogonus (Salm-Dyck) Riccobono”

Kramer, S.Z. et al. (1965) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 24: 390. [Abstract; entry 1450] “Catatonic Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity in Chicks as Influenced by some Catecholamines and their Metabolites.” (Stanley Z. Kramer, Eli Seifter & Joseph Seifter)

Krapf, E.E. (1951) Neurobiologia (Recifa, Brazil), 14: 99–108. “Experimentos com venènos embriagadores: seu valor para a patopsicologia y a clinica psiquiatrica.”

Kratzel, K. & H. Silbernagel (1955) Mitteilungen der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaft fuer Holzforschung, 7: 71–78. [1956 CA 50: 6040f-g] [“Concerning the effect of thermal treatment of beechwood and beech lignin.”]

Krause, Alfred (1933) Kakteenkunde. issue 1, facing page 20. “Geschäftliche Pikieren von Kakteensämlingen.”

Kreuzinger, Kurt G. (1935) Verzeichnis amerikanischer und anderer Sukkulenten mit Revision der Systematik der Kakteen. Eger, Czechoslovakia. 9 : Lophophora jourdaniana Kreuzinger syn. violaciflora. Grym 1997 gives as “Verzeichnis 9”.

Krieger (1956) Ph.D. Dissertation, Karlsruhe.

Kringstad, Randi & Arnold Nordal (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 1868–1870. “Lactone-Forming Acids in Succulent Plants.”

Krochmal, Arnold & Connie Krochmal (1973) A guide to the medicinal plants of the United States. Quadrangle/The N.Y. Times Book Co. 256 pages.

Kruger, T.L. et al. (1977) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 42: 4161–4162. “Identification of alkaloids in crude extracts by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry.” (T.L. Kruger, R.G. Cooks, J.L. McLaughlin & R.L. Ranieri)

Kryz, K.-H. (1919) Z. Unters. Nahr.-Genussm. Gebranchsgegenstaende, 38: 364–365. [From Piattelli 1981]

Kryz, K.-H. (1920) Oesterr. Chem.-Ztg. 23: 55–56. [From Piattelli 1981]

Kubota, Seiju et al. (1966) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 31: 516–520. “The structure and total synthesis of takatonine.”

Kuck, A.M. et al. (1966) Chem. Ind. 945–946. 

Kuck, A.M. et al. (1967) J. Chem. Soc. 1327–1328. (also as Kuck & Delefeu 1967). This is a screwy miscitation in the literature. It should be Albónico et al. 1967.

Kugler, F. et al. (2006) Journal of Agricuture & Food Chemistry, 54: 4311–4318. “Determination of Free Amino Compounds in Betalainic Fruits and Vegetables by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization and Mass Spectrometric Detection.” (F. Kugler, St. Graneis, P.P.-Y. Schreiter, F.C. Stintzing & R. Carle)

Kugler F. (2007) Z Naturforsch C, 62 (5-6): 311–318. “Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae.” (F. Kugler, S. Graneis, F.C. Stintzing, & R. Carle)

Kulshreshtha, M.J. et al. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 2369–2381. “The Triterpenoids.” (M. Jyoti Kulshreshtha, D.K. Kulshreshtha & R.P. Rastogi)

Kulz & Horning, Ger. pat. 682,394 (1939), Chem. Zentr. 1940, I, 1078, [CA (1942) 36: 3011]

Kunitomo, Jun-ichi (1962) Yakugaku Zasshi, 82: 611–613. “Studies on the Alkaloids of Rutaceous plants. XVII. Alkaloids of Phellodendron amurense Rupr” [CA 57: 4760d] 

Kurath, Gertrude (1953) American Anthropologist, 55: 113 Review of: Cantos indigenas de Mexico, by Concha Michel (Mexico, D.F.; 1951)

Kurland, A.A. et al. (1966) “Psychedelic Psychotherapy (LSD) in the Treatment of Alcoholism.” pp. 435–440. in: Brill et al. (eds.) Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psycho-Pharmacologicum. [A.A. Kurland, J.W. Shaffer & S. Unger] 

Kuti, Joseph O. (2004) Food Chemistry, 85: 527–533. “Antioxidant compounds from four Opuntia cactus pear fruit varieties.”

Kvist, Lars Peter & Mónica Moraes R. (2006) “Plantas psicoactivas.” pp. 294–312 in Botánica Económica de los Andes Centrales. (Editors.: M. Moraes R., B. Øllgaard, L. P. Kvist, F. Borchsenius & H. Balslev) Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz. They cite Vivanco Hidalgo 2001 which cites Vivanco Hidalgo 2000. 

LaBarre, Weston (1938) The Peyote Cult, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. [The 2nd edition was published in 1964 by Shoe String Press; 260 pp. The enlarged 3rd edition was published in 1969. The revised “Fourth edition, enlarged”, was published in 1975 by Archon Books, Hamden, CT; 296 pp, The revised 5th edition, enlarged yet again, was published in 1989 by the University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0-8061-2214-5; 352 pp.]

LaBarre, Weston (1957)a American Anthropologist, 59: 359. Book Review of The Peyote Religion by J.S. Slotkin. 

LaBarre, Weston (1957)b American Anthropologist, 59: 708–711. “Mescalism and Peyotism.”

LaBarre, Weston (1960) Current Anthropology 1: 45–60. “Twenty Years of Peyote Studies.”

LaBarre, Weston (1964) The Peyote Cult Second Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1969) The Peyote Cult Third Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1975) The Peyote Cult Fourth Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1979)a Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 11 (1-2): 7–11. “Shamanic Origins of Religion and Medicine” 

LaBarre, Weston (1979)b Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 11 (1-2): 33–39, “Peyotl and Mescaline.” 

LaBarre, Weston (1981) “Peyotegebrauch bei noramerikanischen Indianern” in G. Völger (ed.) Rausch und Realität Volume 2. Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum: Köln.

LaBarre, Weston (1989) The Peyote Cult Fifth Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1990) The Ghost Dance. Origins of religion. Waveland Press ISBN 0-88133-561-4 (First published in 1970) 677 pages. Also printed in 1972

Labouret, J. (1853) Monographie de la Famille des Cactées comprenant la synonymie, les diverses méthodes de classification proposées jusqu’à ce jour pour sa division en genres et sous-genres, et quelques notes sur la germination et la physiologie; Suivie d’un Traité Complet de Culture et d’une table alphabétique des espèces et variétés. Paris, Dusacq, Librairie Agricole de la Maison Rustique. XLVII + 682 pp ILLS has been unable to obtain this work

Labouret, J. (1855) Horticole. Journal d’Horticulture Pratique. IV. 4: 24–28. Paris; Dusaq, Librairie Agricole de la Maison Rustique. [Britton & Rose gives as Revue Horticole] pp. 25–26 is Cereus tetracanthus.

Laing, R.O. (1979) Central African Journal of Medicine, 25: 265–266. “Three cases of poisoning by Boophane disticha.” [From DeSmet 1996]

LaManna et al. (1960) Farmaco Ed. Sci. 15: 9 

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1969) Pocket Encyclopedia of Cacti in Colour. Including other succulents. Blandford Press: Dorset ISBN 0 7137 0506X

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1971) The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and Other Succulents. Volume 3. [First edition in 1963] Blandford Press: Poole/Dorset ISBN 07137 0009 2.

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1973)a The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and other Succulents. Volume 1. [First edition 1955] Blandford Press: London. No ISBN.

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1973)b The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and other Succulents. Volume 2. [First edition 1959] Blandford Press: London.

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1974) Colorful Cacti of the American Deserts. Macmillan Publ. Co: New York [Also 1974 by Blandford] ISBN 0-02-567670-9

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1978) The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and Other Succulents. Volume 5. Blandford Press: Dorset. ISBN 0 7137 0852 2

Lambert et al. (1975) Org. Mag. Reson. 72: 66.

Lame Deer & Richard Erdoes (1979) Tahca Ishte – Medizinmann der Sioux. List: Munich.

Landes (1963) Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 593–596.

Lang, M. et al. (2012) Science, 337 (6102): 1658-1661. “Mutations in the Neverland Gene Turned Drosophila pachea into an Obligate Specialist Species.” (Michael Lang, Sophie Murat, Andrew G. Clark, Géraldine Gouppil,
Catherine Blais, Luciano M. Matzkin, Émilie Guittard, Takuji
Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, Hiroshi Kataoka, Ryusuke Niwa, René Lafont, Chantal Dauphin-Villemant & Virginie Orgogozo)

Langer, S. Z. (1970) Journal of Physiology (London), 208: 515–546. “The metabolism of 3H-noradrenaline released by electrical stimulation from the isolated nictitating membrane of the cat and from the vas deferens of the rat.”

Landis, C. and Clausen, J. (1954) Journal of Psychology, 38: 211-221. “Certain effects of mescaline and lysergic acid on psychological functions.”

Lanternari, Vittoria (1974) (1960) “Il Peyotismo” pp. 67–111 in V. Lanternari Movimenti religiosi di libertà e di salvezza dei popoli oppressi. Feltrinelli: Milano.

Las Casas (1909) Apol. Hist. de las Indias, Chap. 166, pp. 445–446, ed. Serrano y Saenz, Madrid. 1909 (from Safford 1916)

Lastres, Juan B. (1951) História de la Medicina Peruana. Vol. 1. La Medicina Incáica. (Lima) (From several Dobkin de Rios articles including 1968 Economic Botany,)

Lebeau, P. & M.M. Janot (1955) Traité de pharmacie chimique. Paris 1955. Vol 4, p. 3135.

Lee, E.B. et al. (2002) Arch. Pharm. Res. 25 (2002) 67–70. “Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten stem on gastric damages in rats.” (E.B. Lee, J.E. Hyun, D.W. Li & Y.I. Moon)

Lee, E.H. et al. (2003) Archives of Pharmacal Research, 26 (10): 1018–1023. “Constituents of the Stems and Fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.” (Eun Ha Lee, Hyoung Ja Kim, Yun Seon Song, Changbae Jin, Kyung-Tae Lee, Jungsook Cho & Yong Sup Lee)

Lee & McLaughlin 1975 in the literature refers to Lee et al. 1975.

Lee et al. 1974 in the literature refers to Lee et al. 1975.

Lee, Martin A. & Bruce Shlain (1985) Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove Press.

Lee, N.H. et al. (2000) Kor. J. Pharmacogn. 31 (2000) 412–415. “Screening of the radical scavenging effects, tyrosinase inhibition, and anti-allergic activities using Opuntia ficus-indica.” (N.H. Lee, J.-S. Yoon, B.H. Lee, B.W. Choi & K.H. Park)

Lee, T.M. et al. (1975) Lloydia, 38 (3): 366–367. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXVI. Tyramine from Azureocereus ayacuchensis” (T.M. Lee, J.L. McLaughlin & W.H. Earle) 

Leete, Edward (1959) Chemistry and Industry, (London) 1959: 604. “Biogenesis of Mescaline.”

Leete, Edward (1966) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 88 (18): 4218–4221. “Biosynthesis of the Peyote Alkaloids. The Incorporation of Tyrosine 2-C14 into Mescaline and Anhalonidine.” [Note: this should be written 14C.]

Leete, Edward & J.D. Braunstein (1969) Tetrahedron Letters, 6: 451–452. “Biosynthesis of Anhalonidine: Origin of the Two Carbon Unit.”

Legler (1906)a Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 35 (3): 868.

Legler (1906)b Compt. Rend. 142: 108. 

Legler (1906)c Compt. Rend. 143: 234, 916.

Legler (1907)a Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1 (4): 148 

Legler (1907)b Compt. Rend. 144: 488.

Lehmann, Arthur C. & Louis J. Mihalyi (1982) Ethnology 21 (4): 335–347. “Aggression, Bravery, Endurance, and Drugs: A Radical Re-evaluation and Analysis of the Masai Warrior Complex.”

Lemaire, Charles A. (1838) Cactearum aliquot novarum ac insuetarum in horto monvilliano cultarum accurata descritio, Fasc. I. Lutetiae Parisiorum

Lemaire, Charles (1839) Cactearum Genera Nova ett Species Nova en Horto Monville. Paris 

Lemaire, Charles (1866) Iconographie des Cacteés. Paris 

Lemmo (1977) High Times, (June, No. 22): 76-?. “Psychedelic Cacti.” (page numbers are not on the last pages.)

Leninger, Albert L. (1975) Biochemistry Second Edition. Worth Publ., New York. ISBN 0-87901-047-9.

Leon et al. (1969) J. Clin. Pharm. 9: 399. [A.S. Leon, W.B. Abrams, M. Markowitz & E.C. Meisner]

Leonard, B.E. & Sally R. Tonge (1969) Life Sciences, 8, pt. 1 (15): 815–825. “The Effects of Some Hallucinogenic Drugs Upon the Metabolism of Noradrenaline.”

Leonard, Irving A. (1942) American Anthropologist, 44: 324–326. “Peyote and the Mexican Inquisition.” [Stewart gives the original as “AGN, Inquisición: 333.35: 1620. Edicto impresso del Santo Oficio contra el uso del peyote, p. 1. Mexico City. (In Aguirre Beltrán, 1963: 371.)]

Leroy, A. (1896) Bull. de la Soc. d’Acclimatation, 43: 181-?. “Emploi des fleurs du Figuier de Barbarie contre la dysenterie.” (from Hobschette 1929 & also Soulaire)

Lesèche, B. et al. (1981) Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 18: 143–153. “Study of oxidation of 6,7-dimetoxy-tetrahydroisoquinolin-4-ol or 7,8-dimethoxyl-tetrahydroisoquinoloin-4-ol and reactivity of 6,7-dimethoxy-tetrahydroisoquinol-4-one carbonyl.” (B. Lesèche, J. Gilbert & C. Viel)

Leuba, James H. (1960) La psicologia del misticismo religioso. Feltrinelli: Milano.

Leuenberger, Beat Ernst (1995) Englera, 16: 13–24. “Biographical Notes on Friedrich Ritter (1898 – 1989).”

Levine, Michael (1994) The Big White Lie: The deep cover operation that exposed the CIA sabotage of the drug war. 

Levis, D.J. & Caldwell, D.F. (1971) Biol Psychiatr. 3: 251-257. “The effects of a low dosage of mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine under two levels of aversive stimulation”

Levy, B. et al. (1971) Drill’s Pharmacology 4th edition 

Lewin, Louis (1888)a Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fur Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 24: 401–411. “XXVII. Ueber Anhalonium Lewinii.” [see also Lewin 1894a & 1894b] 

Lewin, Louis (1888)b Therapeutic Gazette, 3rd. Ser., 4: 231-237. “Anhalonium Lewinii

Lewin, Louis (1894)a Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fur Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 34: 374–391. “Ueber Anhalonium Lewinii 

Lewin, Louis (1894)b Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 12: 283–290 “Ueber Anhalonium Lewinii und andere giftige Cacteen.” [Anhalonium jourdanianum p. 289]

Lewin, Louis (1931) Phantastica. Dutton, New York. [First published (in German) in 1924 Stilkee: Berlin. Reprinted (in English) in 1964 by E.P. Dutton, New York.]

Lewin, Louis (1937) Kakteenkunde, 5: 190 [Lophophora jourdaniana Lewin] [from Grym 1997]

Lewin, Roger (1991) New Scientist, 130 (1772): 30–34. “Stone Age Psychedelia.”

Lewis, S.-T. & F. Ludueña (1933)a C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées, 114: 814–816, (1933)b Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol. 9: 352–364. “Sur l’action de l’extrait de Trichocereus candicans (Britton et Rose) et de ses principes actifs, l’hordenine ou anhaline et les sels de p-oxyphénylyéthylméthylammonium, sur la sécrétion d’adrénaline” 

Lewis, S.-T. & F. Ludueña (1934) C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées, 116: 1085., (1934) Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 10: 105–110. “Action de l’atropine sur la sécrétion d’adrénaline produite par l’excitation du nerf splanchnique, la nicotine et les ammoniums quaternaires”

Lewis-Williams, J. David (1981) Believing and Seeing: Symbolic meanings in southern San rock paintings. Academic Press: London. ISBN 0-12-447060-2.

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1988) Current Anthropology, 29 (2): 201-245 “The Signs of All Times. Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art.”

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1989) Images of Power. Southern Book Publishers: Johannesburg.

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1992) Rock Paintings of the Natal Drakensberg. South Africa University of Natal Press: Pietermaritzburg.

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1993) Current Anthropology, 34 (1): 55–65 “On Vision and Power in the Neolithic: Evidence from the Decorated Monuments.”

Lewis, Joyce L. & H. McIlwain (1954) Biochemical Journal, 57 (4): 680–684. “Action of some ergot derivatives, mescaline and dibenamine on the metabolism of separated mammalian cerebral tissues.”

Li, Shih-chen (1973) Chinese medicinal herbs. Georgetown Press, San Francisco.

Life Enhancement (1997) 34:18–23. A sane discussion of GHB and the maliciously deceptive insanity the FDA/DEA is currently directing towards it for self-serving purposes. [See also the book by Dean]

Lindgren et al. 1976 in the literature meant Lindgren & Bruhn 1976

Lindgren, J.-E. et al. (1971) FEBS Letters, 13 (1): 21-27. “Detection of Biochemical Intermediates by Mass Fragmentography: Mescaline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Precursors.” (J.E. Lindgren, S. Agurell, J. Lundström & U. Svensson) 

Lindgren, Jan-Erik & Jan G. Bruhn (1976) Lloydia, 39 (6): 464–466. “Mass fragmentographic identification of O-
methylcorypalline in Pilocereus guerreronis

Ling, J.S.L. et al. (1958) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 122: 44A (pharmacol)

List, P.H. (1958) Archiv der Pharmazie, (Weinheim, Ger.) 291: 502–513. “Basische Pilzinhaltstoffe. 2. Mitteilung. Biogene Amine und Aminosäuren des Schopftintlngs, Coprinus comatus Gray”

Little, M.D. et al. (1968) Anat. Rec. 160: 385–386. “Limb tremors produced in rats by intrastriatal injection of mescaline or 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine”

Liu, Q. et al. (1995) Arch Biochem Biophys., 321 (2): 397–404.”Enzymes of B-ring-deoxy flavonoid biosynthesis in elicited cell cultures of “old man” cactus (Cephalocereus senilis).” (Q. Liu, M.S. Bonness, M. Liu, E. Seradge, R.A. Dixon & T.J. Mabry)

Livanov, M.N. & Poliakiv, K.L. (1945) Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 3: 286–307. “Electrical processes in the rabbit’s cortex during the development of conditioned response to rhythmic stimulation.”

Livshits (1937) Soviet Medicine, 6: 42.

Lloyd, John Uri (1895) Etidorpha, or the End of Earth. (Republished in 1976 by Sunn: Albuquerque, NM and, again, in 1978 by Pocket Books: NewYork.)

Lloyd Brothers (1903, 1908) Drug Treatise, Number II. “A Treatise on Cactus Grandiflorus.  Cactus Grandiflorus (Cereus Grandiflorus — Cactus)” (Lloyd Brothers, Cincinnati)

Loewe (1954) Arzneimittel Forschung 4: 583.

Loizaga Pazzi, Armando (2010) “Peyote y salud mental.” paper from 2010 Congreso Internacional de medicina traditcional y salud pública. “El peyote, medicina tradicional o droga lúdica” 20–23 October, Toluca, México.

Lowenstein, Thomas K. (2001) The American Prospect. pp 33–36. “Collateral Damage.”

Lucchi, L. et al (1981) Brain Research, 232: 506–510. “Action of ethanol and salsolinol on opiate receptor function.” (L. Lucchi, A. Bosio, P. F. Spano & M. Trabucchi)

Ludueña, F.-P. (1933)a C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 114: 809–811; (1933) Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 9: 335–343. “Action pharmacodynamique d’un extrait de Trichocereus candicans (Britton et Rose)”

Ludueña, F.-P. (1933)b C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 114: 950–951; 1933 Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 9: 457–460. “Effet de la cocaine sur l’action de l’extrait de Trichocereus candicans et de ses principes actifs sur l’excitabilité du nerf splanchnique”

Ludueña, F.-P. (1933)c C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 114: 951–953; (1933) Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 9: 453–456. “Effet du sulfate de spartéine sur l’action de l’extrait de Trichocereus candicans et de ses principes actifs sur l’excitabilité du nerf splanchnique”

Ludueña, F.-P. (1934) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées (Sociéte de Biologie de Rosario 1934) “La naturaleza química y la accíon farmacodinámica de los alcaloides del Trichocereus candicans.”

Luduena, F.-P. (1936) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées (Sociéte de Biologie de Rosario 1935) 121: 368–369. “Pharmacologie de la Trichocéréine. Alcaloïde du Trichocereus terschecki (Parm.) Britton et Rose.”

Ludwig, Arnold M. & Jerome Levine (1966) Clinical Medicine, 73: 21-24. “The clinical effects of psychedelic agents.” 

Lum, P.W.L. & P. Lebish (1974) Journal of the Forensic Sciences Society, 14: 6369. “Identification of peyote via major nonphenolic peyote alkaloids.” [From El-Seedi 2006)

Lumholtz, Carl (1902) Unknown Mexico: Explorations in the Sierra Madre and Other Regions, 1890–1898, Volume 1. Charles Scribner & Sons: New York. Reprinted by Dover Publications 1987: ISBN 0486253643, 9780486253640. Reprinted by Dodo Press in 2008. 

Lumholtz, Carl (1989) A Nation of Shamans: The Huichols of the Sierra Madre. Bruce I. Finson: Oakland. [The Shamanic Library No. 1: Reprint of Symbolism of the Huichols.]

Luna, Luis Eduardo (1984)b Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 11 (2): 135–156. “The Concept of Plants as Teachers Among Four Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeastern Peru.”

Luna, Luis Eduardo (1992) “Icaros. Magic Melodies Among the Mestizo Shamans of the Peruvian Amazon.” pp. 231-253 (Chapter 10) in: E. Jean Matteson Langdon and Gerhard Baer (eds.) (1992) Portals of Power. Shamanism in South America. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1992

Luna, Luis Eduardo (ed.) (199?) “Music the Plants Taught Us.” (Audio tape of ayahuasca icaros; offered through many sources including the Basement Shaman.)

Lundström, Jan (1970) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 7 (6): 651–666. “Biosynthesis of mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine in Trichocereus pachanoi Br. and R.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1971)a Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 25 (9): 3489–3499. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids in Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult. Occurrence and biosynthesis of catecholamines and other intermediates.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1971)b Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 8 (3): 275–302. “Biosynthetic studies on mescaline and related cactus alkaloids.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1971)c Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 8 (5): 485–496 “Biosynthesis of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1972) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 26 (3): 1295–1297. “Identification of New Peyote Alkaloids; Isomers of the Main Phenolic Tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (Isolation of isoanhalamine, isoanhalidine, isoanhalonidine, iso pellotine.) (not biosynthetic study per se but does offer some supportive evidence.)

Lundström, Jan G. (1983) “Simple Isoquinoline Alkaloids.” pp. 255–327 (Chapter 6) in: Arnold Brossi (ed.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Pharmacology. Volume 21. Academic Press.

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1967) Journal of Chromatography, 30: 271-272. “Thin-layer chromatography of the peyote alkaloids”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1968)a Journal of Chromatography, 36 (1): 105–108. “Gas chromatography of peyote alkaloids. A new peyote alkaloid” [First report of DMPEA as a trace alkaloid in peyote] 

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1968)b Tetrahedron Letters, 42: 4437–4440. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and Anhalamine in Peyote. II.”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1969) Tetrahedron Letters, 39: 3371–3374. “A Complete Biosynthetic Sequence From Tyrosine To Mescaline in Two Cactus Species.”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1971) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 8 (3): 261-274. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids in Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult.”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1972) “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and other Peyote Alkaloids.” pp. 89–94. in: Mothes et al. (eds.) 4. Internationales Symposium. Biochemie und Physiologie der Alkaloide. Halle (Saale), 25. bis 28. Juni 1969 Akademie-Verlag; Berlin 1972 (Kurt Mothes, Klaus Schreiber & Horst Robert Schütter (eds.)

Lüthy, Jonas M. (1995) Taxonomische Untersuchung der Gattung Mammillaria Haw. (Cactaceae). Arbeitskreis für Mammillarienfreunde und J. Lüthy: Bern. [From Rätsch 1998]

Lycaeum website [www.lycaeum.org] 

Lyttle, Thomas (1997) Psychedelic Monographs & Essays. Volume 2. Summer 1997.

Lyttle, Thomas & Elmer Smith (1990) “Neurostructuralism and Hallucination.” in Psychedelic Monographs and Essays Volume 5, page 43–61.

Ma, W.W, Jiang, X.Y, Cooks, R.G, McLaughlin, J.L, Zeylemaker, F. and Ostolaza, C.N. (1986) Abstract 27th Annual Meeting American Society of Pharmacognosy July 27–30 Ann Arbor MI: Abstr.-52. [Same data as Ma et al. 1986?]

Ma, W.W. et al. (1986) Journal of Natural Products, 49 (4): 735–737. “Cactus Alkaloids LXI. Identification of mescaline and related compounds in eight additional species using tlc and mass-spectrometry/mass spectrometry.” (W.W. Ma, X.Y. Jiang, R.G. Cooks, J.L. McLaughlin, A.C. Gibson, F. Zeylemaker & C.N. Ostolaza)

Maas, J.W. & D.H. Landis (1968) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 163 (1): 147–162. “In vivo studies of the metabolism of norepinephrine in the central nervous system. “

Maass, W. (1905) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde. Zeitschrift der Liebhaber von Kakteen und anderen Fettpflanzen. 50: 117–122. “Die Jahres-Hautversammlung 1905.” [Page 119 merely mentions the name Cereus bridgesii longispinus.] [Also given as publication of Echinocactus jourdanianus (Rebut) Rebut ex Maass] Page 122 mentions Rebut’s name Echinocactus jourdanianus.

Mabry, T.J. et al. (1963) Phytochemistry, 2: 61–64. “The Betacyanins and Their Distribution.” (Tom J. Mabry, Ann Taylor & Billy L. Turner)

MacDougall & Miranda. RE: Pterocereus (?) gaumeri MacDougall & Miranda given as a provisional name; See Miranda 1954

MacDougall, Thomas & Helia Bravo (1956) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 1 (4): 64–67. “Pachycereus tehuantepecanus T. MacDougall et H. Bravo H., sp. nov.”

Mack, J.P.G. and Michael Slaytor (1979) Phytochemistry, 18:1921–1925. “Indolethylamine N-Methyltransferases of Phalaris tuberosa, Purification and Properties.”

Maclay, W.S. & E. Guttman (1941) Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 45: 130–137. “Mescaline hallucinations in artists.”

Madsen, Jens (1989) “5. Echinopsis Zucc.”, pages 27–30 of “45. Cactaceae.”; in Gunnar Harling & Lennart Andersson (eds.) Flora of Ecuador, No. 35.

Maffii, G. & E. Soncin (1958) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 10: 541–552. “Stereotyped Response Induced by Mescaline In Mice as a Means of Investigating the Properties of Drugs Acting on the CNS.”

Maggendorfer, F. (1928) Handbuch der Geistekranken. Vol. 7: 159, 162, 355–356. “Intoxikationspsychosen”

Magos, G.A. et al. (1999) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 64 (1): 35–44. “Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis IV. Hypotensive effects of compounds isolated from methanolic extracts in rats and guinea pigs.” (G.A. Magos, H. Vidrio, W.F. Reynolds & R.G. Enríquez)

Maickel, R.P., Cox, R.W., Jr., Saillant, J. and Miller, F.P. (1968) Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 7: 275–281.

Major, R.T. & F. Dürsch (1958) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 23: 1564–1565. “Na,Na-Dimethylhistamine, a hypotensive principle in Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex.”

Malainine, M.E. et al. (2003) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 58c, 812–816. “First Evidence for the Presence of Weddellite Crystallites in Opuntia ficus indica Parenchyma.” (Mohamed E. Malainine, Alain Dufresne, Danielle Dupeyre, Michel R. Vignon & Mostafa Mahrouz)

Malitz, S. et al. (1960) Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1 (1): 8–17. “Some observations on Psilocybin, a New Hallucinogen in Volunteer Subjects.” (Sidney Malitz, Harold Esecover, Bernard Wilkens & Paul H. Hoch)

Malmejac (1964) Physiol. Rev. 44: 186.

Mandalari, G. et al. (2009) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 57 (21): 10323–10330. “Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].” (G. Ginestra, M.L. Parker, R.N. Bennett, J. Robertson, G. Mandalari, A. Narbad, R.B. Lo Curto, G. Bisignano, C.B. Faulds & K.W. Waldron)

Mandava,N.B. et al. (1981) Journal of Natural Products, 44 (1): 94–100. “Inhibition of Plant Growth by Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines” (N.B. Mandava, J.F. Worley and G.J. Kapadia)

Manger et al. (1969) Clin. Chem. 15: 1101. (W.M. Manger, O.S. Steinsland, G.G. Nahas, K.G. Wakim and S. Dufton]

Manna & Campiglo (1959) Farmaco Ed. Sci. 14: 317.

Manna & Ghislandi (1964) Farmaco Ed. Sci. 19: 377.

Manske (1937) Can J. Res. Sect. B. 15: 159

Manske, Richard Helmut Fred (1954) in RHF Manske (ed.) The Alkaloids Vol. IV pp. 8–14.

MAPS [Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies] 2105 Robinson Avenue / Sarasota, Florida 34232

Margadarsi 1998 & 2000 (personal communication)

Marinesco, G. (1931) Presse Médicale, 40: 743–744. “A propos de l’audition colorée.”

Marinesco, G. (1933)a Presse Médicale, 41: 1433–1437. “Recherches sur l’action de la mescaline.”

Marinesco, G. (1933)b Presse Médicale, 92: 1864–1866. “Visions colorées produites par la mescaline.”

Marini-Bettòlo, G.B. & Juan A. Coch Frugoni (1956) Gazzeta Chimica Italiana, 86: 1324–1331. “Influenza del pH nella separazione elettroforetica su carta degli alcaloidi.” [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [Also 1958 CA 52: 653c] [From paper presented to the XV Congresso di Chimica Pura e Applicata – Lisbona, 8–16 settembre, 1956]

Marini-Bettòlo, G.B. & Juan A. Coch Frugoni (1958)a Rendiconti. Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 21: 319–327 [cf. CA 49, 1280e] “Influenza del pH nella separazione elettroforetica su carta degli alcaloidi.” [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [CA (1959) 53: 1633] [From paper presented to the XV Congresso di Chimica Pura e Applicata – Lisbona, 8–16 settembre, 1956]

Marini-Bettòlo, G.B. & Juan A. Coch Frugoni (1958)b Journal of Chromatography, 1: 182–185. “Portable Apparatus for Paper Electrophoresis. Its application to preliminary analysis of curarizing alkaloids in plants and curares.”

Märki, F. et al. (1962) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 58: 367. (F. Märki, J. Axelrod and B. Witkop) [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Marnell, Tim (ed) (1997) Drug Identification Bible Third edition. DIB: Denver. ISBN 0-9635626-2-2

Marona-Lewicka D & D.E. Nichols (2007) Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 87 (4): 453–461. “Further evidence that the delayed temporal dopaminergic effects of LSD are mediated by a mechanism different than the first temporal phase of action.”

Marrazzi, Amadeo S. & E. Ross Hart (1953) Progress in Neurology & Psychology, 8: 69–88. “Mescaline- Pharmacology of the nervous system.”

Marrazzi, Amadeo S. & E. Ross Hart (1955a) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 453–457. “The Possible Role of Inhibition at Adrenergic Synapses in the Mechanism of Hallucinogenic and Related Drug Actions.”

Marrazzi, Amadeo S. & E. Ross Hart (1955b) Science, 121 (3141): 365–367. “Relationship of hallucinogens to adrenergic cerebral neurohumors.”

Marriott, Alice & Rachlin, Carol K. (1972) Peyote. Mentor Books: New York & Scarborough, Ontario.

Marriott, Alice & Rachlin, Carol K. (1988) Peyote. La Salamandra: Milano.

Marshall, C.R. (1935) British Journal of Ophthamology, 19: 177–201. “Entopic Phenomena Associated with the Retina.”

Marshall, C.R. (1936–1937) Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, (London), 17: 289–304. “An inquiry into the causes of mescal visions.”

Marshall, W. Taylor & Thor Methron Bock (1977) Cactaceae.

Martin, George C. (1933) Witte Memorial Museum Bulletin, 3. “Archeological explorations of the Shumla caves.”

Martin, George C. (1937) Archaeological Exploration of the Shumla Caves. Report of the George C. Martin Expedition. Southwest Texas Archaeological Society, Witte Memorial Museum, San Antonio.

Martin, Richard J. & Roger G.H. Downer (1989) Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 11: 29–45. “Effects of Potential Inhibititors on N-Acetylation of Octopamine by Tissue Extracts From Malpighian Tubules and Cerebral Ganglia of Periplaneta americana L.”

Martin, Robert J. & Thomas G. Alexander (1968) Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 51 (1): 159–163. “Analytical Procedures Used in FDA Laboratories for the Analysis of Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Martínez, Maximino (1928) Las Plantas Medicinales de Mexico. Mexico. [from Schultes 1937b]

Martínez, Maximino (1959) Plantas Utiles de la Flora
Mexicana
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Martínez, Maximino (1989) Las Plantas Medicinales de
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Martius, Carl Friedrich Phillip [AKA “Carolus Fridericus Philippus De Martius”] (1890) Flora Brasiliensis 4 (2) 201 & fig. 40. “7. Cereus macrogonus.” This problematic article was written by Schumann but both the mistaken origin and floristic errors were attempted to be corrected in Schumann 1898. Sadly only his comments in Flora Brasiliensis were noticed by most later workers.

[The work Flora Brasiliensis involved 65 authors and took 66 years. Martius began editing in 1840. The editing was taken over by August Wilhelm Eichler in 1868 (Martius died at the end of 1868) and then by Ignatz Urban in 1887 (following Eichler’s death). The work was finally completed in 1906. Urban was the current editor when volume 4 was finally pubished in 1890.] Reprinted in 1967 by Verlag von J. Kramer.

Maruyama, M. et al. (1993) Journal of Neural Transmission, 94 (2): 1435–1463. “Naturally-occurring isoquinolines perturb monoamine metabolism in the brain: studied by in vivo microdialysis.” (W. Maruyama, D. Nakahara, P. Dostert, A. Takahashi & M. Naoi)

Marx, M. et al. (1967) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 32: 3150–3155. “Terpenoids. LX. Revised Structures of the Cactus Triterpene Lactones Stellatogenin and Thurberogenin.” (Michael Marx, J. Leclercq, B. Tursch & Carl Djerassi)

Mascher, E. et al. (1966) “Psycholytic Therapy: Statistics and Indications.” pp. 441–444. in: Brill et al. (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psycho-Pharmacologicum.

Mass, J.W. et al. (1980) Psychol. Med. 10: 759

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1980)a Journal of Natural Products, 43 (3): 411–413. “Lemairin, a New Glucoside from the Mexican Cactus, Pachycereus weberi.”

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L McLaughlin (1980)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 69 (1): 94–95. “Cactus alkaloids XLII: 3,4-Dimethoxy-β-phenethylamine and Heliamine from the Mexican Cereoid Backebergia militaris

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L McLaughlin (1980)c Phytochemistry, 19: 673–678. “Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids of the Mexican Columnar Cactus Pachycereus weberi

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1980)d Planta Medica, 38: 180–182. “Cactus Alkaloids. XLV. Tetrahydroisoquinolines from the Mexican Cereoid Pachycereus pringlei.”

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1982) Revista Latinoamericana de Quimica, 12: 95–117. “Cactus Alkaloids. 50. A comprehensive tabular summary.”

Mata & McLaughlin 1976 (in the literature) meant Mata et al. 1972.

Mata & McLaughlin 1976 Lloydia, 39(6):461 in the literature meant Mata et al. 1976a.

Mata, R. et al. (1976)a Lloydia, 39 (6): 461–463. “Cactus
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Mata, R. et al. (1976)b Lloydia, 39 (6): 480 (Proceedings.) “Cactus alkaloids. XXXI. N-methylated tyramines from Trichocereus candicans, T. spachianus and Espostoa huanucensis” (R. Mata, W.H. Earle & J.L. McLaughlin)

Mata et al. 1980 in the literature meant Mata & McLaughlin 1980

Mata, R. et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (5): 1263–1270. “13C NMR Analysis of Some Simple Tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (Rachel Mata, Ching-Jer Chang & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Mátéfi, L. (1952) Confina Neurologica, 12: 146–177. “Mezcalin und Lysergsäure diäthylamid-Rausch: Selbstversuche mit besonderer Berücksichtigung eines Zeichentests.”

Matsutani, H. & T. Shiba (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 1132.

Mauseth, James D. (1983)a Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 55 (4): 171–175. “Introduction to Cactus Anatomy. Part 5. Secretory Cells.”

Mauseth, James D. (1984)a Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 56 (1): 33–37. “Introduction to Cactus Anatomy. Part 7. Epidermis.”

Maxwell, Ross A. (1968) The Big Bend of the Rio Grande. A guide to the rocks, geologic history, and settlers of the area of Big Bend National Park. Guidebook 7. Bureau of Economic Geology. University of Texas at Austin. 138 pages plus a 1966 1:62,500 color-keyed geologic map of the park as an insert. (1979-4th printing./ 1968 first printing)

May, Richard (1980) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 52: 14–18. “Sclerocactus polyancistrus: Its growth, distribution and cultivation, Part II.”

Mayer-Gross, W. (1931) “Ueber Synaesthesien im Meskalinrausch.” in G. Anschütz (ed.) Farbe-Ton-Forschungen vol. 3, Hamburg.

Mayer-Gross, W. (1951) British Medical Journal ,(Vol. 2): 317–321. “Experimental Psychoses and other Abnormalities Produced by Drugs.”

Mayer-Gross, W. & H. Stein (1926) Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde, 89: 112–118. “Veränderte Sinnestätigkeit im Meskalinrausch.”

McAllester, David P. (1949) Peyote Music. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology No. 13.

McAllester, David P. (1952) in J.S. Slotkin’s Menomini Peyotism, (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 42, pt. 4.) pp. 681–700. “Menomini peyote music.”

McAllester, David P. (1954) Enemy way music: A study of social and esthetic values as seen in Navaho music. (Reports of the Rimrock Project, Values Series No. 3, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology.)

McAllister, Gilbert (1954) Cactus and Succulent Journal, (26): 146–147. “Peyote at Shafter, Texas, in the Big Bend.”

McAnalley, B.W. et al. (1988) Paper presented at the IV International Conference on AIDS (Stockholm, Sweden, June, 1988). “Demonstration of in-vitro antiviral action of Acemannan against multiple viruses including the HIV virus.”

McCall, R.B. (1982) Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 6(4): 509–514. “Neurophysiological effects of hallucinogens on serotonergic neuronal systems.”

McCall, R.B. & G.K. Aghajanian (1979) Neuroscience Abstracts, 5: 343. “Hallucinogens sensitize serotonin and norepinephrine receptors in the facial motor nucleus.”

McCleary 1960 in the literature meant McCleary et al. 1960

McCleary et al. (1960) Economic Botany, 14 (4): 247–249. “Antibiotic activity of an extract of peyote (Lophophora Williamsii [Lemaire] Coulter)” (James A. McCleary, Paul S. Sypherd & David L. Walkington)

McCleary, James A. (1960) (in the literature) meant McCleary et al. 1960

McCleary, James A. & David L. Walkington (1964) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 91 (5): 361–369. “Antimicrobial Activity in the Cactaceae.”

McCoy, Alfred W. (1972) The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia.

McEwen, Charles M. Jr. (1965) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 240 (5): 2003–2018. “Human Plasma Monoamine Oxidase. I. Purification and Identification.”

McFarlane, I.J. & M. Slaytor (1972)a Phytochemistry, 11(1): 229–234. “The Role of N-Acetyl Amines in Tetrahydro-β-carboline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Biosynthesis.”

McFarlane, I.J. & M. Slaytor (1972)b Phytochemistry, 11: 235–238. “Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Echinocereus merkeri.”

McFarlane, W.D. (1966) Am. Soc. Brew. Chem Proc. 184.

McGlothlin, William H. (1965) Psychedelic Review, 6: 16–57. “Hallucinogenic Drugs: A Perspective with Special Reference to Peyote and Cannabis.”

McIvor, R.A. & J.M. Pepper (1953) Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 31: 298–302. “The Reaction of 5-Bromovanillin and Sodium Methoxide.” (Synthesis of syringaldehyde.)

McKellar, P. (1963) “Mescaline and Human Thinking.” in Crocket, Sandison & Walk (eds.) Hallucinogenic Drugs and Their Psychotherapeutic Use. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

McKenna, D. J. et al. (1986) América Indigena, 46(1): 73–99. “Ingredientes biodinamicos en las plantas que se mezclan al ayahuasca. Una farmacopea tradicional no investigada.” [Dennis J. McKenna, L.E. Luna & G.H.N. Towers] [Epiphyllum]

McKenna, Terence (1991) The Archaic Revival. Speculations on Psychedelic Mushrooms, the Amazon, Virtual Reality, UFOs, Evolution, Shamanism, the Rebirth of the Goddess, and the End of History. Harper SanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-250613-7

McKenna, Terence (1992) Food of the Gods: The search for the original tree of knowledge. A radical history of plants, drugs and human evolution. Bantam Books

McKenna, Terence (1993) True hallucinations. Being an Account of the Author’s Extraordinary Adventures in the Devil’s Paradise. Harper SanFrancisco. 1994 paperback: ISBN 0-06-250652-8.

McLaughlin, Jerry Loren (1965) PhD dissertation; University of Michigan. “Identification and biosynthesis of certain alkaloids of Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. (1969) Lloydia, 32 (3): 392–394.
“Cactus alkaloids. VI. Identification of hordenine and N-Methyltyramine in Ariocarpus fissuratus varieties
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McLaughlin, Jerry L. (1973) Lloydia, 36 (1): 1–8. “Peyote: an introduction.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. & Ara G. Paul (1965) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 54 (4): 661. “Presence of Hordenine in Lophophora Williamsii.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. & Ara G. Paul (1966) Lloydia, 29 (4): 315–327. “The cactus alkaloids. I. Identification of N-Methylated Tyramine Derivatives in Lophophora Williamsii.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. & Ara G. Paul (1967) Lloydia, 30 (1): 91–99. “The Cactus Alkaloids. II. Biosynthesis of Hordenine and Mescaline in Lophophora Williamsii.”

McLeary, J.A., in the literature, is a typo referring to McCleary

Melero, C.P. et al. (2000) Molecules, 5: 51–81. “A Short Review on Cardiotonic Steroids and Their Aminoguanidine Analogues.” (Concepción P. Melero, Manuel Medarde & Arturo San Feliciano) (downloadable from http://www.mdpi.org/molecules/papers/50100051.pdf)

Mellen, Chase, III (1963) The Harvard Review, 1 (4): 63–67. “Reflections of a Peyote Eater.”

Menachery, Mary D. et al. (1986) Journal of Natural Products, 49 (5): 745–778. “Simple Isoquinolines” (Includes review of physical data and distribution.)

Mencken, H.L. (1930) Treatise on the Gods. Alfred A. Knopf 1930 (364 pp & 12 p index); Second Edition: Corrected & revised. Alfred A. Knopf, NY 1946 (360 pp & 15 p index). Reprinted several times.

Mercado, Leo (ed.) The Peyote Foundation Journal Publication of the Peyote Foundation. [http://www.peyote.net]

Merchant, J.R. & A.J. Mountwala (1958) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 23: 1774–1776. “Synthesis of Some β-Phenethylamine Derivatives. I”

Mercier, J. & S. Dessaigne (1959) Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises, 17: 606.

Merck (1960) The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 7th Edition. Rahway, N.J.: Merck and Co.

Merck (1976) The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs. 9th Edition. Martha Windholz (ed.), Merck & Co.; Rahway, NJ. ISBN 911910-26–3.

Merlis, S. & H.C.B. Denber (1956) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 123 (6): 542–545. “Studies on mescaline, V. Electroencephalographic evidence for the antagonism between mescaline and chlorpromazine hydrochloride.”

Merlis, S. & Wallace Hunter (1954) Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 430–432. “Studies on mescaline II: Effects of administration after electric convulsive treatment of schizophrenic patients.”

Merriam, Alan P. & D’Azevedo, Warren L. (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 615–641. “Washo peyote songs.”

Merrill, W.L. (1977) An Investigation of Ethnographic and Archeological Specimens of Mescalbeans (Sophora secundiflora) in American Museums. (Technical Reports No. 6) Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. [From Ott 1993]

Mester, I (1973) Fitoterapia (Milano), 44: 123–152. “The occurrence of the alkaloids in Rutaceae”

Mester, I. (1977) Fitoterapia (Milano), 48: 268–278. “The Occurrence of Alkaloids in Rutaceae. Addendum I”

Metzner, Ralph (1963) Psychedelic Review, 1: 69–100. “The pharmacology of psychedelic drugs.”

Metzner, Ralph (1994) The Well of Remembrance: Rediscovering the Earth Wisdom Myths of Northern Europe. Shambala.

Meyer, Brian & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1980) Planta Medica, 38 (1): 91–92. “Cactus alkaloids. XLI. Candicine from Trichocereus pasacana

Meyer, Brian & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1982) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 54 (5): 226–228. “A Note on the Phytochemistry of Opuntia (Cactaceae).”

Meyer, B.N. et al. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 719–720. “β-Phenethylamines From the Cactus Genus Opuntia” (Brian N. Meyer, Yehia A.H. Mohamed & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Meyer, B.N. et al. (1981) Planta Medica, 43 (11): 304–306. “Candicine from Stapelia gigantea.” (Brian N. Meyer, Jerry L. McLaughlin & William J. Keller)

Meyer, B.N., Helfrich, J.S., Nichols, D.E., Davis, D.V., Cooks, R.G. and J.L. McLaughlin 1982 Abstr. 23rd Annual Meeting American Society of Pharmacognosy August 1–5 1982, Pittsburg Pa, 23: Abstr.-41 [from Meyer et al. 1983]

Meyer, B.N. et al. (1983) Journal of Natural Products, 46 (5): 688-693. “Cactus Alkaloids LIII. Coryphanthine and O-Methylcandicine, Two New Quaternary Alkaloids from Coryphantha greenwoodii” (B.N. Meyer, J.S. Helfrich, D.E. Nichols, J.L. McLaughlin, D.V. Davis and R.G. Cooks)

Meyer, J. M. & J. C. Fogleman (1987) J. Chem. Ecol, 13:2069–2081. “Significance of saguaro cactus alkaloids in the ecology of Drosophila mettleri, a soil-breeding, cactophilic drosophilid.”

MFDS (2003) Drug Information Journal, article P15_587. “The Analysis of Peyote Cactus, Mescal Buttons and Mescaline.” (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in the Korean Food & Drug Administration.)

Michaelis, Paul (1896) Thesis Erlangen. “Beiträge zur verglichenden Anatomie der Gattungen Echinocactus, Mammillaria und Anhalonium” [Echinocactus lewinii (Hennings) Schumann var. jourdaniana Michaelis]

Michaux, Henri (1956) Misérable miracle, Rocher: Monaco; also (1967) Miserabile miracolo. l’infinito turbolento. Feltrinelli: Milano; also (1969) Miserable miracle (tr. by Louise Varèse) City Lights: San Francisco; also (1972) Misérable miracle. La Mescaline. (avec quarante-huit dessins et documents manuscrits originaux de l’auteur.) Éditions Gallimaud 195 pages

Michaux, Henri (1957) L’infini turbulent, Mercure de France: Paris; Also (1976) Infinite Turbulence (tr. by Michael Fineberg 1976) Calder and Boyars.

Michaux, Henri (1968) Allucinogeni e conoscenza. Rizzoli: Milano.

Michaux, Henri (1986) Unseliges Wunder: Das Meskalin. Carl Hanser: Munich.

Michel, Karen Lincoln (1999) Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Wisconsin) Friday, December 17. “For Native American Church, Peyote is Sacred.” [See http://www.jsonline.com/]

Middleditch, B.S. (1976) Journal of Chromatography, 126: 581–589. “Aldehyde condensation products as derivatives for the vapor phase analysis of biogenic amines”

Miller et al. (1978) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 43: 1580-?. “Synthesis of Morphinandienones, A. Dihydrophenanthrone and Pummerer’s Ketones by Anodic Coupling.” (L.L. Miller, R.F. Stewart, J.P. Gillespie, V. Ramachandran, Y.H. So & F.R. Stermitz)

Miller, H.E. et al. (1968) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 51 (6): 1470–1474. “Biogenese der Betalaine. Biotransformation von Dopa and Tyrosin in den Betalaminsäureteil des Betanins.” (H.E. Miller, H. Rösler, A. Wohlpart, H. Wyler, M.E. Wilcox, H. Frohofer, T.J. Mabry & André S. Dreiding)

Miller, John (2000) comments forwarded by MS Smith (Ariocarpus bravoanus comment derived from Anderson & Fitz Maurice 1997; scaphirostris comment was referenced to personal communication from Ted Anderson in 1999)

Miller, John M. & Bruce A. Bohm (1982) Phytochemistry, 21 (4): 951–952. “Flavonol and Dihydroflavonol Glycosides of Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. gurneyi.”

Miller, Richard Lawrence (1996) Drug Warriors and Their Prey: From Police Power to Police State. Prager: Westport. ISBN 0-275-95042-5.

Milne, G.W.A. et al. (1973) Anal. Chem. 45: 1952. (cims)

Minale, L. et al. (1965) Phytochemistry, 4: 593–597. “Pigments of Centrospermae – IV. On The Biogenesis of Indicaxanthin and Betanin in Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.” (L. Minale, M. Piattelli & R.A. Nicolaus)

Minale, L. et al. (1966) Phytochemistry, 5: 1037–1052. “Pigments of Centrospermae – VI. Acylated Betacyanins.” (L. Minale, M. Piattelli, S. De Stefano & R.A. Nicolaus)

Minelli, Laurenchich & Frigerio, Bianca Maria (1976) Terra Ameriga, 37/40: 21–30. “Il peyote nel Messico pre-colombiano.”

Mindt, L. et al. (1977) Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, 26: 993-1000. “Cactaceae Mucilage Composition.” (Lothar Mindt, Karl Saag, George R. Sanderson, Patrick Moyna & Gerardo Ramos)

Miranda, Faustino (1954) Ceiba, 4 (2): 126–145. “Plantas Nuevas de Chiapas” [pp. 139–140 is P. gaumeri (?) Th.MacDougall & F.Miranda.]

Mitchell, S. Weir (in the literature) See as Weir Mitchell

Moerman, D.E. (1998) Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland. ISBN 0881924539. 927 pages

Moffat, A.C. & E.C. Horning (1970) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 222: 248–250. “A new derivative for the gas-liquid chromatography of picogram quantities of primary amines of the catecholamine series.”

Mohamed, Y.A.H. et al. (1979) Journal of Natural Products, 42 (2): 197–202 “Cactus Alkaloids. XXXIX. A
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Mokrasch, L.C. & Ian Stevenson (1959) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 129 (2): 177–183. “The metabolism of mescaline with a note on correlations between metabolism and psychological effects.”

Moksha Press http://www.entheobiblica.com

Molinoff, Perry B. & Julius Axelrod (1969) Science, 164 (878): 428–429. “Octopamine: normal occurrence in sympathetic nerves of rats.”

Molinoff, P.B. et al. (1969) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 170 (2): 253–261. “An enzymatic assay for octopamine and other beta-hydroxylated phenylethylamines.” (P.B. Molinoff, L.Landsberg & J. Axelrod)

Molinoff, P. et al. (1970) Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences (USA), 66 (2): 453–458. ”Neurally Mediated Increase in Dopamine-β-Hydroxylase Activity.” (Perry B. Molinoff, Steven Brimijoin, Richard Weinshilboum & Julius Axelrod)

Möller, A. (1935) Acta psychiatrica et neurologica 10: 405–442. “Einige Meskalin Versuche.”

Moniot, Jerome L. et al (1978) Heterocycles, 9: 145. [This may be with coauthor Maurice Shamma?)

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (1996) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 51c: 426–428. “On the formation of weddellite in Chamaecereus silvestrii, a cactaceae from northern Argentina. “

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (1997) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 52c: 267–269. “On the formation of whewellite in the cactaceae species Opuntia microdasys.”

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2000) Plant Physiology, 157: 457–460. “First evidences of the bioaccumulation of α-quartz in Cactaceae.”

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2002) Plant Physiology, 128: 707–713. “Characterization of calcium oxalates generated as biominerals in cacti.”

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2004)a. “Plant biomineralization.” pp. 403–419 in: H. Hemantaranjan (ed.), Advances in Plant Physiology, vol. 7. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur. (from Monje & Baran 2005)

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2004)b Journal of Plant Physiology, 161: 121–123. “Complex biomineralization pattern in Cactaceae.” (from Monje & Baran 2005)

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2005) Phytochemistry, 66 (5): 611–614. “Evidence of formation of glushinskite as a biomineral in a Cactaceae species.”

Monnier, M. & L. Hostli (1965) Pfluger’s Arch. Ges. Physiol. 282: 60 (GHB article) [From Roth & Giarman 1970]

Moore, Harvey C. (1956) American Anthropologist, 58: 220. Review of: Enemy way music: A study of social and esthetic values as seen in Navaho music, by David P. McAllester.

Moore, R.Y. & F.E. Bloom (1979) Annual Review of Neuroscience,
2: 113–168. “Central Catecholamine Neuron Systems:
Anatomy and Physiology of the Norepinephrine and
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Morales, Glauco & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1989) Journal of Natural Products, 52 (2): 381–384. “3β-O-Palmityl Longispinogenin from Trichocereus chilensis.”

Morales, R.M.E. (2006) Tesis Doctoral. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. “Extractos de Lophocereus schottii (Engelmann) Britton & Rose y Stenocereus gummosus (Engelmann) Gibson & Horak con actividad antibacteriana y antineoplásica sobre líneas celulares humanas.” [from Garza Padrón 2010]

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Moreno-Álvarez, M.J. et al. (2006) Bol. Nakari 17: 9–12. “Evaluación bromatológica de frutos y cladodios de la tuna (Opuntia boldinghii Britton et Rose).” (M.J. Moreno-Álvarez, D. García-Pantaleón, D.R. Belén-Camacho, C. Medina-Martínez, N. Muñoz-Ojeda, I. Herrera & C. Espinoza) [from García Pantaleón et al. 2009]

Morgan, George Robert (1976) Dissertation; University of Colorado. “Man, Plant and Religion: Peyote Trade on the Mustang Plains of Texas.”

Morgan, George Robert (1983)a Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 29 (2): 73–86 “The Biogeography of Peyote in South Texas.”

Morgan, George Robert (1983)b Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 9: 319–321. “Hispano-Indian Trade of an Indian Ceremonial Plant, Peyote (Lophophora Williamsii), on the Mustang Plains of Texas.”

Morgan, George R. & Omer C. Stewart (1984) Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 87: 269–296. “Peyote Trade in South Texas.”

Morin et al. (1957) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 22: 331–332. “Synthesis of 5,6,7-trimethoxyindole, a possible intermediary metabolite of mescaline.”

Morin et al. (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24: 917. (in the literature) meant Benington et al. 1959

Morrison, Robert Thornton & Robert Neilson Boyd (1976) Organic Chemistry Third Edition Allyn and Bacon, Inc. ISBN 0-205-03239-7.

Morselli, G.E. (1936) Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique, 33: 368–392. “Contribution à la psychopathologie de l’intoxication par la mescaline.”

Morselli, G.E. (1944–1945) Rivista di psicologia, 40–41: 1-23. “Mescalina e schizofrenia.”

Moseby (1994) Mosby’s Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, Fourth Edition. Kenneth N. Anderson, Lois E. Anderson & Walter D. Glanze (eds.) Mosby-Year Book Inc. ISBN 0-8016-7225-2 (Prof.) – ISBN 0-8151-6113-1 – ISBN 0-8151-6111-5 (trade)

Moser, M. et al. (1996) Journal of Neural Transmission, 103 (4): 1435–1463. “Salsolinol, catecholamine metabolites, and visual hallucinations in L-dopa treated patients with Parkinson’s disease.” (A. Moser, F. Siebecker, P. Vieregge, P. Jaskowski & D. Kömpf)

Mottram, Roy (1997) Cactaceae Consensus Initiatives 2: 8. “Two new names in Echinopsis.” [This was the publication of the name Echinopsis scopulicola.]

Mount, Guy (1993) The Peyote Book. A Study of Native Medicine. 3rd Edition. Sweetlight Books. ISBN 0-9604462-3-0.

Moyna, Patrick & José Luis DiFabio (1978) Planta Medica, 34: 207–210. “Composition of Cactaceae Mucilages.”

Müller-Ebeling, Claudia & Rätsch, Christian (1997) “Kreisrituale mit Peyote und MDMA” pp. 68–74 in Constantine Weigle & Ronald Rippchen (eds.) MDMA: Die psychoaktive Substanz für Therapie, Ritual und Rekreation. Werner Pierper’s Medien Xperimente: Löhrbach (Der Grüne Zweig 103, erw. Neuaufl.)

Mulvena, Dawn P. & Michael Slaytor (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (1): 47–48. “N-Methyltransferase activities in Phalaris aquatica.”

Mulvena, Dawn P. et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (12): 2885–2886. “Methoxylated Gramine Derivatives From Phalaris aquatica.” (Dawn P. Mulvena, Kelvin Picker, Damon D. Ridley & Michael Slaytor)

Munier, I.R. & M. Macheboeuf (1949) Bulletin. Société de Chimie Biologique [France] 31: 1144–1162. “Microchromatographie de partage des alcaloides et de diverses bases azoties biologiques.”

Murg, Wilhelm (2002) http://www.okit.com/news/2002/february/nativeamericanchurch.html [Article on DEA, AIRFA and the NAC]

Murphee, H.B. et al. (1958) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 122: 55A-56A. “Effects of lysergic acid derivatives on man: antagonism between d-lysergic acid diethylamide and its 2-bromo congener.” (H.B. Murphee, E.W.J. DeMaar, H.L. Williams & L.L. Bryan)

Murple was via personal communication.

Murray, T.F. et al. (1977) Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 7 (3): 239–244. “Pharmacological and behavioral components of tolerance to LSD and mescaline in rats.” (T.F. Murray, A.L. Craigmill & G.J. Fischer)

Musacchio, José M. & Menek Goldstein (1962) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 58: 607–608. “The formation In Vivo of N-acetyldopamine and N-acetyl-3-methoxy dopamine.” [Also in vivo formation of N-acetylmescaline.]

Musacchio, José M. & Menek Goldstein (1967) Biochemical Pharmacology, 16: 963–970. “The metabolism of mescaline-14C in rats.”

Musacchio, José M. et al. (1963) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 22: 481. [Abstract; entry 1915] “N-Acetylation and Demethylation of Mescaline in Rats.” (José M. Musacchio, A. Dudowitz, H. Gerber and Menek Goldstein)

Musshoff, F. et al. (2000) Forensic Science International, 113 (1-3): 359–366. “Determination of dopamine and dopamine-derived (R)-/(S)-salsolinol and norsalsolinol in various human brain areas using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.” (F. Musshoff, P. Schmidt, R. Dettmeyer, F. Priemer, K. Jachau & B. Madea)

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1973) Organization and Ecstacy: Peyote and the Huichol Case. (Unpublished manuscript)

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1975) “Peyote and Huichol Worldview: The Structure of a Mystic Vision.” pp 417–438, in Vera Rubin (ed.) Cannabis and Culture. Mouton: The Hague, Paris.

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1976) (1974?) Peyote Hunt: The Sacred Journey of the Huichol Indians. [Symbol, Myth and Ritual Series.] Cornell University Press. 288 pages (285 pages?) ISBN 0-8014-9137-1

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1980) Der Peyote Kult. Trikont: Munich.

Nadker, Kurt H. (1991) Drogen: Rauschgift und Medizin. Munich: Quintessenz. page 95 [From Rätsch]

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Nagelvoort, J.B. (1895) American Journal of Pharmacy, 67: 31–32. “Letter to Editor.”

Nahmed Sittri, S. et al. (1972) El peyote y los huicholes. SepSentas: Mexico. (Salamón Nahmed Sittri, Otto Klineberg, Peter T. Furst & Barbara G. Myerhoff)

Nair, A.G.R. & S.S. Subramanian (1964) Current Science, 33: 211-212.”Isolation of Isoquercitrin from the Flowers of Opuntia dillenii.”

Nakano, T. (1954) Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 2 (4): 321–325. “Studies on the alkaloids of magnoliaceous plants. XII. Alkaloids of Magnolia grandiflora L.”

Nakada, T. & K. Nashihara (1944) Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 64: 74–76. “Syntheses of anhalonium bases, I. Synthesis of carnegine and pellotine methyl ester” [1951 CA 45: 2955h]

Nakano, T. & M. Uchiyama (1956) Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 4 (5): 409–410. “Alkaloids of magnoliaceous plants. XVIII. Alkaloids of Magnolia kobus DC. var. borealis Koidz.“

Naranjo, Claudio (1973) “Psychological Aspects of the Yagé Experience in an Experimental Setting.” Pp. 176–190 (Ch 10) in Harner (1973)

Naranjo, Plutarco (1958) Arch. Criminol. Neuropsiquiatr. Quito, 6: 358. “Psychotomimetic Drugs. Comparative Study of harmine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and mescaline.”

Naruto, S. & H. Kaneko (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (12): 3008–3009. “Alkaloids from Corydalis ambigua.”

Neal, J.M. & J.L. McLaughlin (1970) Lloydia, 33 (3): 395–396. “Cactus Alkaloids. IX. Isolation of N-Methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamine and N-Methyl-4-methoxy-β-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus retusus

Neal, J.M. & J.L. McLaughlin (1972) Journal of Chromatography, 73: 277–278. “Cactus Alkaloids. XVII. Thin-Layer Chromatography of Dansylated Nonphenolic β-Phenethylamines.”

Neal, J.M. et al. (1971)a Economic Botany, 25 (4): 382–384. “Cactus Alkaloids. XI. Isolation of Tyramine, N-Methyltyramine and Hordenine from Obregonia denegrii” [also CA (1972) 76: 151035]. (J.M. Neal, P.T. Sato & J.L. McLaughlin)

Neal, J.M. et al. (1971)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 60 (3): 477–478. “Cactus alkaloids. X. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyltyramine from Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus” (J.M. Neal, P.T. Sato, C.L. Johnson & J.L. McLaughlin)

Neal, J.M. et al. (1972) Science, , 176: 1131–1133. “Peyote alkaloids: Identification in the Mexican cactus Pelecyphora aselliformis.” (J.M. Neal, P.T. Sato, W.N. Howard & J.L. McLaughlin)

Neff, N. & G.V. Rossi (1963) American Journal of Pharmacy and the Sciences Supporting Public Health. 135 (9): 319–327. “Mescaline.”

Neff, N et al. (1964) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 144 (1): 1–7. “Distribution and Metabolism of Mescaline-C14 in the Cat Brain.” (N. Neff, G.V. Rossi, G.D. Chase & J.L. Rabinowitz) [Note: this should be written 14C.]

Neher, Andrew (1961) Electroencephalography, and Clinical Neurophysiology 13 (3): 449–451. “Auditory Driving Observed with Scalp Electrodes in Normal Subjects.”

Neher, Andrew (1962) Human Biology, 34 (2): 151–160. “A Physiological Explanation of Unusual Behavior in Ceremonies Involving Drums.”

Neme, G. et al. (1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 277–278. “3-Nitro-4-hydroxy-phenethylamine from Cereus validus.” (Genaro Neme, Matias Nieto, Antonio T. D’Arcangelo & Eduardo G. Gros)

Nesterick, C.A. & R.G. Rahwan (1979) Journal of Chromatography, 164 (2): 205–216. “Detection of endogenous salsolinol in neonatal rat tissue by a radioenzymatic–thin-layer chromatographic assay.”

Nesterick, C.A. & R.G. Rahwan (1979) Pharmacologist, 23: 225. (Abstr.) “Detection of endogenous salsolinol in neonatal rat tissue by a radio-enzymatical thin layer chromatographic assay.”

Nettl, Bruno (1953) Journal of American Folklore, 66 (260): 161–164. “Observations on meaningless peyote song texts.”

Nettl, Bruno (1958) American Anthropologist, 60 (3): 518–532. “Historical aspects of ethnomusicology.”

Nevole, S. (1947) Lékarského Khihkuspectvi a Nakladatelstvi. [Concerning four-dimensional sight: a physio-pathological study of space-perception, with special reference to experimental poisoning with mescaline.”] [Haven’t read it but love the title.]

Newcomb, William W. (Bill) Jr. (1980) Indians of Texas. University of Texas Press. 0-292-73271-6 (cloth)/0-292-78425-2 (paper). First edition was in 1961.

Newton, R.A. et al. (1996) Journal of Neurochemistry, 67(6): 2521-2531. “Characterization of human 5-hydroxytryptamine2A and 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y: comparative stimulation by hallucinogenic drugs.” (R.A. Newton, S.L. Phipps, T.P. Flanigan, N.R. Newberry, J.E. Carey, C. Kumar, B. McDonald, C. Chen & J.M. Eliot)

Niedfeld (1931) Tesis del profesorado suplente, Universidad del Litoral, Rosario. [from Reti]

Nieforth, Karl A. (1971) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 60 (5): 655–665. “Psychotomimetic Phenethylamines.”

Nielsen, John & Roxane, owners Prescott Brewing Company, Prescott, AZ letter to editor published in 1997 Southwest Brewing News, 5 (5): page 2

Nieto, M. (1987) An. Asoc. Quim. Argent. 75: 11–13. [from Shulgin: THIQ]

Nieto, M. et al. (1982) Anales. Asociacion. Quimica (Argentina) 70: 295–299. “Alcaloides en Cuatro Especies de Cactaceas.” (M. Nieto, S.O. Ruiz, G. Neme & A.T. D’Arcangelo)

Nieuwenhuis, J.J. et al. (1981) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkins Transactions 284–286. “(4R)-(-)-O-Methyljoubertiamine and O-Methyldihydrojoubertiamine, Two Minor Alkaloids from Sceletium subvelutinum L. Bolus.” (Jacobus J. Nieuwenhuis, Franz Strelow, Heinrich F. Strauss & Adriaan Wiechers)

Nikodijevic, B et al. (1969) Biochemical Pharmacology, 18: 1577–1584. “Catechol-O-methyltransferase. I. An enzymatic assay for cardiac norepinephrine.” (B. Nikodijevic, J. Daly & C.R. Creveling)

Ninio, R. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (3): 797–801. “Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.” (Racheli Ninio, Efraim Lewinsohn, Yosef Mizrahi & Yaron Sitrit)

Ninio, R. et al. (2003) Postharvest Biol. Technol. 30: 273–280. “Quality attributes of stored koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.” ((Racheli Ninio, Efraim Lewinsohn, Yosef Mizrahi & Yaron Sitrit)

Nobel, Park S. (ed.) (2002) Cacti: Biology and Uses. Univeristy of California, Berkeley. 280 pages. ISBN 0-520-23157-0.

Nolte, K.B. & R.E. Zumwalt (1999) Western Journal of Medicine, 170: 328. “Fatal peyote ingestion associated with Mallory-Weiss lacerations.”

Nordal, A. et al. (1966) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 20: 1431–1432. “Non-volatile acids of succulent plants exhibiting a marked diurnal oscillation in the acid content. II. Demonstration of piscidic acid as one of the predominating acids in Opuntia ficus-indica.” (Arnold Nordal, Jørgen Gether & Guri Haustveit)

Norquist, D.G. & J.L. McLaughlin (1970) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 59 (12): 1840–1841. “Cactus alkaloids. VIII. Isolation of N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus fissuratus var. fissuratus

Norton, Stata and Tamburro, Jean (1958) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 122: 57A. “Effects of Hallucinogens on Spontaneous Behavior Patterns of Animals.” [Abstract of paper presented to American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Abel Centennial Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, Sept. 4–7, 1957.] [Reported that mescaline increased excitement and hostility.]

Noteboom, L. (1932) Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 76 (1): 517–518 / 76 (2): 2860-2862. [CA (1933) 27: 1399.] [“Experimental catatonia by means of synthetic derivatives of mescaline and adrenaline.”]

Noteboom, L. (1934) Proc. Acad. Exp. Amsterdam. (in the literature) See as Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam

Noteboom, L. (1934) Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam, 37: 562–574. “Experimental catatonia by means of derivatives of mescaline and adrenaline.”

Novelli, Armando & Orfeo O. Orazi (1950) Revista Farmacéutica (Buenos Aires), 92: 109–118. “Alcaloides aislados de la República Argentina.”

Nyazema, N.Z. (1984) Central African Journal of Medicine, 30: 80–83. “Poisoning due to traditional remedies.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Nyffeler, Reto (2002) American Journal of Botany, 89 (2): 312–326. “Phylogenetic relationships in the cactus family (Cactaceae) based on evidence from trnK/matK and trnL-trnF sequences.”

Nyffeler, Reto (2007) American Journal of Botany, 94: 89–101. “The closest relatives of cacti: Insights from phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences with special emphasis on relationships in the tribe Anacampseroteae.”

Oberman, Z. et al. (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 29: 391.

Ochoterena, Isaac (1922) Las Cacáceas de México (Lophophora: pp 96–110)

Ochoterena, Isaac (1926) Revista Mexicana de Biología, 6: 95. “Nota acercala identificación botanica de algunas de las plants conocidas vulgarmente con el nombre de Peyotl.”

O’Donovan, Daniel G. & Edward Barry (1974) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions I. 1974: 2528–2529. “Biosynthesis of Lophocerine in Lophocereus schottii.”

O’Donovan, D.G. & H. Horan (1968) Journal of the Chemical Society, (C) 1968: 2791-2795. “The Biosynthesis of Lophocereine.”

O’Donovan, D.G. & H. Horan (1969) Journal of the Chemical Society, (C) 1969: 1737–1739. “Oxidative Coupling of Phenols. The Biosynthesis of Pilocereine.”

O’Donovan, D.G. et al. (1971) Journal of the Chemical Society, (C) 1971: 2398–2399. “The Biosynthesis of Pilocereine. Part II. Lophocereine & Pilocereine in Lophocereus schottii.” (D.G. O’Donovan, E. Barry & H. Horan)

O’Gorman, L.P. et al. (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 29: 111. (L.P. O’Gorman, O. Borud, I.A. Khan and L.R. Gjessing)

Ogunbedede, Olabode (2009) Master’s thesis: Sul Ross State University. “Alkaloid content in ethnobotany of Trichocereus pachanoi & related taxa.”

Ogunbodede, O.O. et al. (2010) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131 (3): 356–362. “New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) (“San Pedro”) and their relevance to shamanic practice.” [Olabode Olunfumilayo Ogunbodede, Douglas McCombs, Keeper Trout, Paul Daley & Martin Terry]

Oh, Y.H. et al. (1967) Biochemical Pharmacology, 16: 849–861. “Binding of Biologically Active Amines to Plasma Protein Fractions.” (Yang H. Oh, William E. Leitch, Seymour Axelrod, S. Mouchly Small, Richard J. Winzler & Benjamin E. Sanders)

O’Hanlon et al. (1970) Anal. Biochem. 34: 568. (J.F. O’Hanlon Jr., H.C. Campuzano and S.M. Horvath)

Ohno, S. & M. Komatsu (1957) Ann. Rep. Itsuu Lab. 8: 31 [CA (1957) 51: 14984] [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Okazaki, S. et al. (2007) Journal of Natural Medicine, 61: 24–29. “New triterpene saponins from Stenocereus eruca (Cactaceae).” (S. Okazaki, K. Kinoshita, K. Koyama, K. Takahashi & H. Yuasa)

Okazaki, S. et al. (2011) Phytochemistry, 72 (1): 136–146. “Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona
(Cactaceae).” (Sachie Okazaki, Kaoru Kinoshita, Satoru Ito, Kiyotaka Koyama, Hiroshi Yuasa & Kunio Takahashi)

Olds et al. (1957) “Effects of tranquilizers on self-stimulation of the brain.” pp. 235–243, in Garattini & Ghetti (eds.) Psychotropic Drugs.

Oliva, Anello (1895) Historia del Reino y Provincias del Perú, pp. 115–124. [Lima: Imprenta y Librería de San Pedro.] (first edition in 1631)

Olmos, José Francisco Ballester (1977) Los cactus y las otras plantas suculentas. [Roberto Guillen Valencia, Mexico]

Olney, R.K. (1972) Texas Medicine, 68 (7): 80–82. “Mescaline.” [A brief review. Olney’s references were not included. Said by publisher to be available upon request.]

O’Neal, C.L. et al. (2000) Forensic Science International, 109: 189 –201. “Validation of twelve chemical spot tests for the detection of drugs of abuse” [Carol L. O’Neal, Dennis J. Crouch, Alim A. Fatah]

O’Neill, Patrick J. & Ralf G. Rahwan (1977)a The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 200 (2): 306–313. “Absence of Formation of Brain Salsolinol in Ethanol-Dependent Mice.”

O’Neill, Patrick J. & Ralf G. Rahwan (1977)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences., 66: 893–895, “Modified electron-capture GLC assay for salsolinol in brain tissue.”

Oon, M.C.H. et al. (1977) Psychopharmacology, 54: 171–175. “Factors affecting the urinary excretion of endogenously formed dimethyltryptamine in normal human subjects.” (M.C.H. Oon, R.M. Murray, R. Rodnight, M. Murphy & J.L.T. Birley)

Ootani, Shunji & Toshihiko Hagiwara (1969) Japanese Journal of Genetics, 44 (2): 65–79. “Inheritance of Flower Colors and Related Chymochromic Pigments in F1 Hybrids of Common Portulaca, Portulaca grandiflora.”

Opler, Morris E. (1938) American Anthropologist, 40 (2): 271-285. “The Use of Peyote by the Carrizo and Lipan Apache Tribes.”

Opler, Morris E. (1939) American Anthropologist, 41 (3): 433–439. “A description of a Tonkawa peyote meeting held in 1902.”

Opler, Morris E. (1940) American Anthropologist, 42: 271-285. “The Character and History of the Southern Ute Peyote Rite.”

Opler, Marvin K. (1940) American Anthropologist, 42: 667–669. “Book Review of Gusinde, Martin (1939) Der Peyote-Kult: Entsehung und Verbreitung.”

Opler, Marvin K. (1941) American Anthropologist, 43 (3) part 1: 463–474. 

Opler, Marvin K. (1942) American Anthropologist, 44: 151–159. “Fact and fancy in Ute peyotism.”

Opler, Morris E. (1945) El Palacio, 52 (10): 210-212. “A Mescalero Apache Account of the Origin of the Peyote Ceremony.”.

Ordaz, C. et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (9): 2101-2102. “Dehydroheliamine, A Trace Alkaloid From the Saguaro, Carnegiea gigantea (Cactaceae).” (Candido Ordaz, Nelson R. Ferrigni & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Orechoff, A. & N. Proskurnina (1933) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 66 (6): 841–843. “Über die Alkalodie von Salsola Richteri.”

Orechoff, A. & N. Proskurnina (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67 (5): 878–884. “Über die Alkaloide von Salsola Richteri, II. Mitteil.: Die Konstitution des Salsolins.”

Ortega, José de (1751) [Reprinted in 1887] Historia del Nayarit, Sonora, Sinaloa, y mabas California.

Osmond, H. (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66: 418–434. “Review of the chemical effects of psychotomimetic agents.”

Osmond, H. & J. Smythies (1952) Journal of Mental Science, 98: 309–315. “Schizophrenia: a new approach.”

Östlund, E. (1954) Acta Physiol. Scand. 31, Suppl. 112, 167. [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Ostolaza, Carlos (1984) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 56: 102–104. “Trichocereus Pachanoi Br. & R.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1987) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 59 (1): 13–15. “Browningia Candelaris (Meyen) Br. & R. A New Habitat for an Old Cactus Species.” [Header for this issue was misprinted as volume 58]

Ostolaza, Carlos (1995) Quepo, 9: 73–82. “Etnobotanica II. El Período Formativo.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1996) Quepo, 10: 42–49. “Etnobotanica III. La Cultura Paracas.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1997) Quepo, 11: 79–86. “Etnobotanica IV. La Cultura Nazca.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1998) Quepo, 12: 62–68. “Etnobotanica V. La Cultura Moche.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1999) Quepo, 13: 32–37. “Etnobotánica VI. Culturas Wari y Chimu.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (2000) Quepo, 14: 18–23. “Etnobotánica VII. El Imperio de los Incas.”

Ott, Jonathan (1993) Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic Drugs, their Plant Sources and History. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 639 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-2-0 (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-3-9 (paperback) See also Ott 1996. [Pages 81–115; Chapter One: “Mescaline, Péyotl, San Pedro, Artificial Phenethylamines” Same pages in Ott 1996]

Ott, Jonathan (1994) Ayahuasca Analogues. Pangaean Entheogens. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 127 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-4-7 (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-5-5 (paperback)

Ott, Jonathan (1995) The Age of Entheogens & The Angels’ Dictionary. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 159 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-6-3 (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-7-1 (paperback)

Ott, Jonathan (1996) Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic Drugs, their Plant Sources and History. Second Edition Densified Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 639 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-8-X (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-9-8 (paperback)

[Same page numbering as in 1993.]

Ott, Jonathan (1997) Pharmacophilia or the Natural Paradises. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 1995. 191 pp. ISBN 1-888755-01-6.

Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernadez de (1851–1855) Historia Natural y General de las Indias. – Primera parte, Madrid, 1535 y segunda parte, Madrid, 1851–1855. [from Yacovleff & Herrrera 1935]

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Palmieri, V.M. (1942) Rassegna Clinica Scientifica, 20. “La mescalina e l’ebbrezza peyotilica nell’uomo.”

Palmieri, V.M. & G. Lacroix (1941) Atti Congresso de medicina legale, 8 (1940): 540–549. “Ulteriori ricerche sull’intossicazione da mescalina.”

Palomino Yamamoto, Manuel (1972) Doctoral Thesis. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), Lima. “Farmacoquimica de Cactaceae(sic) peruana.” This noncirculating work exists as a single copy in the Library of the Instituto Nacional de Salud, Av. Salaverry, Lima. The whole thesis is devoted to the biochemical study of Trichocereus santaensis Rauh et Backeberg. Photocopying is not permitted so Dr. Carlos Ostolaza graciously read it on my behalf and provided information on its contents.]

Pang, Hildegard [Hilda] Delgado (1992) Pre-Columbian Art. Investigations and Insights. University of Oklahoma Press. 330 pages. ISBN-10: 0806123796; ISBN-13: 978-0806123790. (first edition)

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Pardanani, J.H. et al. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (3): 286–288 “Cactus Alkaloids. XXXVII. Mescaline and Related Compounds from Opuntia spinosior.” (J.H. Pardanani, B.N. Meyer, J.L. McLaughlin, W.H. Earle & R.G. Engard )

Parikh, V.M. & J.K.N. Jones (1966) Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 44: 327–333. “Cholla Gum. I. Structure of the Degraded Cholla Gum.”

Paris, René (1951) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 233: 90–92. “Sur un flavonoside des fleurs d’Opuntia vulgaris Miller.”

Paris, René & Hélène Moyse-Mignon (1949) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 229: 86–88. “Étude chimique et pharmacodynamique préliminaire d’une Loganiacée du Gabon: Mostuea stimulans A.Chev.”

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Pascarosa, Paul & Futterman, Sanford (1976) Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 8 (3): 215–221. “Ethnopsychedelic Therapy for Alcoholics: Observations in the Peyote Ritual of the Native American Church.”

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Patton, Mark (1993) Statements in Stone. Routledge: London.

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Paul, A.G. et al. (1969)a The Chemical Society, London. Chemical Communications, [Journal of the Chemical Society, D.] 14: 838. “Biosynthesis of Peyote Alkaloids.” (A.G. Paul, K.L. Khanna, H. Rosenberg & M. Takido)

Paul, A.G. et al. (1969)b Lloydia, 32 (1): 36–39. “The Roles of 3,4,5-Trihydroxyphenethylamine and 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine in the Biosynthesis of Mescaline.” (A.G. Paul, H. Rosenberg & K.L. Khanna)

Paulson, James C. & William O. McClure (1973) Molecular Pharmacology, 9 (1): 41–50. “Inhibition of Axoplasmic Transport by Mescaline and Other Trimethoxyphenylalkylamines.” [Mescaline is a reversible inhibitor of axoplasmic transport.]

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Payne (1961) Industrial Chemist, 37: 523.

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Pechánek, J. (1969) Kaktusy, 69: 76–81 & 109–113. “Lophophora Coult.” [L. lewinii Rusby & L. jourdaniana Krzgr] [Habermann 1975 gives as “69, 4, ; 76 and 69, 5, p. 103–113.”]

Pechánek, J. (1983) Kaktusy,19: 50–53. “Lophophora Williamsii var. decipiens Croizat.”

Pekkarinen, A. & M.-E. Pitkanen (1955) Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Inves. 7: 1 [from Usdin & Efron 1979]

Pellerin, J. et al. (1958) Revue Canadienne de Biologie,  17 (3): 267–298. “Biogenesis and Metabolism of Catecholamines.” (J. Pellerin, J. Leduc and A. D’Iorio)

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Pennes, Harry H. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 119 (2): 95–112. “Clinical reactions of schizophrenics to Sodium Amytal, Pervitin Hydrochloride, Mescaline Sulfate, and D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25).”

Pennington, Campbell W. (1963) The Tarahumar of Mexico. Univ. Utah Press (Reprinted 1974: ISBN-10 0874800935; ISBN-13 9780874800937) 267 pages. (Also reprinted in 1996 by Editorial Agata, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, with 33 b/w & 12 full-colour photographs (found only in this edition) & 4 fold out maps in a back pocket)

Penington, N.J. & R.J. Reiffenstein (1986) European Journal of Pharmacology, 122 (3): 373–377. “Direct comparison of hallucinogenic phenethylamines and D-amphetamine on dorsal raphe neurons.”

Pepper, J.M. & J.A. MacDonald (1953) Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 31: 476–483. “The Synthesis of Syringaldehyde from Vanillin.”

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Peyote Foundation 1998 Press release re: 11,200 living peyote plants. Peyote Foundation: POBox 778, Kearny, AZ 85237.

Pfeiffer, Louis Georg(e) Karl (1837) Alg. Gartenz. 5: 370 [Cereus terscheckii Parmentier] [From Britton & Rose]

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Piattelli, Maurio & F. Imperato (1969) Phytochemistry, 8: 1503–1507. “Betacyanins of the Family Cactaceae.”

Piattelli, Maurio & Luigi Minale (1964)a Phytochemistry, 3: 307–311. “Pigments of Centrospermae – II. Distribution of Betacyanins.”

Piattelli, Maurio & Luigi Minale (1964)b Phytochemistry, 3: 547–557. “Pigments of Centrospermae – I. Betacyanins from Phyllocactus Hybridus Hort. and Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.”

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Piattelli, M. et al. (1964)b Tetrahedron, 20: 2325–2329. “Isolation, Structure and Absolute Configuration of Indicaxanthin.” (Mario Piattelli, Luigi Minale & Giuseppe Prota)

Piattelli, M. et al. (1965) Phytochemistry, 4: 121–125. “Pigments of Centrospermae – II. Betaxanthins from Beta vulgaris L..” (Mario Piattelli, Luigi Minale & Giuseppe Prota) [Mentions isolation from Opuntia ficus-indica]

Pictet et al. 1911 Ber 44: 2036

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Pittier, H. (1926) Manual de las Plantas Usuales de Venezuela. Litografia del Comercio, Caracas.

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Pohorecky, L.A. et al. (1969) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 165 (2): 190–195. “Enzymatic conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine by the brain.” (L.A. Pohorecky, M. Zigmond, H. Karten & R.J. Wurtman)

Poisson, Jacques (1960) Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises, 18: 764–765. “Présence de mescaline dans une Cactacée péruvienne.”

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Polia, Mario (1993) Altrove 1: 77–92. “L’uso del cactus mescalinico Trichocereus pachanoi nella medicina tradizionale andina.”

Polia, Mario (1997) Il Sangue Del Condor; Sciamani Delle Ande. Xenia Edizioni, Milano; 281 pages. ISBN 88-7273–203–4.

Pollard, J.C. et al. (1960) Comprehensive Psychiatry,  1: 377–380, “Controlled sensory input: a note on the technique of drug evaluation with a preliminary report on a comparative study of Sernyl, psilocybin and LSD.” (J.C. Pollard, C. Bakker, L. Uhr & D.F. Feurfile)

Poloni, A. (1956) Cervello 32: 400.

Polono, A. & G. Maffezzoni (1952) Sistema nervoso, 4: 578–581. “Le variazione dell’ attività colinergica del tessuto cerebrale per effetto della bulbocapnina, della mescalina e della dietilamide dell’ acido lisergico.”

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Powell, A Michael & James F. Weedin (2004) Cacti of the Trans-Pecos & Adjacent Areas. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-531-6, 510 pages + 313 plates. This is quite possibly the best book that has ever been written about cacti.

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Prajer, Z. (1968)a Informator Polskiego Towartzstwa Miƚosników Kaktusów, pp. 22–29, 111–129. “Peyotl-Bog-Diabeƚ-czy tylko zwykƚy kaktus?”

Prajer, Z. (1968)b Informator Polskiego Towartzstwa Miƚosników Kaktusów, pp. 120–129. “Peyotl-przez ‘mędrca skieƚko’.”

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Pratesi et al. 1959 J. Chem Soc. 4062

Prentiss, D.W. & Francis P. Morgan (1895) Therapeutic Gazette, 19: 577–585. “Anhalonium Lewinii (Mescal Buttons). A Study of the Drug with Special Reference to its Physiological Action upon Man.”

Prentiss, D.W. & Francis P. Morgan (1896) Medical Record, (August 22) 258–266. “Mescal Buttons. Anhalonium Lewinii — Hennings (Lophophora Williamsii Lewinii — Coulter).”

Prentiss, D.W. & Francis P. Morgan (1896) Therapeutic Gazette, 20: 4–7. “Therapeutic Uses of Mescal-Buttons.”

Price, D.A. & W.T. Hardy (1953) J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 26, 223

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Proskurnina & Orekhov 1939 Bull Soc. Chim. Fr. 6: 144.

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Psotta, K. et al. (1979) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkins Transactions I. 1063–1065. “Joubertinamine: A Novel seco-Mesembrane Alkaloid.” (Klaus Psotta, Franz Strelow & Adrian Wiechers)

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Pulse, T.L. & Elizabeth Uhlig (1990) Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 3: 4. “A significant improvement in a clinical pilot study utilizing nutritional supplements, essential fatty acids and stabilized Aloe vera juice in 29 HIV seropositive, ARC and AIDS patients.”

Pummangura & McLaughlin 1982 in the literature meant Pummangura et al. 1982a

Pummangura, S. & J.L. McLaughlin (1981) Journal of Natural Products, 44 (4): 498–499. “Cactus alkaloids. XLVI. 3-Methoxytyramine and Lemaireocereine from Backebergia militaris

Pummangura, S. et al. (1977) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 66 (10): 1485–1487. “Cactus alkaloids. XXXIII. β-Phenethylamines from the Guatemalan cactus Pilocereus maxonii” (S. Pummangura, D.E. Nichols & J.L. McLaughlin)

Pummangura et al. 1981 JNP 44: 498 in the literature See as Pummangura & McLaughlin 1981

Pummangura, S. et al. (1981) Journal of Natural Products, 44 (5): 614–616. “Cactus Alkaloids. XLVII. β-Phenethylamines from the “Missouri Pincushion”, Coryphantha (Neobessya) missouriensis” (S. Pummangura, J.L. McLaughlin & R.C. Schifferdecker)

Pummangura, S. et al. (1982)a Journal of Natural Products, 45 (2): 224–225. “Cactus Alkaloids. LI. Lack of Mescaline Translocation in Grafted Trichocereus” (S. Pummangura, J.L. McLaughlin & R.C. Schifferdecker)

Pummangura, S. et al. (1982)b Phytochemistry, 21 (9): 2375–2377. “Two Simple Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloid N-oxides from Cacti.” (S. Pummangura, Y.A.H. Mohamed, C.-J. Chang & J.L. McLaughlin)

Pummangura, S. et al. (1982)c Journal of Natural Products, 45: 277–282. “Cactus Alkaloids. XLIX. New Trace Alkaloids (Dehydrosalsolidine and Heliamine) from the Saguaro,
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Pummangura et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, “in press” (in the literature) meant Pummangura et al. 1982b.

Pummangura et al. (1983) Journal of Natural Products, (In Press). [S. Pummangura, J.L. McLaughlin, D.V. Davis & R.G. Cooks) [from Lundström 1983: This is not in either the 1983 or 1984 author index under any name listed. Probably 1982c?]

Pummangura, S. et al. (1983)b Phytochemistry, (In Press). (S. Pummangura, Y.A.H. Mohamed, C.-J. Chang & J.L. McLaughlin) (in the literature) meant Pummangura et al. 1982b

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Qiu, Y., Chen, Y., Pei, Y., Matsuda, H., Yoshikawa, M. (2003a) J. Chin. Pharm. Sci. 12: 1–5. “New Constituents from the Fresh Stems of Opuntia dillenii.” [from Qiu et al. 2007]

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Qiu, Y.K. et al. (2007) Archives of Pharmacal Research, 30 (6): 665–669. “Two New α-Pyrones and Other Components from the Cladodes of Opuntia dillenii.” (Ying Kun Qiu, Yan Yan Zhao, De Qiang Dou, Bi Xia Xu & Ke Liu)

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Quereshi, M.Y. et al.(1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 477–479. “The Neurolathryogen, α-Amino-β-oxalylaminopropionic Acid in Legume Seeds.” (M. Yasin Quereshi, David J. Pilbeam, Christine S. Evans & E. Arthur Bell)

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Rabusic, Emil & Miroslav Gregor (1967) Spisy Prirodovedecke Fakulty University J.E. Purkkyne v. Brne. 480: 85–92 [from CA (1968) 68: 86944.] “Aminoalkylation of phenol ethers.”

Raffauf, Robert F. (1970) The Handbook of Alkaloids and Alkaloid Bearing Plants. Wiley Inter-Science.

Rahmat A. (2004) Daun jarum tujuh bilah untuk barah, sakit kepala. Malaysia: Utusan Melayu (M) Bhd; 5 December 2004. [from Sim et al. 2010]

Rahwan, Ralf G. (1974) Life Sciences. 15: 617–633. “Speculations on the biochemical pharmacology of ethanol.”

Rahwan, Ralf G. (1975) Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.

34: 3–27. “Toxic effects of ethanol: Possible role ofacetaldehyde, tetrahydroisoquinolines, and tetrahydro-β-carbolines.”

Rahwan, Ralf G. & Patrick J. O’Neill (1976) Pharmacologist 18: 190. “Absence of formation of brain salsolinol during chronic ethanol administration to mice.”

Rahwan, R.G. et al. (1974) Life Sciences, 14: 1927–1938. “Differential secretion of catecholamines and tetrahydroisoquinolines from the bovine adrenal medulla.” (R.G. Rahwan, P.J. O’Neill & D.D. Miller)

Raiford, L.Chas. & Donald E. Fox (1944) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 9: 170–174. “Condensation of Vanillin Substitution Products With Nitromethane.”

Rajan, K.S. et al. 1976 Bioinorg. Chem 6: 93

Rajotte, P. et al. (1961) Society of Biological Psychiatry, 278–287. “Studies on Mescaline. XII: Effects of prior administration of various psychotropic drugs.” (Paul Rajotte, Herman C.B. Denber, and Dorothy Kauffman)

Ramirez, Fausto A. & Alfred Burger (1950) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72: 2781–2782. “The reduction of Phenolic β-Nitrostyrenes by Lithium Aluminum Hydride.”

Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1975a) Journal of Chromatography, 111: 234–237. “Cactus alkaloids. XXVII. Use of fluorescamine as a thin-layer chromatographic visualization reagent for alkaloids.”

Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1975b) Lloydia, 38 (6): 537 (Proceedings.) “Cactus alkaloids XXVIII. β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines from
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Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1976) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 41 (2): 319–323. “β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids from the Mexican Cactus Dolichothele longimamma.

Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1977) Lloydia, 40 (2): 173–177. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXXI. β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisiquinolines from the Mexican Cactus
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Ranieri, R.L. et al. (1976) Lloydia, 39 (2-3): 172–174. “Cactus
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Rao, G. Subba (1970) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,
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Raoul, Yves (1936) Thèse Sciences, Paris. “Contribution à l’étude biochimique de l’hordénine.” [From Raoul 1937b]

Raoul, Yves (1937)a Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. (Paris) 19: 675–685. “Sur la formation de l’hordénine par un processus d’allure biologique.”

Raoul, Yves (1937)b Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 204: 74–76. “Nouvelle synthèse de l’hordénine.” [from tyrosine]

Rasmussen, Kurt & George K. Aghajanian (1986) Brain Research, 385: 395–400, “Effect of hallucinogens on spontaneous and sensory-evoked locus coeruleus unit activity in the rat: reversal by selective 5-HT2 antagonists.”

Rasmussen, Kurt & George K. Aghajanian (1988) Neuropsychopharmacology, 1: 101–107, “Potency of antipsychotics in reversing the effects of a hallucinogenic drug on locus coeruleus neurons correlates with 5-HT2 binding affinity.”

Ratcliffe, J. & P. Smith (1959) Chemistry and Industry, 925. “Metabolism of Mescaline.”

Rathbun, Richard (1912-1916) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16. “Systematic Investigations of Phanaerogams, Ferns and Mosses.”

Rätsch, Christian (1995) “Eine bisher nicht beschriebene Zubereitungsform von Trichocereus pachanoi.” pp. 267–281 in: Rätsch & Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedizin und Bewußtseinsforschung. Issue #4.

Rätsch, Christian (1998) Enzyklopädie der Psychoaktiven Pflanzen. Botanik, Ethnopharmakologie und Anwendung. ISBN 3-85502-570-3. AT Verlag, Switzerland. Also as The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and its Applications. Rochester: Park Street Press.

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Rätsch, Christian & John R. Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedizin und Bewußtseinsforschung [Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness] Issue #4. VWB: Berlin. ISBN 3-86135-031-9.

Rauh, Werner (1958) Beitrag zur Kenntnis der peruanischen Kakteenvegetation. 361–362. Springer–Verlag Heidelberg

Rauh, Werner (1978) Schöne Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten.

Rauh, Werner & Curt Backeberg 1956 see as Backeberg 1956

Ray, O.S. & C. Ksir (1990) Drugs, Society, and Human Behavior. Times Mirror/ Mosby; St. Louis

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1931) Bulletin de l’Academie Nationale de Médecine (Paris), 105: 46–54. [CA (1932) 26: 1347–1348.] [“The Physiological action of mezcaline, principle alkaloid of Peyotl.”]

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1933)a Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie
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169: 97–113. “Neue Beobachtungen über die physiologische Wirkung des Mescalins.”

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1933)b Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 113: 386–387. “Action de l’hordenine sur le rein à vaisseaux sectionnés puis anastomosés à ceux du cou”

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1933)c Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 113: 875–877. “Sur les effets cardiaques de l’hordénine”

Raymond-Hamet 1936 Comptes Rendus, 209: 67 in the literature referred to Raymond-Hamet 1939

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1936) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 121: 112–115. “Sur une propriété physiologique encore inconnue de l’hordénine”

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1939) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 209: 67–69. “L’action nicotinique de l’hordénine n’est pas supprimée par l’introduction dans la molécule d’un second oxyhydrile phénolique, celui-ci en position méta.” 

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1940) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 133: 570–572. “L’oxytyramine doit-elle être tenue pour une amine véritablement sympathomimétique?”

Read, J. & I.G.M. Campbell (1930) J. Chem. Soc. 2682.

Rebut, [Pierre] catalog (nd) Rebut Catalogue de Cactées et Plantes Grasses Diverses. [As cited in Lewin 1894 & Schultes 1940] (1894 page 5; according to Grym 1997) [Anhalonium jourdanianum Rebut or Anhalonium jourdanianum Hort.?]

Rebut, Pierre (1905) Monatschr. f. Kakteenk. 15: 122 [Echinocactus jourdanianus (Rebut) Rebut ] [From Schultes 1940] [Grym 1997 gives this citation as C.A. Maass 1905]

Reggiani, A. et al. (1980) Substance and Alcohol Actions/Misuse, 1: 151–158. “Role of dopaminergic-enkephalinergic interactions in the neurochemical effects of ethanol.” (Reggiani, M.L. Barbaccia, P.F Spano & M. Trabucchi)

Reich (1991) Horticulture 69 (1): 58–59. “Grafting.”

Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. (1978)a Beyond the Milky Way: Hallucinatory Images of the Tukano Indians. Latin American Studies No. 42.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1978)b “Drug Induced optical Sensations and Their Relationship to Applied Art among Some Colombian Indians.” 289–304, in Michael Greenhalgh & Vincent McGraw (eds.) Art and Society. Duckworth: London.

Reichert, Benno (1936) German Patent 629,313 April 30 1936; [CA (1936) 30: 4875]

Reidlinger, Thomas J. (ed.) (1997) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker. Tributes to R. Gordon Wasson. Park Street Press. ISBN 0-89281-338–5. [1990 by Timber Press]

Reinberg, P. (1921) Journal de la Société des Américanistes Paris, 13: 25–54, 197–216. “Contributión a l’étude des biossons toxiques des indiens du nord-ouest de l’Amazone: l’ayahuasca, le yagé, le huánto. Étude comparative toxico-physiologique d’une experience personelle.”

Reko, Blas Pablo (1928) Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad Cientifica”Antonio Alzeta”. (Mexico), 49: 379. “Alcaloide y Glucosidos en Plantas Mexicanas.”

Reko, Blas Pablo (1928) Mem. Soc. Cient. “Antonio Alzate” 49: 380. [From Neal et al. 1972]

Ressler, Bob R. (2000) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 72 (6): 309–312. “Trichocereus cuzcoensis – A hardy Peruvian columnar cactus.”

Retamozo, Bióloga Edith (2000) Quepo, 16: 28–32. “Formas Polinicas de Cactáceae en Arequipa.”

Reti, Ladislao (1933)a Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 114: 811–814. [(1933) Rev. Soc. Argentina Biol. 9: 344] “Sur les alcaloïdes de la cactacée Trichocereus candicans (Br et Rose)”

Reti, Ladislao (1939) Atti. X. Congr. int. Chim. Roma, 5: 396–405. “Nuovi alcaloidi di cactacee argentine” (Paper presenting his preliminary report on T. terscheckii.)

Reti, Ladislao (1947) Ciencia e Investigación. Revista Patrocinada por la Asociación Argentina, October: 405–411. “Alcaloides de las cactáceas y substancias naturales relacionadas.”

Reti, Ladislao (1950) Forstschritte der Chemie Organischer Naturstoffe (Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products.) 6: 242–289. “Cactus Alkaloids and Some Related Compounds”

Reti, Ladislao (1953) “β-Phenethylamines.” pp. 313–348, (Chapter 22) in: R.H.F. Manske & H.L. Holmes (eds.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Physiology. Volume III.

Reti, Ladislao (1954)a “Simple Isoquinoline Alkaloids”, p. 7–21, (Chapter 26), in: R.H.F. Manske & H.L. Holmes (eds.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Physiology. Vol 4.

Reti, Ladislao (1954)b “Cactus Alkaloids” pp. 23–28, (Chapter 27), in: R.H.F. Manske & H.L. Holmes (eds.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Physiology. Vol 4.

Reti, L & R.L. Arnolt (1935) Actas y trabajo del V. Congr. Nac. de Medicina, Rosario, 3: 39. “Alcaloids del Trichocereus lamprochlorus (Lem.) Britton and Rose”

Reti, Ladislao & Juan A. Castrillón (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73 (4): 1767–1769. “Cactus alkaloids. I. Trichocereus tersheckii (Parmentier) Britton and Rose”

Reti, L. et al. (1935) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, (Société de Biologie de Rosario 25 Octobre 1934) 118: 591–593. [(1934) Rev. Soc. Argentina biol. 10: 437] “Sur un alcaloïde du Cereus coryne Salm. (1850)” (L. Reti, R.I. Arnolt & F.P. Ludueña)

Reutter, L. (1924) Schweizerische Apotheker-Zeitung, 62: 441–443. “Du Peyolt [sic], comme drogue sensorielle.”

Revel, Jean-François (1977) The Totalitarian Temptation. [Hardcover; Doubleday: NY/ Paperback; Penguin: NY (Again in 1978] 311 pages.

Reyna Pinedo, Víctor & Flores Garcés, José (2001) Quepo, 15: 28–37. “El uso del “San Pedro” (Echinopsis pachanoi) en medicina tradicional peruana.”

Reynolds, P.C. & E.J. Jindrich (1985) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 9: 183–184. “A mescaline associated fatality.”

Rhodes, Willard (1958) Journal of the International Folk Music Council, 10: 42–49. “A study of musical diffusion based on the wandering of the opening peyote song.”

Riccobono, Vincenzo (1909) Bollettino delle R[eale] Orto Botanico di Palermo, 8: 215–266. “Studii sulle Cattee del R. Orto Botanico di Palermo.”

 Aporocactus flagelliformis 260–261

 Cereus grandiflorus 249–250

 Eriocereus jusberti 240

 Eriocereus tephracanthus 244–245

 Myrtillocactus geometrizans 224–225

 Pilocereus euphorbioides 254–255

 Piptanthocereus beneckei 226–227

 Piptathocereus jamacaru 229–230

 Piptanthocereus peruvianus 232–233

 Stenocereus stellatus 253–254

 Trichocereus macrogonus 236–237

 Trichocereus spachianus 237–238

Riccobono, Vincenzo (1909) Bollettino delle R[eale] Orto Botanico di Palermo, 8: 244 -245. “Sp. 8. ° Eriocereus tephracanthus (BERG. l. c. p. 74).”

Riccobono, Vincenzo (1909) Bollettino delle R[eale] Orto Botanico di Palermo, 8: 236–237. [i.e. Bollettino del R. Orto Botanico e Giardino Coloniale] “Sp. 1. ° Trichocereus macrogonus (BERG. 1. c, p. 83).”

Rice, W.B. & J.D. McColl (1960) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 127: 249–259. “Antagonism of psychotomimetic agents in the conscious cat.“

Richardson, A.B. et al. (1891) Cincinnati Lancet and Clinic 27: 829. “Cactus grandiflorus as a Heart Tonic.” (A.B. Richardson, J.C. Oliver & L.C. Colter)

Richardson, A.B. et al. (1891) Cincinnati Lancet and Clinic, 27: 828–829. “Cactina, a New Cardiac Tonic.” (A.B. Richardson, J.C. Oliver & L.C. Colter)

Richardson, D.A. (1896) The Denver Times, 16 (6): 214–217. “Anhalonium Lewinii – Mescale Button – A Report of Five Cases in Which the Tinture was Exhibited in Four-Drop Doses Daily.”

Richardson, Mick (1978) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 6: 283–286. “Flavonols and C-Glycosylflavonoids of the Caryophyllales.”

Richter, Derek (1938) Biochemical Journal, 32: 1763–1769. “CCXXIX. Elimination of Amines in Man.”

Rico-Bobadilla, A.C. et al. (2001) XXXII Congreso Nacional de Microbiología. Guanajuato, Guanajuato. México. Abril 3–5. “Efecto antimicrobiano del extracto liofillizado de músaro (Lophocereus schottii).” (AC Rico-Bobadilla, OLE Gassós & FA Félix) [from Garza Padrón 2010]

Riedlinger, Thomas (ed.) (1990) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker. Tributes to R. Gordon Wasson. Park Street Press: Rochester. ISBN 0-89281-338-5.

Rietschel, Hans G. (1937)a Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmakol. 186: 387–408. “Zur Pharmakologie des Hordenins.”

Rietschel, Hans G. (1937)b Klinische Wochenschrift 16 (20): 714–715. “Zur Pharmakologie des Hordenins.”

Rigal-Cellier, Bernadette (2004) The Peyote Way Church of God: Native Americans v. New Religions v. the Law.

Riggins, R.M. & P.T. Kissinger (1976) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 24: 900. “Identification of salsolinol as a phenolic component in powdered cocoa and cocoa-based products.”

Riggin, Ralph M. & Peter T. Kissinger (1977) Analytical Chemistry, 49 (4): 530-.533 “Determination of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids in Biological Materials with High Performance Liquid Chromatography.”

Riggin, R. M. et al. (1976) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 24: 189–191. “Identification of salsolinol as a major dopamine metabolite in the banana.” (R.M. Riggin, M.J. McCarty & P.T. Kissinger)

Říha, J. & R. Šubík (1979) Aztekia 1: 9–14. “Lophophora diffusa.

Ríha, J. & R. Šubík (1981) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Cacti & Other Succulents. Artia, Prague. ISBN 0-7064-1492-6.

Říha, Jan (1996) Kaktusy, 32: 70–73. “Lophophora diffusa var. koehresii.“

Remington, J.P. et al. (eds.) (1918) The Dispensatory of the United States, 20th edition. (Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood, & others) [From the online version at The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm.com]

Rimington et al. (1938) J. Vet. Sci. Animal Ind. 9: 187. [CA (1938) 32: 42799]. [From Merck 9th] Also cited as Rimington, C. & G.C.S. Roets (1937) Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 9: 187–191. “Notes upon the isolation of the alkaloidal constituent of the drug ‘channa’ or ‘kougoed’ (Mesembryanthemum anatomicum and Mesembryanthemum tortuosum).” [From Smith 1996] (Unable to obtain a copy.)

Rinaldi, Franco & H.E. Himwich (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 424–432. “The cerebral electroencephalographic changes induced by LSD and mescaline are corrected by frequel.”

Rinkel, Max (1956) “Biochemical Reflections on the Psychosis Problem.” in L. Cholden (ed.) Lysergic Acid and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry. New York: Grune and Stratton.]

Rinkel, Max (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 424–427. “Pharmacodynamics of LSD and Mescaline.”

Rinkel, Max (1965) The Presidential address: the LSD movement in America. (Paper read at Soc. Biol. Psychiat., New York City April-May, 1965.)

Rinkel, Max & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) (1958) Chemical Concepts of Psychosis. NewYork: McDowell.

Rinkel, Max, et al. (1952) American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 572–578. “Experimental Schizophrenia-like symptoms.” (Max Rinkel, H.J. Deschon, R.W. Hyde & H.C. Solomon)

Rinne, U.K. & V. Sonninen (1967) Nature, (London) 216: 489.

Ritter, Friedrich (1958) “Die von Curt Backeberg in “ Descriptiones Cactacearum novarum “ veröffentlichten Diagnosen “ n e u e r “ peruanischer Kakteen nebst grundsätzlichen Erörterungen über taxonomische und nomenklatorische Fragen.” Friedrich Ritter Verlag, Hamburg.

Ritter, Friedrich (1962) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 13 (10): 165–167. “Trichocereus fulvilanus Ritter spec. nov. “

Ritter, Friedrich (1966) Cactus (Paris). Organe de l’Association Française des Amateurs de Cactus et Plantes Grasses. Paris. 21 (87): 13–14. “Trichocereus crassicostatus Ritter spec. nov.”

Ritter, Friedrich (1966) Cactus (Paris). Organe de l’Association Française des Amateurs de Cactus et Plantes Grasses. Paris. 21(87): 14–15. “Trichocereus scopulicola Ritter spec. nov.” [Using the citation “Cactus, Paris, No. 87. Page 14” (obtained from the Index Kewensis CD-ROM), we were unsuccessful in locating this paper despite over 5 years of active effort and the help of numerous professionals. Interlibrary loan insisted repeatedly that no such journal existed. Our thanks to Dr. M. Terry for his help in finally obtaining a copy.]

Ritter, Friedrich (1980) Kakteen in Südamerika. Argentinien/Boliviens Vol. 2: 375–856. (Trichocereus: 437–456) F.Ritter/self-published

Ritter, Friedrich (1981) Kakteen in Sudamerika. Peru. Vol. 4: 1239–1692. (Trichocereus: 1324–1329) F.Ritter/self-published

Rivas, Augustin. “Canto Musica Ayahuasca en la Silva de Peru: Agustin Rivas.” Tape available through the Basement Shaman.

River, Liliana & Joseph Rael (1984) Beautiful Painted Arrow: A Medicine Story. Path-ways: Virginia Beach. [P.O.Box 4308/ 23454] No ISBN. 129 pages.

Rivier, Laurent & Jan-Erik Lindgren (1972) Economic Botany, 26: 101–129. “ “Ayahuasca”, the South American Hallucinogenic Drink: an Ethnobotanical and Chemical Investigation.” [Epiphyllum]

Rivier, Laurent & Paul-Émile Pilet (1971) L’Anneée Biologique 10 (3-4): 129–149. “Composés Hallucinogènes Indoliques Naturels.”

Robb, George L. (1957) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 17 (10): 265–316 “The Ordeal Poisons of Madagascar and Africa.”

Robert (Bob) Schick (2003) Echinopsis Revisited. PDF posted on Cactus etc (http://www2.labs.agilent.com/bot/cactus_home).

Roberti, C.E. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici 26: 245, 353. “Dell’ allucinazioni.”

Robinson, G. (1954) in H.A. Abramson, (ed.) Problems of Consciousness, 5th Conference, 1954, Princeton. J. Macy, Jr. Foundation.

Robinson, John C, Jr., & H.R. Snyder (1955) “β-Phenethylamine (Phenethylamine)” pp. 720–722, in E.C. Horning (ed.) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III.

Robiola, P.F. (1955) Minerva Medica, 46 (103): 1975–1976. [A New Drug Compound with Cereus grandiflorus Mill., a Mexican Cactus with Cardiotonic Action] (article is in Italian) [From Aardvark 2006]

Robles, Clemente & José Gomez Robleda (1931) Anales del Instituto de biologia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México. 2 (1): 15–46. “Trabajo inicial acerca de la acción fisiológica del chlorhidrato de peyotina.”

Roca, Juan (1930) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 1 (3): 204. “Nota Preliminar Acerca del Estudio Quimico del Pachycereus Marginatus.

Roca, Juan (1931) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 2 (2): 133–137. “Estudio Quimico Preliminar del Pachycereus Marginatus.”

Roca, Juan (1932) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 3 (1): 19–23. “Analisis Quimico del Pachycereus Marginatus.”

Rodríguez, G.R.G, et al. (2008) VI Simposio Internacional sobre Flora Silvestre en Zonas Áridas. La Paz, B.C.S., Marzo 12–15. “Actividad biológica de Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus (Lemaire), Ariocarpus retusus (Scheidweiler) y Fouquieria splendens (Engelmann).” (GRG Rodríguez, SMJ Verde, CA Oranday, RME Morales, MC Rivas, GMA Núñez & NJF Treviño) [from Garza Padrón 2010]

Rodriguez, Miguel Angel (2010) “Preparación necesaria para la Sanación con Híkuri o Peyote, Ayahuasca y San Pedro (Huachuma).” Paper from 2010 Congreso Internacional de medicina traditcional y salud pública. “El peyote, medicina tradicional o droga lúdica” 20–23 October, Toluca, México

Roitman, M.F. et al. (2002) Journal of Neuroscience, 22: 225-? “Induction of a Salt Appetite Alters Dendritic Morphology in Nucleus Accumbens and Sensitizes Rats to Amphetamine.” (Mitchell F. Roitman, Elisa Na, Gregory Anderson, Theresa A. Jones, & Ilene L. Bernstein) See also re: article in Journal of Neuroscience. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/06/020604073144.htm “Rats Depleted Of Salt Become Sensitized To Amphetamine, Show Unusual Growth Of Brain Cells.”

Rojas Aréchiga, Mariana (2008) Ciencias, 91: 44–49. “El Controvertido Peyote”

Romariz, I.C. (1946) Portugaliae Acta Biol. Ser. A. 1: 235–250. [“Unusual carotenoids in young leaves.”] [From 1949 CA 43: 1836i-1837a] See also 1947 Biological Abstracts, 21: 1511.

Romero, M.L. (1983) J. Chromatogr. 281: 245

Rose, Joseph Nelson (1899) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 5 (4): 209–259. “Notes on Useful Plants of Mexico.”

Roseghini, M. et al. (1976) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C, Comparative Pharmacology, 54 (1): 31–43. “Indole-, imidazole- and phenyl-alkylamines in the skin of one hundred amphibian species from Australia and Papua New Guinea. “ (M. Roseghini, V. Erspamer & R. Endean)

Roseghini, M. et al. (1976) Z. Naturforsch. C. 31: 118

Roseghini, M. et al. (1988) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C, Comparative Pharmacology, 91 (2): 281–286. “Biogenic amines and active peptides in the skin of fifty-two African amphibian species other than bufonids.” (M. Roseghini, G. Falconieri Erspamer & C. Severini)

Roseghini, M. et al. (1989) Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part C, Comparative Pharmacology,  94 (2): 455–460. “Biogenic amines and active peptides in extracts of the skin of thirty-two European amphibian species.” (M. Roseghini, G. Falconieri Erspamer, C. Severini & M. Simmaco)

Roseman, Bernard (1968) The Peyote Story. The Indian Mind Drug. Wiltshire: Hollywood.

Rose-Munch, F. et al. (2000) Inorganica Chimica Acta, 300-302: 693–697. “Mescaline synthesis via tricarbonyl (η6-1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene)chromium complex.” (Françoise Rose-Munch, René Chavignon, Jean-Philippe Tranchier, Vanessa Gagliardini & Eric Rose)

Rosenberg, H. & A.G. Paul (1969) Tetrahedron Letters, 13: 1039–1042. “Dolichotheline, a novel imidazole alkaloid from Dolichothele sphaerica” [The only alkaloid they reported in this paper.]

Rosenberg, H. & A.G. Paul (1970) Phytochemistry, 9 (3): 655–657. “The isolation and biosynthesis of dolichotheline” [From Dolichothele sphaerica]

Rosenberg, H. & S.J. Stohs (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 1861–1863. “The Utilization of Tyrosine For Mescaline and Protein Biosynthesis in Lophophora Williamsii.”

Rosenberg, H. & S.J. Stohs (1976) Phytochemistry, 15 (4): 501–503. “Effects of histidine decarboxylase inhibitors on the production of an aberrant alkaloid in Dolichothele sphaerica.”

Rosenberg, H. et al. (1964) Psychopharmacologia, 5: 217–227. “The effect of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in human subjects tolerant to lysergic acid diethylamide.”

Rosenberg, H. et al. (1967) Lloydia, 30 (1): 100–105. “The Cactus Alkaloids. III. Phenylalanine, DOPA and DOPAmine as precursors to Mescaline in Lophophora Williamsii.”

Rosenberg, H. et al. (1969) Lloydia, 32 (3): 334–338. “The Biosynthesis of Mescaline in Lophophora Williamsii.” (H. Rosenberg, K. L. Khanna, M. Takido & A. G. Paul)

Rosenberg, H. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13 (5) 823–828. “Directed biosynthesis of unnatural alkaloids in Dolichothele sphaerica.” (Harry Rosenberg, Sidney J. Stohs & Ara G. Paul)

Rosenberg et al. 1976 in the literature See as Rosenberg & Stohl 1976

Rosenmund, Karl W. (1909) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 42 (4): 4778–4783. “Über p-oxyphenyl-äthylamin”

Rosenmund, Karl W. (1910) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 43: 306. “Die Synthese des Hordenine, eines Alkaloids aus Gerstenkeimen, und über α-p-Oxyphenyl-äthylamin.”

Rosenthaler, L. (1931) Pharmaceutische Zeitung, 76: 653–654. “Beitrage zum Nachweis organischer Verbindungen. IV. Mikrochemische Reaktionen des Mezcalins.” [From Reti 1950] Listed elsewhere as “Détection de composes organiques. Réaction microchemiques de la mescaline.” and “Detection of organic compounds: microchemical reactions of mescalin.”

Rosenthaler, L. (1935) Toxikologische Mikroanalyse. p. 15. Borntraeger, Berlin.

Rösler, H. et al. (1966) Phytochemistry, 5: 189–192. “The Flavonoid Pigments of Opuntia lindheimeri.” (Heinz Rösler, Ursula Rösler, Tom. J. Mabry & Jacques Kagan)

Rosler, H. et al. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (4): 383–384. “The Isolation of 6-Methoxyharmane From Grewia mollis.” (Heinz Rosler, Helene Framm & Ralph N. Blomster)

Rösner, P. et al. (2007) Mass Spectra of Designer Drugs, Including Drugs, Chemical Warfare Agents, and Precursors, Vol. 2. (P. Rösner, T. Junge, F. Westphal & F. Fritsch) Wiley-VCH Verlag/Weinheim. 2067 pages.

Ross (1978) Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res. 2: 139–143.

Ross, Brian & Jill Rackmill (2000) ABC 20/20, 18 February. “Homicide Within the DEA” See http://www.abcnews.go.com/onair/2020/2020_000217_ross_feature.html

Roth, R.H. & N.J. Giarman (1970) Phytochemistry, 19: 1087–1093. “Natural Occurrence of Gamma-Hydroxybutrate in Mammalian Brain.”

Rotondo, H. (1943) Revista de neuropsiquiatria (Lima), 6: 58–143. “Fenomenología de la intoxicación mescalinica y análisis funcional del pensamiento en su decurso.”

Rouhier, Alexandre (1925) Revue metapsychique, pp. 144–145. “Phénomènes de metagnomie expérimentale observés au course d’une experience fait avec le peyotl.”

Rouhier, Alexandre (1926) Thesis, Doct. Pharm. Facultié de Pharmacie de Paris. Monographie du Peyotl.

Rouhier, Alexandre (1927)a La Plante qui fait les yeux émerveillés. LePeyotl (Echinocactus williamsii). Gaston Doin & Cie, Paris. [Also in 1926 by G. Tredaniel: Paris) [See also (1989) Éditions de la Maisnie. 409 pp. ISBN 2-85707-332-1.]

Rouhier, Alexandré (1927)b Les Plantes divinatoires. Doin, Paris. (Huachuma page 12).

Rouhier, Alexandre (1988) “L’ebbrezza peyotica (Studio sull’esperienza di Havelock Ellis).” pp. 69–79 in J.C. Bailey & J.P. Guimard L’esperienza allucinogena. Dedalo: Bari.

Rouhier, Alexandre (1996) Die Hellsehen hervorrufenden Pflanzen. VWB: Berlin (reprint)

Round Table. Psychodynamic and Therapeutic Aspects of Mescaline and Lysergic acid Diethylamide. See Denber & Rinkel (eds.) 1957.

Roush, R. et al. (1985) Analytical Chemistry, 57: 109–114. “Search for New Alkaloids in Pachycereus weberi by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” (Robin A. Roush, R. Graham Cooks, Stephanie A. Sweetana & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Rowley, Gordon D. (1974) IOS Bulletin, 3(3): 93–99. “Reunion of the Genus Echinopsis

Rowley, Gordon D. (1978) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Succulents. Crown Publ, New York 1978. ISBN # 0-517-53309-X. Very nice book but hardly encyclopedic.

Rubini (1864) Therapeut. et Pathog. (October): 268-?. “Pathogénésie du Cactus grandiflorus observée sur l’homme sain et confirmée sur le malade.” [From Hobschette 1929]

Ruchirawat et al. (1984) Synth. Commun. 14: 1221

Ruck, C.A.P. et al. (1979) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 11 (1–2): 145–146: “Entheogens.” (Carl A.P. Ruck, Jeremy Bigwood, Danny Staples, Jonathan Ott & R. Gordon Wasson)

Ruckebusch, Y. et al. (1965)a Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 159 (4): 911–914. “Synergie et antagonisme de l’activité hyperthermisante de la mescaline.” (Y. Ruckebusch, M.L. Grivel & M. Roche)

Ruckebusch, Y. et al. (1965)b Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 159: 1745–1748. “Parallélisme des effets des psychodysleptiques majeurs sur da toxicité de groupe et le taux cérébral en sérotonine.” (Y. Ruckebusch, M. Roche & D. Schurch)

Rudgley, Richard (1995) Addiction 90: 163–164. “The Archaic Use of Hallucinogens in Europe: An Archaeology of Altered States.”

Ruiz de Alarcón See as De Alarcon

Ruiz, S.O. et al. (1973) An. Asoc. Quim. Argen. 61: 41. “Alcaloides de Cactaceas: Gymnocalycium schickendantzii (Weber) Br. & R, y Cereus aethiops Haworth.” (S.O. Ruiz, G. Neme, M. Nieto & A.T. D’Arcangelo)

Rümpler, Theodor (1886) Carl Friedrich Förster’s Handbuch der Cacteenkunde Second ed. Leipzig: Verlag von Im. Tr. Woller. Page 233. [from Grym 1997 & Anderson 1980] 2nd ed. is given as 1885 in Britton & Rose and also by Croizat. Page 712: Cereus tephracanthus bolivianus Weber; Page 688: Pilocereus terscheckii Rümpler; Page 827: Echinocereus strigosus var. spinosior Rümpler & Echinocereus strigosus var. rufispinus Rümpler

Rusby, H. (1894) Bulletin of Pharmacy, 8: 306.

Rusby, H.H. (1888) Bulletin of Pharmacy, 2: 126. “A. Lewinii.” [From LaBarre]

Rusby, H.H. (1894) Bulletin of Pharmacy, 8: 306. “Mescal Buttons.” [From Grym 1997 & LaBarre]

Rusby, H.H. (1894) Bulletin of Pharmacy, 8: 306. “Mescal Buttons.” [From Grym 1997 & LaBarre]

Rusby, H.H. (1903) Reference Handbook of the Medical Sciences, 6: 456. “Mescal Buttons.” [from LaBarre]

Saag, L.M.K. et al. (1975)  in the literature meant Mindt et al. 1975

Sacred Succulents’ Grafting Guide was available from Sacred Succulents, POBox 781, Sebastopol, California, 95473. Catalog $2. (Cost was $6 in 1999.)

Safford, William E. (1908) Washington Annual Report Smithsonian Institution of Sciences, 1908. 525–563 (with 15 plates; one of the plates faces page 525.) “Cactaceae of Northeastern and Central Mexico, Together With a Synopsis of the Principal Mexican Genera.”

Safford, William E. (1915) Journal of Heredity. 6: 291–311. “An Aztec Narcotic.”

Safford, William E. (1916)a Annual Report. Smithsonian Institution, 1916: 387–424, plus 17 plates. “Narcotic Plants and Stimulants of the Ancient Americans.”

Safford, William E. (1916)b Washington Academy of Sciences, 6: 547–562. “Identity of cohoba, the narcotic snuff of ancient Haiti.”

Safford, William E. (1921) Journal of the American Medical Association, 77 (16): 1278–1279. “Peyote, the Narcotic Mescal Button of the Indians.”

de Sahagún, Bernadino (1829 & 1830) (finished circa 1578) Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (ed. C.M. de Bustamante) 2: 366 & 3: 241 [3 volumes: 1829–1830; Mexico] Later republished as the Florentine Codex. The Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagún. Bernardino originally titled it: La Historia General de las Cosas de Nueva España (in English: the General History of the Things of New Spain) Bernadino de Sahagún [1490–1590]

de Sahagún, Bernadino (1880) Histoire générale des chosas de la Nouvelle-Espagne (tr. & ed. by D. Jourdanet & Rémi Siméon) Paris.

de Sahagún, Bernadino (1932) A History of Ancient Mexico by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, Vol. 1 (tr. by Fanny R. Bandlier) Nashville.

de Sahagún, Bernadino (1938) Historia general de las cosas de Nueva España (5 Volumes) P. Robredo: México.

Sahu, N.P. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 529–530. “A new saponin of oleanolic acid from Pereskia grandifolia.” (N.P. Sahu, N. Banerji & R.N. Chakravarti)

Sai-Halász, A. (1962) Experientia, 18: 137–138. “The effect of Antiserotonin on the Experimental Psychosis Induced by Dimethyltryptamine.”

Sailer & Stumpf (1957) Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 230: 378.

Salcedo, Mario B. (1986) Un Herbolario de Ch’ajaya Devela sus Secretos. Ediziones Senpas: La Paz, Bolivia. 165 pages.

Saleem, R. et al. (2005) Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 28 (10): 1844–1851. “Hypotensive activity, toxicology and histopathology of opuntioside-I and methanolic extract of Opuntia dillenii.” (Rubeena Saleem, Mohammad Ahmad, Aisha Azmat, Syed Iqbal Ahmad, Zareen Faizi, Lubna Abidi & Shaheen Faizi)

Saleem, M. et al. (2006) Phytochemistry, 67: 1390–1394. “Secondary metabolites from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.” (Muhammad Saleem, Hyoung Ja Kim, Chang Kyun Han, Changbae Jin & Yong Sup Lee)

Salerno, Enrique V. & Alberto Tallaferro (1957) Semana Médica (Buenos Aires), 110 (1): 47–48, 52. [Chemical Abstracts (1957) 51: 8997b.] [“Mescaline, D-lysergic acid diethylamide, and menstrual function.”]

Salm-Dyck (1834) Cact. Hort. Dyck 1834: 334 [Cereus strigosus] [From Britton & Rose]

Salm-Dyck, Jos. de (1845) Cacteæ in Horto Dyckensi cultæ anno 1844. Additis tribuum generumque characteribus emendatis. Parisiis e Typis Crapelet. 51 pages.

 Cereus strigosus: 27

 Cereus candicans : 27

 Cereus chilensis: 27

 Cereus chilensis f. fulvibarbis: 27

 Cereus chilensis f. brevispinulus = C. quintero: 27

 Cereus gladiatus: 28

Salm-Dyck, Jos. de (1850) Cacteæ in Horto Dyckensi cultæ anno 1849. Secundum tribus et genera digestæ, additis adnotationibus botanicis characteribusque specierum in enumeratione diagnostica cactearum doct. Pfeifferi non descriptarum. Bonnæ apud Henry & Cohen. Typis C. Georgii. 266 pages + 1 page addendum.

 Cereus candicans : 51

 Cereus bridgesii: 48 & 208–209

 Cereus candicans : 43

 Cereus chilensis : 44 & 198

 Cereus chiloensis 44

 Cereus eburneus : 47

 Cereus Forbesii: 47 & 206

 Cereus fulvibarbis 44

 Cereus fulvispinus 46

 Cereus gladiatus 48

 Cereus grandiflorus 51 & 216

 Cereus intricatus 43 & 194

 Cereus lamprochlorus 43 & 195

 Cereus longispinus 44 & 196

 Cereus macrogonus 46 & 203

 Cereus nigricans 46 & 202

 Cereus spachianus : 43 & 194

 Cereus tenuispina 62

 Cereus Terscheckii 46

 Cereus tetragonus 47

 Cereus validus: 48

 Echinopsis bridgesii: 38 & 181

 Echinopsis valida: 39 & 181

Salm-Dyck 1909 (in the literature) refers to Riccobono 1909.

Salmoiraghi, Gian Carlo & Irvine H. Page (1957) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 120 (1): 20–25. “Effects of LSD-25, BOL 148, Bufotenine, Mescaline and Ibogaine on the Potentiation of Hexobarbitol Hypnosis Produced by Serotonin and Reserpine.” [Reported that the entheogenically inactive BOL 148 could be enabled to be active when given with large doses of serotonin.]

Salomon, Kurt & Albert F. Bina (1946) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 68: 2403. “Ultraviolet Absorption Spectra of Mescaline Sulfate and β-Phenethylamine Sulfate.”

Salomon, Kurt et al. (1947) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 6: 367–368. “Investigation of the psycho-chemical basis of visual hallucinations produced by mescaline.” [Abstract of a paper presented to the 37th Annual Meeting: the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.] (Kurt Salomon, Thomas Thale and Beverly Westscott [sic?] Gabrio)

Salomon, Kurt et al. (1949) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 95 (4): 455–459. “A study of mescaline in human subjects.” (Kurt Salomon, Beverly Wescott Gabrio and Thomas Thale)

Salt, T.M. et al. (1987) Phytochemistry, 26 (3): 731–733. “Dominance of Δ5-Sterols in Eight Species of the Cactaceae.” (Thomas A. Salt, Joel E. Tucker & John H. Adler)

Samorini, Giorgio (1998)a Allucinogeni, empatogeni, cannabis. Bibliografia italiana commentata, Grafton 9: Bologna. 165 pp.

Samorini, Giorgio (1998)b Eleusis n.s., 1: 87–108. “Gli “alberi-fungo” nell’arte cristiana.” / “Mushroom-Trees” in Christian Art.”

Sanchez, Victor (1996) Toltecs of the New Millenium. Bear and Co. (Ingram) ISBN 1-879181-35-5. 228 pages.

Sandler et al. 1982 in Bloom

Sandler, M. et al. (1973) Nature, 241: 439–443. “Tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids: in vivo metabolism of l-DOPA in man.” (M. Sandler, S.B. Carter, K.R. Hunter & G.M. Stern)

Sandoval, A. et al. (1957) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79: 4468–4472. “Terpenoids. XXX. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Chichipegenin.” (A. Sandoval, A. Manjarrez, P.R. Leeming, G.H. Thomas & Carl Djerassi)

Sands, Lila & Rosalind Klaas (1929) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 51: 3441–3446. “The Composition of Cholla Gum. I. The Isolation of l-Arabinose, d-Galactose and l-Rhamnose.”

Sanguin 1829 in the literature refers to Sahagún 1829.

Santi-Soncin, E. & M. Furlenut (1972) Fitoterapia,43: 21.

Sarkis, Alia & Víctor Campos (1991) Curanderismo Tradicionale del Costariccense. Curaciones con plantas medicinales y remedios caseros. Second Edition (first edition was 1985) Lehmann Editores: San José, Costa Rica. ISBN 9977-949-23-9. 188 pages.

Saskai, Y. et al. (2009) Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 32 (5): 887–891. “Rapid and Sensitive Detection of Lophophora Williamsii by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification” (Yohei Sasaki, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Masako Aragane, Ichiro Yasuda & Seiji Nagumo)

Sato, M. et al. (1967) Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 17: 153–163. “Studies on tetrahydroisoquinolines. II. Pharmacological action on cardiovascular system.” (M. Sato, I. Yamaguchi & A. Kiyomoto)

Sato, P.T. et al. (1973) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 62 (3): 411–414. “Cactus Alkaloids. XVI. Isolation and identification of alkaloids in Coryphantha ramillosa” (P.T. Sato, J.M. Neal, L.R. Brady & J.L. McLaughlin)

Sato, Tony (1996) Cactus Handbook. Japan Cactus Planning Company, Fukushima, Japan.

Sava, V. (1929) Thèse doctorale de Médicine, Bucharest.
“Recherche sur l’audition colorée et l’intoxication
expérimentale par la mescaline.”

Sawyer, Alan R. (1975) Ancient Peruvian Ceramics. From the
Kehl and Nena Markley Collection. Museum of Art,
Pennsylvania State University Publication.

Sax, N. Irving (1984) Dangerous Properties of Industrial
Materials
. Sixth Edition. Page 1757.

Sax, N. Irving & Richard J. Lewis, Sr. (1989) Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials. 7th edition. 3 volumes. Van Nostrand Reinhold. ISBN 0-442-28020-3 (set). Entries MDI500 (mescaline as base), MDI750 (as hydrochloride) and MDJ000 (as sulfate)

Saxena, A. et al. (1962) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 140: 327–335. “Behavioural studies in fish with mescaline, LSD, and thiopropazate and their interactions with serotonin and dopa.” (A. Saxena, B K. Bhattacharya & B. Mukerji)

Schaafsma, Polly (1980) Indian Rock Art of the Southwest. University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque.

Schaefer, Stacy (1989) Journal of Latin American Lore, 15 (2): 179–194. “The Loom and Time in the Huichol World.”

Schaefer, Stacy (1993)a “The Loom as a Sacred Power Object in Huichol Culture.” pp. 118–130 in R. Anderson & K. Field (eds.) Art in Small Scale Societies. Prentice Hall: New York.

Schaefer, Stacy (1993)b Latin American Art, Spring 93: 70–73. “Huichol Indian Costumes: A Transforming Tradition.”

Schaefer, Stacy (1995) Integration, 5: 35–49. “The Crossing of the Souls: Peyote, Perception and Meaning Among the Huichol Indians of Mexico.”

Schaefer, Stacy (1997) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedizin und Bewußtseinforschung, 5 (1996) “Peyote and Pregnancy.”

Schaefer, Stacy (1998)a Becoming a Weaver: The Woman’s Path in Huichol Culture. University of Utah Press.

Schaefer, Stacy (1998)b “Dove le anime si incontrano. La percezione huichol del peyote.” pp. 57–77 in Giovani Feo (ed.) Sciamani delle due Americhe. Stampa Alternativa: Rome

Schaefer, Stacy (1998)c Altrove 5: 43–48. “Quando si incontrano le anime. L’importanza del peyote nella cultura Huichol.”

Schaefer, Stacy & Furst, Peter (eds.) (1996) People of the Peyote: Huichol Indian History, Religion, and Survival. University of New Mexico Press: Albuquerque. ISBN 0-8263-1684-0. 608 pages.

Schäfer, George & Cuz, Nan (1968) In Reiche des Mescal. Synthesis Verlag: Essen.

Schelle, Ernst (1926) Kakteen. Tübingen: A. Fischer Vlg.
page 150 “Reihe: Macrogonus, groβrippige.” Figure 19. “Cereus macrogonus Salm-Dyck.” [Great image but sadly preserving Glaziou’s mistaken guess as to its origin.]

Schenker, F. et al. (1971) Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 8: 665–668. “Monophenolic 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines and their methyl ethers.” (F. Schenker, R.A. Schmidt, T. Williams & A. Brossi)

Schepetkin, I.A. et al. (2008) International Immunopharmacology, 8: 1455–1466. “Macrophage immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia polyacantha.” (Igor A. Schepetkin, Gang Xie, Liliya N. Kirpotina, Robyn A. Klein, Mark A. Jutila & Mark T. Quinn)

Schlumberger, Boris O. & Susanne S. Renner (2012) American Journal of Botany, 99(8): 1335–1349. “Molecular phylogenetics of Echinopsis (Cactaceae). Polyphyly at all levels and convergent evolution of pollinaton modes and growth forms.”

Schlumpberger, B.O. et al. (2004) International Journal of Plant Science, 165 (6): 1007–1015. “Musty-Earthy Scent in Cactus Flowers: Characterization of Floral Scent Production in Dehydrogeosmin-Producing Cacti.” (Boris O. Schlumpberger, Andreas Jux, Maritta Kunert, Wilhelm Boland & Dieter Wittmann)

Schlumpberger, B.O. et al. (2006) Plant Biology (Stuttgart), 8 (2): 265–270. “A unique cactus with scented and possibly bat-dispersed fruits: Rhipsalis juengeri.” (B. O. Schlumpberger, R. A. Clery & W. Barthlott)

Schmidt, Paul (1969) Journal of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America, 4 (6): 265. “Hybridization of Lophophora Williamsii with Turbinicarpus and Mammillaria.”

Schneck, Marcus (1992) Cacti. An Illustrated Guide to over 150 Representative Species. Crescent Books: New York/Avenel, New Jersey. ISBN 0-517-07321-8.

Schneider, Woldemar & Bertold Müller (1958) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 615 (1) 34–42. “Beiträge zur Chemie der Carbinolamine. I Untersuchungen an Py-Tetrahydroisochinolinen.”

Schnoll, S.H. et al. (1972) Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 5 (1): 75–78. “A Rapid Thin Layer Chromatographic Screening Procedure for Various Abused Psychotropic Agents.” (Sidney H. Schnoll, Richard D. Cohen & Wolfgang H. Vogel)

Schöpf, C. & H. Bayerle (1934) Annalen der Chemie, 513: 190–202. “Zur frage der biogenese der isochinolin-alkaloide. Die synthese des 1-methyl-6,7-dioxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisochindins inter physiologisschen bedinigemgen.”

Schueler, F.W. (1948) Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine, 33: 1297–1303. “The effect of succinate in mescaline hallucinations.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1936) Thesis, Harvard University. “Peyote Intoxication, A Review of the Literature on the Chemistry, Physiology and Psychological Effects of Peyotl.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1937)a Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 4 (8): 129–152. “Peyote and Plants Used in the Peyote Ceremony.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1937)b Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 5 (5): 61–88. “Peyote (Lophophora Williamsii) and Plants Confused With It.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1938) American Anthropologist, N.S. 40: 698–715. “The Appeal of Peyote (Lophophora Williamsii)as a Medicine.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1939) Harvard University, Botanical Museum Leaflets, 7 (3): 37–54. “Plantae Mexicanae II. The Identification of Teonanacatl, a Narcotic Basidiomycete of the Aztecs.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1940) Journal of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America, 12 (11): 177–181. “The Aboriginal Therapeutic Uses of Lophophora Williamsii.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1967) “The Place of Ethnobotany in the Ethnopharmacological Search for Psychotomimetic Drugs.” pp. 33–57 in: Ethnopharmacological Search For Psychoactive Drugs. United States Government Printing Office, Publication #1645.

Schultes, Richard Evans (1969) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 22 (4): 133–164. “De plantis toxicariis e mundo novo tropicale commentationes. IV.” (Page 142)

Schultes, Richard Evans (1969) Science, 163: 245–254. “Hallucinogens of Plant Origin.”

Schultes, Richard Evans (1972) “An Overview of Hallucinogens in the Western Hemisphere.” pp. 3–54 in Furst (ed.) 1972

Schultes, Richard Evans (1972)a Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 23 (3): 137–147. “De Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropicale Commentationes X. New Data on the Malpighiaceous Narcotics of South America.” [Epiphyllum]

Schultes, Richard Evans (1972)c Plant Science Bulletin, 18 (4): 34–40. “De Plantis Toxicariis e Mundo Novo Tropicale Commentationes XI. The Ethnotoxicological Significance of Additives to New World Hallucinogens.” [Epiphyllum]

Schultes, Richard Evans (1998) The Heffter Review of Psychedelic Research, 1: 1–7. “Antiquities of the New World Hallucinogens.”

Schultes, Richard Evans & Albert Hofmann (1980) Botany and Chemistry of the Hallucinogens. Second Edition. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Illinois. ISBN # 0-398-03863-5.[ Paperback ISBN 0-398-06416-4] 462 pages.[See also as Schultes & Hofmann (1983) Botanica e chimica degli allucinogeni. Roma (Cesco Ciapanna)]

Schultes, Richard Evans & Albert Hofmann (1992) Plants of the Gods. Origins of Hallucinogenic Use. Healing Arts Press. [Also (1979) Plants of the Gods. Origins of Hallucinogenic Use. Alfred Van Der Marck Editions 1979. Originally published by McGraw-Hill: New York 1979 [See also as (1993) Les Plantes des Dieux. Les Éditions du Lézard. 232 pp. ISBN 2-910718-02-6 & ISBN 2-9507264-2-9 or as (1993) Plantas de los Dioses. Fondo de Cultura Económica. 192 pp. ISBN 968-16-1023-7; or as (1995) Pflanzen der Götter. AT Verlag. 191 pp. ISBN 3-85502-543-6.]

Schultes, Richard Evans & Robert F. Raffauf (1990) The Healing Forest: Medicinal and Toxic Plants of the Northwest Amazonia. Dioscorides Press.

Schumann, K. (1894) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 4: 36–37. “Echinocactus Williamsii Lem.”

Schumann, K. (1895) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 5: 11–15. “Kleine Mitteilungen und Fingerzeige.”

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1895) Berichte der Deutschen
Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft
, 103–110. “Über giftige Kakteen.”

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1897) Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen, 81 [Cereus tephracanthus bolivianus Weber] [From Britton & Rose; Ritter gives as 1898] See as Schumann 1899.

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1897) Gesamtb. Kakteen 108 [Cereus bridgesii brevispinus & Cereus bridgesii lageniformis] [From Britton & Rose] See as Schumann 1899

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1898) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte, und Pflanzengeographie. 24: 541–567. “Die Gattung Ariocarpus (Anhalonium).” (see page 551)

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1897) Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen (Monographia Cactearum) 80–81. “25. Cereus tephracanthus Lab.” Comments on Cereus tephracanthus var. boliviana Weber are on page 81. [Britton & Rose cites this as a reference for Cereus tephracanthus bolivianus Weber]

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1897) Gesamtbeschreibung der Kakteen (Monographia Cactearum) 107–108. “52. Cereus bridgesii S.-D.” [First apearance of Cereus bridgesii brevispinus Schumann & Cereus bridgesii lageniformis Schumann. In this paper, Schumann also noted his belief that the former is identical with C. macrogonus.]

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1898) Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte, und Pflanzengeographie. 24: 541–567. “Die Gattung Ariocarpus (Anhalonium).” (see page 551)

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1899) Gesamtbechreibung der Kakteen, 

   80–81: “25. Cereus tephracanthus.”,

 115–116: “XVI Reihe Macrogoni (Groβrippige K. Sch. 59 Cereus macrogonus S.-D.” [In this work Schumann patches the discrepancies appearing in Flora Brasiliensis, notes the correction of the homeland proposal (of Glaziou) that was brought to his attention by Weber, added correct floral elements and commented on his belief that macrogonus was synonymous with bridgesii brevispinus.]

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1902) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 12 (2): 19–23. “Succulente Reiseerinerungen.” [Given as a reference for the name Cereus bolivianus Weber which is only mentioned in passing on page 21.]

Schumann, Karl Moritz (1907) [in Rusby] Bull. N.Y. Bot. Gard.4: 365 [Cereus lasianthus] [From Britton & Rose]

Schuster, Danny (1990) The World of Cacti. Facts on File. ISBN 0-8160-2506-1. 240 pages. [Peyote on page 146. Very striking flower open in one of the color photographs. Cultivation comments are from the perspective of one cultivating peyote in the more northern latitudes.]

Schütte & Seelig (1969) Ann. Chem. 730: 186

Schwartz & Scott (1971) J Org Chem 36: 1827? 

Schwartz, B.E. et al. (1955) Proc. Staff Meet. Mayo Clin. 30: 407.

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Schweitzer, J.W. & A.J. Friedhoff (1970) Clin. Chem. 16: 786.

Sciuto, S. et al. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 2259–2262. “Betanidin
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Shamma, Maurice & Jerome L. Moniot (1978) Isoquinoline alkaloids research, 1972–1977. Plenum Press. 425 pages.

Shamma, M. & H.R. Rodriguez (1965) Tetrahedron Letters, 4347 (from Jeffs et al. 1969)

Shamma, Maurice & Paul D. Rosenstock (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24: 726–728. “The Triterpenes of Heliabravoa chende.”

Sharon, Douglas C. (1972)a “The San Pedro cactus in Peruvian folk healing.” pp. 114–135. in: Peter T. Furst (ed.) Flesh of the Gods: The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens.

Sharon, Douglas C. (1972)b Natural History 81: 32–47. “Eduardo the Healer.”

Sharon, Douglas C. (1978) Wizard of the Four Winds: A Shaman’s story. The Free Press, Collier MacMillan Publishers, New York.

Sharon, Douglas C. (1980) El Chamán de los Cuatro Vientos. Siglo Veintiuno Editores. ISBN 968-23-1006-7. Translation of Sharon 1978.

Sharon, Douglas C. (1986) Comments made in a taped workshop entitled “Mind, Molecules and Magic” as quoted in 1995 Entheogen Review 4 (1): 13. “T. peruvianus toxicity?”

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Sharon, Douglas C. & Christopher B. Donnan (1977) Archaeology, 30 (6): 374–381. (The Archeological Institute of American, New York.) “The Magic Cactus: Ethnoarchaeological Continuity in Peru.”

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Sherratt, Andrew (1995) p. 30 in: Jordan Goodman, Paul Lovejoy & Andrew Sharratt (eds.), Consuming Habits.” Routledge: London.

Shirokogoroff, Sergei Mikailovich (1935) Psychomental Complex of the Tungus. Kegan Paul, French, Trubner, London.

Shono et al. (1978) Tetrahedron Letters, 4819

Shore, P.A. & Olin, J.S. (1958) J. Pharm. Exptl. Ther. 122: 295.

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Shulgin, Alexander T. (1970) “Chemistry and structure-activity relationships of the psychotomimetics.” pp. 21–41, in: Daniel H. Efron (ed.) Psychotomimetic Drugs. Raven Press, New York.

Shulgin, Alexander T. (1973) Lloydia, 36 (1): 46–58. “Mescaline: The Chemistry and Pharmacology of its Analogs.”

Shulgin, Alexander T. (1976) “Psychotomimetic Agents.” pp. 59–146 in: George DeStevens (ed.) Medicinal Chemistry Volume 4 [Maxwell Gordon (ed.) Psychopharmacological Agents Vol. IV], Academic Press

Shulgin, Alexander T. (1977) Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 9 (2): 171–172. “Profiles of Psychedelic Drugs: STP.”

Shulgin, Alexander T. (1978) “Psychotomimetic Drugs: Structure-activity relationships.” In: Iversen, L.L. et al. (eds.) Handbook of Psychopharmacology. Volume 11. Plenum Press, New York

Shulgin, Alexander T. (1995) THIQ/PEA Appendix 12/26/95- Cactus Species Tabulation. Privately printed lecture handout. Published in appendix of TIHKAL

Shulgin, Alexander T. (nd) Information from e-mail forwarded by MS Smith; dated 8 August 1999

Shulgin, Alexander T. & Ann Shulgin (1991) PIHKAL: A Chemical Love Story. Transform Press 978 pages ISBN 0-9630096-0-5.

Shulgin, Alexander T. & Ann Shulgin (1997) TIHKAL: The Continuation. Transform Press 804 pages ISBN 0-9630096-9-9.

Shulgin, Alexander T. & K.O. Kerlinger (1964) Naturwissenschaften, 51 (15): 360–361. “Isolation of methoxyeugenol and trans-isoelemicin from oil of nutmeg.” ] (via fractional distillation.)

Shulgin, Alexander T. et al. (1966) Nature, 212: 1060–1607. “Role of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine in schizophrenia.” (Alexander T. Shulgin, Thornton Sargent & Claudio Naranjo])[Compound determined to lack a discernable role.]

Shulgin, Alexander T. et al. (1969) Nature, 221: 537–541. “Structure-Activity Relationships of One-Ring Psychotomimetics.” (Alexander T. Shulgin, Thornton Sargent and Claudio Naranjo.)

Shurly, Ernest William (1948) Cactus & Succulent Journal of Great Britain, 10 (4): 93. “Strombocactus Schwarzii Shurly, spec nova.”

Sicé, J. (1962) General Pharmacology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia.

Siegel & Jarvik (1975) pp 81–162 in Siegel & West (eds.) See also Horowitz p. 178.

Siegel, M. & H. Tefft (1971) J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 152: 412

Siegel, Ronald K. (1971) “Studies of hallucinogens in fish, brids, mice and men: The behavior of “psychedelic” populations” pp. 311–318 in O. Vinar, Z. Voltava & P.B. Bradley (eds) Advances in Neuro-Psychopharmacology. Amsterdam: North Holland

Siegel, Ronald K. (1973) International Journal of the Addictions, 9 (2): 373–393. “An Ethological Search for Self-Adminstration of Hallucinogens.”

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Siegel, Ronald K. & Louis Jolyon West (eds) (1975) Hallucinations: Behavior, Experience and Theory. Wiley: New York.

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Siméon, Rémi (1885) Dictionnaire de la langue Nahuatl ou Mexicaine, p. 436. Paris.

Simpson, Lorna & Peter McKellar (1955) Journal of Mental Science, 101 (422): 141–147. “Types of Synaesthesia (mescal experiments).”

Singer & Elbe (1980) J. Food Sci. 45: 489

Singer et al. 1980 in the literature meant Singer & Elbe 1980

Singh et al. (1978) J. Heterocyclic Chem, 15: 541

Siniscalco et al. 1983 (in the literature) meant Siniscalco 1983

Siniscalco Gigliano, G. (1983) Bolletino Chimico Farmaceutico, 122: 499–504. “La Mescalina in Lophophora Coult. Ed in Altre Cactaceae.”

SISSC (1994) Bibliografia Italiana su Allucinogenie Cannabis, (Società Italiana per lo Studio degli Stati di Cosienza c/o Museo Civico di Roverto) Edizioni Grafton 9, Bologna. [Contributors: Carlo Buono, Gilberto Camilla, Gino Dal Soler, Francesco Festi, Fulvio Gosso, Mario Lorenzetti & Giorgio Samorini.]

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Sivadjian, Joseph (1969) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, Série D. [AKA C.R. Acad. Sc. Paris. Série D.] 268 (6): 984–985. “L’action de la mescaline et du diéthylamide de l’acide lysergique (LSD-25) sur le comportement du Cobaye.”

Sjoberg, B.M. Jr. & L.E. Hollister (1962) Psychopharmacologia, 3: 219–223. (in the literature) meant Wolbach et al. 1962

Sjoberg, B.M. Jr. & L.E. Hollister (1965) Psychopharmacologia, 8 (4): 251–262. “The Effects of Psychotomimetic Drugs on Primary Suggestibility.”

Sjöquist & Magnusen (1980) J. Chromatogr., 183: 17–24

Sjöquist et al. (1981a) Subst. Alc. Actions/Misuse, 2: 63–72.

Sjöquist et al. (1981b) Subst. Alc. Actions/Misuse, 2: 73–77.

Sjöquist et al. (1981c) Eight Internat. Congr. Pharmacol., July 19–24, Tokyo. Abstract page 398.

Sjöquist, B. et al. (1982) Progress in Clinical Biological Research, 90, 57–67. “Salsolinol and catecholamines in the human brain and their relation to alcoholism.” (B. Sjoquist, A. Eriksson & B. Winblad)

Sjöquist, B. et al. (1982) “Salsolinol and catecholamines in human brain and their relation to alcoholism.” pp. 57–67 in Bloom et al. 1982 (Birgitta Sjöquist, Anders Eriksson & Bengt Winblad)

Sjöquist, B. et al. (1983) Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 12: 15–23. “The effect of alcoholism on salsolinol and biogenic amines in human brain.” (Birgitta Sjoquist, Eva Perdahl & Bengt Winblad)

Skarin, Annalee (1966) (1981 – 7th printing) Man Triumphant. DeVorse & Co.: Marina Del Rey. ISBN 0-87156-091-3. 253 pages.

Skita, A. & F. Keil (1932) Ber. 65: 424 [From Patel 1968]

Slotkin 1954 in the literature meant Slotkin 1955. [Slotkin 1954 is Saturday Review, 37: 14. “Mescalin: A substitute for tobacco? III The anthropologist.”]

Slotkin, James S. (1951) American Anthropologist, 53: 420–427. “Early eighteenth century documents on peyotism north of the Rio Grande.”

Slotkin, James S. (1952) Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 42 (pt. 4): 565–700. “Menomimi Peyotism. A study of individual variation in a primary group with a homogenous culture.” [pp. 681–700 is David P. McAllester’s “Menomini peyote music.”]

Slotkin, James S. (1955) American Anthropologist, 57 (2): 202–230. “Peyotism, 1521–1891.”

Slotkin, James S. (1956) The Peyote Religion: A Study in Indian-White Relations. The Free Press: Glencoe

Slotkin, J.S. & D.B. McAllester (1952) See in Slotkin 1952.

Slotta, K.H. (1932) Journal fuer Praktische Chemie, 133: 129–130. “Zur Gewinnung von 3,4,5-Trimethoxybenzaldehyd.”

Slotta, K.H. & W. Altner (1931) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 64: 1510–1520. “Über β-Phenyl-äthylamine. II. Eine neue Tyramin-Synthese.”

Slotta, K.H. & H. Heller (1930) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 63: 3029–3044. “Über β-phenyl-äthylamine. I. Mitteil. Mezcalin und mezcalin-ähnlicher Substanzen.”

Slotta, K.H. & G. Szyska (1933) Journal fuer Praktische Chemie, 137: 339–350. “Über β-Phenyl-äthylamine. III. Eine neue Mezcalin-Synthese.” [This is an electrochemical reduction of nitrostyrene!]

Slotta, K.H. & G. Szyzka (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 1106–1108. “Synthese des mescalins. (Eine Berichtigung der gleichlautenden Arbeit von G. Hahn und H. Wassmuth.)”

Slotta, K.H. & Johannes Müller (1936) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 238: 14–22. “Über den Abbau des Mezcalins und mezcalinähnlicher Stoffe im Organisms.”

Slotta, K.H. et al. (1937) Mem. Inst. Butantan (São Paulo), 11: 101. (K.H. Slotta, J.C. Valle & K. Neisser) [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Slotta, K.H. et al. (1937) Mem. Inst. Butantan (São Paulo), 11: 101. (K.H. Slotta, J.C. Valle and K. Neisser) [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

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Smissman, E.E. et al. (1976) J. Med. Chem. 19: 127–131. “Synthesis and biological activity of 2- and 4-substituted 6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (E.E. Smissman, J.R. Reid, D.A. Walsh & R.T. Borchardt)

Smith et al. (1972) J. Chem Soc. Perkins Trans. 1: 228

Smith, Alfred A. & S. Bernard Wortis (1962) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 60: 420–422. “Formation and Metabolism of N-Acetylnormetanephrine in the Rat.”

Smith, C.A. (1966) Bot. Survey Memoir, 35 (South Africa). “Common Names of South African Plants.” [From Hargreaves 1998]

Smith, E. et al. (1961) Chemistry & Industry, 402–403. “Mesembrine Enol Ether and the Absolute Configuration of Mesembrine.” (E. Smith, N. Hosansky, M. Shamma & J.B. Moss)

Smith, Elna (Mrs. Maurice G. Smith) (1934) Journal of the Washington Academy of Sciences, 24 (10): 448–453. “A Negro Peyote Cult.”

Smith, Huston & Reuben Snake (eds.) (1996) One Nation Under God. Triumph of the Native American Church. Clear Light: Santa Fe. 0-940666-71-5. 176 pages.

Smith, Ivor (1969) Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Techniques. Volume I. Chromatography.” 3rd Edition. William Heinemann Medical Books Ltd., London/ Interscience Publishers, Inc., New York.

Smith, Ivor & J.W.T. Seakins (1976) Chromatographic and Electrophoretic Techniques. Vol. 1. Paper and Thin Layer Chromatography. 4th edition. William Heineman Medical Books Ltd.

Smith, Maurice G. (1929) Oklahoma Daily, December 8. “Peyote”

Smith, Maurice G. (1930) El Palacio 29: 241–242. “The Peyote Cult in Oklahoma”

Smith, Michael S. (1997) [Revised 1998 & 1999] Narcotic and Hallucinogenic Cacti of the New World [Also personal correspondence during 1998 & 1999]

Smith, Michael S. (2000) Narcotic & Hallucinogenic Cacti of the New World. [TN#C-14] Better Days Publishing. (Also distributed as privately printed manuscript) M.S. Smith has our thanks for bringing the work of Dr. Štarha to our attention. Now retitled Sacramental and Medicinal Cacti – available online: http://www.cactus-mall.com/mss/

Smith, Michael S. (2006) Personal communications.

Smith, M.T. et al. (1998) Pharmaceutical Biology, 36 (3): 173–179. The Distribution of Mesembrine Alkaloids in Selected Taxa of the Mesembryanthemaceae and their Modification in the Sceletium Derived ‘Kougoed’.” (Michael T. Smith, Courtney Field, Neil Crouch, & Manton Hirst)

Smith, Michael Valentine (1981) Psychedelic Chemistry. Loompanics Unlimited, ISBN 0-915179-10-5.

Smith, Mrs. Maurice G. 1934 See as Elna Smith 1934

Smith, Philip B. (1959) Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 23 (1): 20–27. “A Sunday with Mescaline.”

Smith, Terence A. (1977)a Phytochemistry, 16: 9–18. “Phenethylamine and related compounds in plants.”

Smith, Terence A. (1977)b Phytochemistry, 16: 171–175. “Review: Tryptamines and Related Compounds in Plants.”

Smithsonian (date?) Traditional Music of Peru 5. Celebrating divinity in the high andes. CD Smithsonian Folkways Recordings.

Smolenski, S.J. et al. (1972) Lloydia, 35 (1): 1–34. “Alkaloid Screening. I.” (S.J. Smolenski, H. Silinis & N.R. Farnsworth)

Smolenski, S.J. et al.(1973) Lloydia, 36 (4): 359–389. [S.J. Smolenski, H. Silinis & N.R. Farnsworth] “Alkaloid Screening. III.”

Smolska, B. (1932) Deutsche Zeitschrift für die gesamte gerichtlicher Medizin 18: 91–95. “Ueber mikroskopische Veraenderungen der inneren Organe der weissen Maus nach akuten und sub-acuten Meskalinvergiftungen.”

Smythe, G.A. & M.W. Duncan (1985) Progress in Clinical Biological Research, 183: 77–84. “Precise GC/MS assays for salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline: the question of artifacts and dietary sources and the influence of alcohol.”

Smythies, J.R. (1963) British Journal of the Philosophy of Science 3: 339–347. “The mescaline phenomenon.”

Smythies, J.R. & C.K. Levy (1960) Journal of Mental Science, 106: 531–536. “The comparative psychopharmacology of some mescaline analogs”

Smythies, J.R. & E.A. Sykes (1964) Psychopharmacologia, 6 (3): 163–172. “The Effect of Mescaline upon the Conditioned Avoidance Response in the Rat.”

Smythies, J.R. & E.A. Sykes (1965) Fed. Proc. 24: 196.

Smythies, J.R. & E.A. Sykes (1966) Psychopharmacologia, 8: 324–330. “Structure-activity relationship studies on mescaline: The effect of dimethoxyphenethylamine and N:N-dimethyl mescaline on the conditioned avoidance response in rats”

Smythies, J.R. et al. (1965) “Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on the Effect of Mescaline on the Conditioned Avoidance Response in rats.” in: D. Bente & P.B. Bradley (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the 4th International Congress, Birmingham. Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Smythies, J.R. et al. (1966) Psychopharmacologia, 9 (5): 434–446. “Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on Mescaline II. Tolerance and Cross-tolerance Between Mescaline and its Analogs in the Rat.” (J. R. Smythies, E. A. Sykes, & C. P. Lord)

Smythies, J.R. et al. (1967) Nature, 216: 196–197. “Alteration by Pretreatment with Iproniazid and an Inactive Mescaline Analogue of a Behavior Change induced by Mescaline.”

Smythies, J. R. et al. (1967) Psychopharmacologia, 10 (5): 379–387. “Structure-Activity Relationship Studies on Mescaline III. The Influence of the Methoxy groups. [Rat]” (J. R. Smythies, R. J. Bradley, V. S. Johnston, F. Benington, R. D. Morin, L. C. Clark Jr.)

Smythies, J.R. et al. (1969) British Journal of Psychiatry, 116: 55–68. “Behavioral models of psychosis “ (J.R. Smythies, V.S. Johnston & R.J. Bradley)

Smythies, J.R. et al. (1970) Nature, 226: 644–645. “Behavioral effects of some derivatives of amphetamine and LSD and their significance.” (J.R. Smythies, J. Beaton, F. Benington & R. D. Morin)

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Snow, Otto (1998) Amphetamine Syntheses. Overview & reference guide for professionals. (Psychoactive Synthesis Series Volume 1) Thoth Press; Spring Hill FL. ISBN #0-9663128-0-5.

Snyckers, F.O. et al. (1971) Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1467–1469. “The Structures of Partially Racemic Sceletium Alkaloid A4 and Tortuosamine, Pyridine Alkaloids from Sceletium tortuosum.” (F.O. Snyckers, F. Strelow & A. Wiechers)

Snyder, Solomon & Carl R. Merril (1965) Procedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 54: 258–266. “A relationship between the hallucinogenic activity of drugs and their electronic configuration”

Soc. Anon. pour L’Ind. Chim. a Bâle (1930)a British Patent 360,266, Jan. 8, 1930; [CA (1933) 27: 513.] [CA says patent was for 3,4,5-Triethoxyphenethylamine.]

Soc. Anon. pour L’Ind. à Bâle (1930)b Swiss Patent 147,949 Jan. 8 1930. [CA (1932) 26: 2278] “3,4,5-Triethoxyphenethylamine”

Sodestrom, Thomas R. (1962) American Journal of Botany, 49: 850–855. “The Isocitric Acid Content of Crassulacean Plants and a Few Succulent Species From Other Families.”

Soeda, M. (1969) Journal of the Medical Society of Toho University 16: 365–369. “Studies on the anti-tumor activity of Cape Aloe.”

Sogliani, G. & Sagripanti, P. (1957) Neuropsichiatria 13: 149 & 449. “La dietilamide dell’acido lisergico e la mescalina in psichiatria.”

Sokołowska-Krzaczek, A. et al. (2009) Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae 78 (3): 197–201. “Variation of Phenolic Acids From Herb and Roots of Salsola Kali L.” (Anna Sokołowska-Krzaczek, Krystyna Skalicka-Woźniak & Katarzyna Czukowska)

Solomon, K. (in the literature) meant Salomon, K.

Soskin, Samuel & Matthew Tabenhaus (1943) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 78: 49. “Sodium succinate as an antidote for barbiturate poisoning and in the control of the duration of barbiturate anethesia. (Including its successful use in a case of barbiturate poisoning in a human.)”

Soulaire, Jacques (1947) Cactus et Médecine. Éditions Thiébaut Paris. (PhD thesis) 186 pages.

Sourkes, Theodore L. (1958) Revue Canadienne de Biologie, 17 (3): 328–366. “Oxidative Pathways in the Metabolism of Biogenic Amines.”

Southon, Ian W. & John Buckingham (1989) Dictionary of Alkaloids. Chapman and Hall, London and New York. Two volumes. ISBN # 0-412-24910-3. (G.A. Cordell, J.E. Saxton, M. Shamma and G.F. Smith, ed. board)

Späth, Ernst (1919) Monatshefte für Chemie, 40: 129–154, “Über die Anhalonium-Alkaloide.”

Späth, Ernst (1920) Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 57 (12): 135–136. “Die Synthese des Sinapines.”

Späth, Ernst (1921)a Monatshefte für Chemie, 42: 97–115. “Über die Anhalonium-Alkaloide. II. Die Konstitution des Pellotins, des Anhalonidins, und des Anhalamins” CHECK AND insert ALL A or b CORRECTLY

Späth, Ernst (1921)b Monatshefte für Chemie, 42: 263–266. “Über die Anhalonium-Alkaloide III. Konstitution des Anhalins.” [Hordenine]

Späth, Ernst (1922) Monatshefte für Chemie, 43: 477–484. “Über die Anhaloniumalkaloide. V. Die Synthese des Anhalonidins und des Pellotins.”

Späth, Ernst (1929) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 62 (4): 1021–1024. “Über das Carnegin”

Späth, Ernst (1932) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 65 (10): 1778–1785. “Über die Konstitution von Pellotin und Anhalonidin”

Späth, Ernst & Friedrich Becke (1934)a Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67 (2): 266–268. “Eine neue Synthese des Pellotins (XI. Mitteil. über Kakteen-Alkaloide.)”

Späth, Ernst & Friedrich Becke (1934)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67 (12): 2100–2102. “Die Konstitution des Anhalamins. (XII. Mitteilung über Kakteen-Alkaloide.)”

Späth, Ernst & Friedrich Becke (1935)a Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 68 (3): 501–505. “Über ein neues Kakteen-Alkaloid, das Anhalinin, und zur Konstitution des Anhalonins (XIII. Mitteil. über Kakteen Alkaloide.)” [0.096 grams of Anhalinine from 1330 grams of peyote.]

Späth, Ernst & Friedrich Becke (1935)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 68 (5): 944–945. “Über des Anhalidin (XIV. Mitteil. über Kakteen-Alkaloide.)” [Synthesis of Anhalidine; From peyote: Anhalamine 0.1%; Anhalinine 0.01%; Anhalidine 0.001%]

Späth, Ernst & Friedrich Becke (1935)c Monatshefte für Chemie, 66: 327–366. “Über die tiennung der Anhalonium basen (Kakteen alkaloide. XV.)”

Späth, Ernst & Friedrich Boschan (1933) Monatshefte für Chemie, 63: 141–153.”Über Kakteenalkaloide. X. Die Konstitution des Pellotins un des Anhalonidins.”

Späth, Ernst & Johann Bruck (1937) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 70 (12): 2446–2450. “Über ein neues alkaloid aus den Mezcal buttons. (XVIII Mitteil. über Kakteen-Alkaloide.)” [N-Methylmescaline.]

Späth, Ernst & Johann Bruck (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 71 (6): 1275–1276. “N-Acetyl mezcalin als Inhaltstoff der Mezcalin-Buttons (XIX. Mitteil. über Kakteen-Alkaloide.)”

Späth, Ernst & Johann Bruck (1939) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 72 (2): 334–338. “Über das O-Methyl-d-anhalonidin (XX. Mitteil. über Kakteen-Alkaloide.)”

Späth, Ernst & Ferdinand Dengel (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 71 (1): 113–119. “Synthese des Salsolidins.”

Späth, Ernst & Joef Gangl (1923) Monatshefte für Chemie, 44: 103–113. “Über die Anhaloniumalkaloide. VI, Anhalonin und Lophophorin”

Späth, Ernst & Rudolf Göhring (1920) Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen
Akademie der Wissenschaften
, 57 (12): 136. “Die Synthesen des Ephedrins, des Pseudoephedrins, ihrer optischen Antipoden
und Razemkörper.”

Spath, Ernst & Percy Lavon Julian (1931) Ber. 64: 1131

Späth, Ernst & F. Kuffner (1929) Berichte der Deutschen
Chemischen Gesellschaft
, 62 (8): 2242–2243. “Die identitat des Pectinins mit dem Carnegin.”

Späth, Ernst & Friederike Kesztler (1935) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 68 (9): 1663–1667. “Synthese des Anhalonidins und des Lophophorins (XVI. Mitteil. über Kakteen-Alkaloide)”

Späth, Ernst & Friederike Kesztler (1936) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 69 (4): 755–757. “Über die optische Aktivität des Pellotins (XVII. Mitteil. über Kakteen-Alkaloide)”

Späth & Passl 1932 in the literature should read Späth 1932.

Späth, Ernst & Nikolaus Polgar 1929 Monatshefte für Chemie 51: 190-204. “Über eine Synthese von nichthydrierten Isochinolinabkömmlingen.”

Späth, Ernst & Hans Roder (1922) Monatshefte für Chemie, 43: 93–111.”Über die Anhalonium-Alkaloide. IV. Die Synthese des Anhalamins.”

Späth, Ernst & Philipp Sobel (1920) Monatshefte für Chemie, 41 (1): 6. “Uber neue Synthesen des Hordenins.”

Späth, Ernst & Philipp Sobel (1920) Monatshefte für Chemie, 41 (2): 77–90. “Neue Synthesen des Hordenins.” [New procedures for the synthesis of hordenine are described.]

Späth et al. 1932 Ber. 65: 1778 in the literature refers to Späth 1932.

Späth et al. 1934 Ber. 67: 266 in the literature refers to Späth & Becke 1934a

Späth, E. et al. (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67 (7): 1214–1217. “Konstitution und Synthese des Salsolins.” (Ernst Späth, Alexander Orechoff & Friedrich Kuffner)

Späth et al. 1935 (in the literature) See as Spath & Becke 1935a

Späth et al. 1936 (in the literature) See as Spath & Kesztler 1936

Speck, Louise B. (1957) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 119: 78–84. “Toxicity and Effects of Increasing Doses of Mescaline.”

Spector, Elliot (1961) Nature, 189 (4766): 751–752. “Identification
of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenylacetic acid as the major metabolite of mescaline in the dog.”

Spegazzini, Carlo (1905) Anales del Museo Nacional de Buenos Aires, 3 (4): 480. “11. Cereus thelegonoides Spegazzini. (n. sp.) “

Speir, W.W. et al. (1970) Lloydia, 33 (1): 15–18. “Cactus alkaloids. VII. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus trigonus” (W.W. Speir, V. Mihranian & J.L. McLaughlin)

Spencer, G.F. et al. (1983) Journal of Natural Products, 46: 551–558. “The Triterpene Esters of Dolichothele longimamma (Cactaceae).” (G.F. Spencer, K. Payne-Wahl, R.B. Wolf & J.L. McLaughlin)

Spiegel, H.E. & R.P. Christian (1971) Clin. Chim. Acta, 31: 143.

Spinella, Marcello (2001) The Psychopharmacology of Herbal Medicine. MIT Press. 578 pages. ISBN 0-262-69265-1.

Spix & Martius (1831) Reise in Brasilien, 3: 1075 (From Safford 1916)

Sri Nurestri, AM et al. (2008) International Journal of Cancer Research, 4: 20–27. “Cytotoxic activity of Pereskia bleo (Cactaceae) against selected human cell lines.” (AM Sri Nurestri, AW Norhanom, Y Hashim, KS Sim, SL Hong & GS Lee) [from Sim et al. 2010]

Sri Nurestri, A.M. et al. (2009) Journal of Biological Sciences, 9: 488–493. “Phytochemical and cytotoxic investigations of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) leaves.” (A.M. Sri Nurestri, K.S. Sim & A.W. Norhanom) [from Sim et al. 2010]

Srivastava, B.K. & C.S. Pande (1974) Planta Medica, 25: 92–97. “Arabinogalactan From the Pods of Opuntia dillenii.”

Stafford, Peter (1992) Psychedelics Encyclopedia. Third Edition. Ronin Publishing, Inc. [pp. 103–155 (Chapter Two): “Peyote, Mescaline & San Pedro.” ISBN 0-914171-51-8. 420 pages.

Stahl 1969 Analyst (in the literature) meant Genest & Hughes 1968 Analyst.

Standley, Paul. C. (1920–1926) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Volume 23. “Trees and Shrubs of Mexico.”

Štarha 1994 (in the literature) sometimes actually means Štarha et al. 1994

Štarha, Roman (1994) Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitas Ostraviensis, Physica-Chemia, 141 (2): 71–74. “Alkaloids of Three “Peyote” Cacti.”

Štarha, Roman (1995)a Chemica [Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultas Rerum Naturalium] 34: 33–34. “Identification of Alkaloids of the Cactus Genus Gymnocalycium.

Štarha, Roman (1995)b Fitoterapia, 66 (4): 375. “Alkaloids of Epithelantha micromeris.

Štarha, Roman (1996)a Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 24 (1): 85–86. “Alkaloids from the Cactus Genus Gymnocalycium.”

Štarha, Roman (1996)b Kaktusy, 32(2), 5. “Peyote”

Štarha, Roman (1997)a “Appendix IV. Chemický rozbor rodu Lophophora.” pp. 85–90 in Grym 1997.

Štarha, Roman (1997)b Kaktusy, 1: 11–13. “Psychoactive substances of plants of the genus Sceletium.” (A simple review of some of the chemistry.)

Štarha, Roman (1999) Cactaceae, 19 (4): 146–149. “Hybridni Turbinicarpusy.”

Štarha, Roman (2001)a Bioch. Syst. Ecol. (In Press) “Constituents of Gymnocalycium riojense Fric ex H.Till & W.Till (Cactaceae).” (from Štarha 2001c; See as Štarha 2002)

Štarha, Roman (2001)b Bioch. Syst. Ecol. (In Press) “Alkaloids of four varieties of Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus (Bod.) Buxb. et Backeberg.” (from Štarha 2001c; this article has not been located so our account lacks further detail)

Štarha, Roman (2001)c Sekundární Metabolity Celedi Cactaceae. [Prací prírovedecké fakulty Ostravské Univerzity. Facultatis rerum naturalium Universitatis Ostraviensis. Spisy Scripta. Cislo 138] 108 pages.

Štarha, Roman (2002) Biochemical Systematics & Ecology, 30: 365–366. “Constituents of Gymnocalycium riojense Fric ex H.Till & W.Till (Cactaceae).”

Starha, Roman (n.d.) Cactus alkaloid summary. Undated (unpublished?) and privately distributed manuscript received from Dr. Starha in early 1999. [Previous versions also exist; received one around a year earlier via MSSmith]

Štarha, Roman (nd) Roman Štarha’s cactus alkaloid list. University of Ostrava, Czech Republic.

Štarha et al. 1994 (in the literature) meant Štarha 1994

Štarha, Roman & Jaroslav Kuchyna (1996) Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universtitas Ostraviensis, Physica-Chemia, 156 (3-4): 67–70. “Analysis of Mexican Populations of Lophophora (Cactaceae)”

Štarha, Roman et al. (1994) Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universtitas Ostraviensis, Physica-Chemia, 141 (2): 71–74. “Alkaloids of Three “Peyote” Cacti.”

Štarha, Roman et al. (1997) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 25 (4): 363–364. “Alkaloids from the Genus Gymnocalycium (Cactaceae) – II.” (Roman Štarha, Kamila Urbánková & Jaroslav Kuchyna)

Štarha, Roman et al. (1998) Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universtitas Ostraviensis, Physica-Chemia, 173 (6): 41–46. “Identifikace Alkaloidu V Rostlinách Rodu Gymnocalycium (Cactaceae) – III.” [Roman Štarha, Adéla Chybidziurová & Zdenek Lacný]

Štarha, Roman et al. (1999)a Acta Facultatis Rerum Naturalium Universitas Ostraviensis, 183 (7): 129–134. “The influence of hybridization to morphological nondependent properties of cacti.” (R. Štarha, Z. Hajnová & Z. Lacný)  (from Štarha 2001c; this article has not been obtained so our account lacks further detail)

Štarha, R. et al. (1999)b Acta Universitatis Palackinae Olomucensis Facultas Rerum Naturalium (Chemica). 38: 71–73. “Constituents of Turbinicarpus alonsoi Glass & Arias (Cactaceae).” (Roman Štarha, Adéla Chybidziurová & Zdenìk Lacný)

Štarha, Roman et al. (1999)c Biochemical Systematics & Ecology, 27: 839–841. “Alkaloids of the Genus Turbinicarpus (Cactaceae).” (Roman Štarha, Adéla Chybidziurová & Zdenek Lacný)

CHECK ALL A B AND C ARE ASSIGNED RIGHT

Štarha, Roman et al. (2000) Chem. Listy 94: 943–944. “Identifikace alkaloidu v rostlinách Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus var. klinkerianus.” (R. Štarha, V. Smolka & Z. Lacný) (from Štarha 2001c; this article has not been obtained so our account lacks further detail)

My thanks also go to Dr. Starha for graciously providing the papers lacking sources in the US.

Steelink, C. et al. (1967) Phytochemistry, 6: 1435–1440. “Phenolic Constituents of Healthy and Wound Tissues in the Giant Cactus (Carnegiea gigantea).” (Cornelius Steelink, Margery Yeung & Roger L. Caldwell)

Steelink, C. et al. (1968) Phytochemistry, 7: 1673–1677. “Carbohydrate Constituents of Healthy and Wound Tissues in the Saguaro Cactus.” (Cornelius Steelink, Eve Riser & M.J. Onore)

Steensholt, Gunnar (1947) Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, 14: 356–362. “On an Amine Oxidase in Rabbit’s Liver.”

Steimetz, Paul (1990) Pipe, Bible and Peyote. Among the Oglala Lakota. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville. ISBN 0-87-049-623-9. 250 pages.

Steinberg, Neil (1994) Rolling Stone, 5 May: 33–34. “The Law of Unintended Consequences: Mandatory minimum sentencing puts first-time offenders in jail for life and lets drug kingpins bargain for their freedom”

Steiner (1923) Compt. Rend. 176 (244) 1379

Steinigen, Manfred (1972) Deutsche Apotheker-Zeitung 112 (2): 51–55. “Nachweis und quantitative Bestimmung von Lysergsäurediäthylamid (LSD).”

Stern, et al. (1961) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 133: 58.

Steudel, E.G. v. (1840) Nomenclator Botanicus. Editio secunda. 1: 336. (AKA “Nom. Ed.”) (see also pages 334 & 335.)

Stevens, Jay (1987) Storming Heaven: LSD and the American Dream. Atlantic Monthly Press

Stevenson, Ian (1957)a Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 438–442. “Comments on the Psychological Effects of Mescaline and Allied Drugs.” (Part of “The Round Table: Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association. Psychodynamic and Therapeutic Aspects of Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide.” Herman C.B. Denber and Max Rinkel, editors, comprising pp. 423–452.)

Stevenson, Ian (1957)b New Republic, 136 (1): 22. “From Mescaline to Eternity.”

Stevenson, Ian & Andrew J. Sanchez (1957) American Journal of Psychiatry, 114 (4): 328–332. “The Antidotal Action of Sodium Succinate in the Mescaline Psychosis.”

Stevenson, Ian & Thomas W. Richards (1960) Psychopharmacologia, 1: 241–250. “Prolonged Reactions to Mescaline. A Report of Two Cases.”

Stewart, Omer C. (1944) Amer. Archaeol. and Ethnol. 40 (3): App. 2. “Washo-Northern Paiute Peyotism.”

Stewart, Omer C. (1956) Colorado Quarterly, 5: 79–90. “Peyote and Colorado’s Inquisition Law.”

Stewart, Omer C. (1980) Plains Anthropologist, 25 (90): 297–309. “Peyotism and Mescalism.”

Stewart, Omer C. (1984) (1993) Peyotism in the West: A Historical and Cultural Perspective. [Anthropological Papers: No. 108] 168 pp. University of Utah Press. ISBN 0-87480-235-0

Stewart, Omer C. (1987) Peyote Religion. [Civilization of the American Indian Series. Vol. 181] University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2068-1 (hard)/ 0-8061-2457–1 (paper). 454 pages. Also (1993) University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2457-1

Steyn, D.G. (1929) 15th Annual Report Division of Veterinary Services, 15: 777–803. “Recent Investigations Into the Toxicity of Known and Unknown Plants of the Union of South Africa.” (From Watt 1967)

Steyn, D.G. (1933) Onderstepoorte Journal of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Industry, 1: 173–182. “Recent Investigations Into the Toxicity of Known and Unknown Plants of the Union of South Africa.” (From Watt 1967)

Stintzing, F.C. et al. (1999) Planta Medica, 65: 632–635. “Amino Acid Composition and Betaxanthin Formation in Fruits from Opuntia ficus-indica.” (Florian C. Stintzing, Andreas Schieber & Reinhold Carle)

Stintzing, F.C. et al. (2002) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50 (8): 2302–2307. “Identification of betalains from yellow beet (Beta vulgaris L.) and cactus pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.] by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.” (Florian C. Stintzing, Andreas Schieber & Reinhold Carle)

Stintzing, F.C. et al. (2005) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53 (2): 442–451. “Color, Betalain Pattern, and Antioxidant Properties of Cactus Pear (Opuntia spp.) Clones.” (Florian C. Stintzing, Kirsten M. Herbach, Markus R. Mosshammer, Reinhold Carle, Weigung Yi, Subramani Sellappan, Casimir C. Akoh, Ron Bunch & Peter Felker)

Stjarne, L. (1966) Acta Physiology Scandinavica, 67: 441. Studies of noradrenaline biosynthesis in nerve tissue.“

Stockings, G.T. (1940) (in the literature)
See as Tayleur-Stockings 1940

Stone-Miller, Rebecca (1995) Art of the Andes: From Chavín to Inca. Thames and Hudson: London.

Straatman, Silke (1988) Die Wollbilder der Huichol-Indianer. Marburger Studien zür Völkerkunde Vol. 6: Marburg.

Strack, D. et al. (1987) Phytochemistry, 26: 2399–2400. “Neobetanin: A New Natural Plant Constituent.” (D. Strack, U. Engel & V. Wray )

Steinmetz, E.F. (1957) Codex Vegetabilis. Self-published, Amsterdam.

Strike (Hobart Huson) (1998) Total Synthesis II. Panda Press; San Antonio.

Stromböm, Jan & Jan G. Bruhn (1978)a Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 15 (2): 127–132. “Alkaloids of Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum, a Mexican cactus of ethnopharmacological interest”

Stromböm, Jan & Jan G. Bruhn (1978)b Journal of Chromatography, 147: 513–515. “High perfomance liquid chromatography of isomeric cactaceae alkaloids and related tetrahydroisoquinolines.”

Stromböm et al. (1980) Journal of Chromatography, 189: 79 

Strukov et al. 1959 Zh. Obshch. Khim. 29: 3831;

Strukov et al. 1961 Zh. Obshch. Khim. 31: 2709; [CA 54: 19676a; 56: 11567f] (synth, deriv)

Stuart, George E. (1992) National Geographic, 182 (3): 120–136. “Mural Masterpieces of Ancient Cacaxtla.” [Photographs by Enrico Ferorelli]

Stuart, R. (2002) Entheogen Review 11 (2): 58-61. “Tchai.”

Sturtevant, F.M. & Victor A. Drill (1956) Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 92 (2): 383–387. (entry 22485) “Effects of mescaline in laboratory animals and influence of ataraxics on mescaline-response.”

Sultan, F.W. (1891) New York Medical Journal, 681.

Sunshine, Irving (ed.) (1981) CRC Handbook of Spectrophotometric Data of Drugs

Supniewski, J.V. (1930)a Polska Gazeta Lekarska, 9: 449–454, 737–740. “[Pharmacological properties of synthetic alkaloids of peyotl.”]

Supniewski, J.V. (1930)b Polska Gazeta Lekarska, 9: 287–293; (1931) 10: 961–964. “[Pharmacological properties of synthetic alkaloids of derived from mescaline.”]

Svenson, A. Baerheim and R. Verpoorte (1983) Chromatography of Alkaloids. Part A: thin-layer chromatography. Journal of Chromatography, Library- volume 23A. Elsevier, 1983. ISBN 0-444-42145-9 (VOL. 23A).

Suryanarayanan, T.S. et al. (2005) Mycological Research 109 (5):635–639. “Endophytic fungi associated with cacti in
Arizona.” (T.S. Suryanarayanan, S.K. Wittlinger & S.H. Faeth)

Swonger, Alvin K. & Larry L. Constantine (1983) Drugs and Therapy. A Handbook of Psychotropic Drugs. Second Edition. Little, Brown & Co., ISBN 0-316-82551-4.

SWGDrug [Scientific Working Group for the Analysis of Seized Drugs] (2005) Peyote & Mescaline, (revision: 27 June 2005). Available at: http://www.swgdrug.org/Monographs/PEYOTE.pdf

Syal, Rajeev (1996) Sunday Times (London) 28 January. “Raves in the Caves: Stone Age Britons Took Drugs.”

Szara, S. (1957) “Comparison of the psychotic effect of tryptamine derivatives with the effects of mescaline and LSD in self experiments.” pp. 460–463 in Garattini & Ghetti

Szasz, Thomas (1985) Ceremonial Chemistry: The Ritual Persecution of Drugs, Addicts and Pushers. (revised edition) Learnig Publications. ISBN 1-55691-019-3.

Szasz, Thomas (1992) Our Right to Drugs. The Case for a Free Market.

Szuman, Stefan (1930) Kwartalnik Psychologiczny, 1-2: 156–212. [Summary in German, pp. 214–220.] “Analiza formalina i psychologiczna widzeń meskalinowych.”

Takagi, S. et al. (1979) Shoyakugaku Zasshi, 33 (1): 35–37. “Isolation of Synephrine from Evodia Fruits.” (Text is in Japanese) (Shigekazu Takagi, Takeshi Kinoshita, Mieko Sameshima, Toshiyuki Akiyama, Shigeo Kobayashi and Ushio Sankawa)

Takahashi (in the literature) see as Kinoshita

Takahashi & Brossi 1982 Heterocycles, 19: 691

Takido, M. et al. (1970) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59 (2): 271–273. “New synthesis of rac. Anhalonidine and rac. Pellotine” (M. Takido, K.L. Khanna & A.G. Paul)

Takizawa, T. et al. (1993) Journal of Natural Products, 56 (12): 2183–2185. “A New Type of Triterpene from Trichocereus pachanoi.” (Takaomi Takizawa, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kitotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo, Hiroshi Yuasa & Ken-Ichi Kawai)

Tampier, L. et al. (1977) Research Communications in Chemical Pathology and Pharmacology, 17: 731–734. “Influences of catecholamine-derivated alkaloids and β-adrenergic blocking agents on stereospecific binding of 3H-naloxone.” (L. Tampier, H.S. Alpers & V.E. Davis) ,

Tamuara, K. et al. (1974) Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 47: 2682.

Tan, M.L. et al. (2005) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 96: 287–294. “Methanolic extract of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) induces apoptosis in breast carcinoma, T47-D cell line.” (M.L. Tan, S.F. Sulaiman, N. Najimuddin, M.R. Samian & T.S. Tengku Muhammad)

Tan, R.X. & W.X. Zou (2001) Nat. Prod. Rep., 18: 448–459. “Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites.” [from Wu et al. 2008]

Tani et al. (1978) YZ, 98: 1658.

Taniguchi, K. et al. (1964) J. Lab. Clin. Med. 64: 469. (K. Taniguchi Y. Kakimoto and M.D. Armstrong)

Tank, A. et al. (1976) Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 273: 219–226. “Ethanol induced alterations of dopamine metabolism in rat liver.” (A. Tank, H. Weiner and J.A. Thurman)

Tarsitano, F. (1945) Bolletino della società italiana di biologia sperimentale, 20: 762–763. “La ricerca tossicologica della mescalina.” [CA (1946) 40: 66646.] [“Toxicological studies on mescaline.”]

Tarsitano, F. (1947) Folia Medica, 30: 340–344

Tayleur-Stockings, G. (1940) Journal of Mental Science, 86: 29–47. “A clinical study of the mescaline psychosis with special reference to the mechanism of the genesis of schizophrenia and other psychotic states.”

Taylor, Walter R. (1956) Bulletin of the Texas Archeological Society, 27: 215–234. “Some Implications of the Carbon-14 dates from a cave in Coahuila, Mexico.”

Teirich, H. (1954) Psyche (Stuttgart) 7: 637–640. “Ueber eine Meskalinschädigung.”

Teitel et al. (1972) J. Med. Chem. 15: 845

Teitel et al. (1974) J. Med. Chem. 17: 134 (S.Teitel, J. O’Brien, W. Pool & A. Brossi)

Telang, Sadanand Anant (1973) Phytochemistry, 12: 2059. “2-Hydroxymethyl-4-Methoxy-α-Pyrone From Opuntia polyacantha.”

Teles, F. et al. (1984) Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, 35: 421–425.  “Amino and organic acids of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica L.).” (F. Teles, J. Stull, W. Brown & F. Whitting)

Tello, Julio César (1929) Antiguo Peru. Primera epoca. Lima

Tello, Julio César (1940) Primeros indicios de una cultura megalitica semjante a la de Chavin en la region central de Peru. Lima.

Tello, Julio César (1947) Paginas Escogidas. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Peru

Tello, Julio César (1960) Chavin. Cultura Matriz de la Civilización Andina. Primera Parte. Imprenta de la Universidad de San Marcos. Lima.

Terry, Martin Kilman (2005) PhD Dissertation; Texas A&M University. A Tale of Two Cacti: Studies in Astrophytum asterias and Lophophora Williamsii. 178 pages.

Terry, Martin (2007) “Button, button, who’s got the button? Commerce, Religion, Drug Regulation and Conservation in the Current Peyote Trade of the Texas Borderlands.” http://www.cactusconservation.org/CCI/bb1.html [A talk presented to the Center for Big Bend Studies, November 2007.]

Terry, Martin (2007) Cactus Conservation in the US-Mexico Borderlands: Case Studies. [http://www.cactusconservation.org/CCI/library/mt/2007_Terry_Cactus%20Conservation.pdf]

Terry, Martin (2009)b. Cactus & Succulent Society Journal, Volume 80. “Stalking the Wild Lophophora.”
4: 181–186. “Part 1 Chihuahua and Coahuila”
5: 222–228. Part 2 Zacatecas, San Luis Potosí, Nuevo León, and Tamaulipas”
6: 310–317. “Part 3 San Luis Potosí (central), Querétaro, and Mexico City”

Terry, Martin (2011) Phytologia, 93 (3): 330–340. “Regeneration of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae) following mummification of its crown by natural freezing events, and some observations on multiple stem formation.“

Terry, Martin & James E. Mauseth (2006) Sida, 22 (1): 1565–592. “Root-shoot anatomy and post-harvest vegetative clonal development in Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae: Cacteae) Implications for conservation.”

Terry, Martin et al. (2006) Journal of Archaeological Science, 20: 1–5. “Lower Pecos and Coahuila peyote: new radiocarbon dates.” (Martin Terry, Karen L. Steelman, Tom Guilderson, Phil Dering & Marvin W. Rowe) [Interestingly, using his power as a peer reviewer for Nature, Juan Adovasio was able to thwart the first attempt to publish this paper which had corrected flaws in Adovasio’s work.]

Terry, Martin et al. (2011) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 5 (2): 661–675. “Limitations to natural production of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae) I. Regrowth and survivorship two years post harvest in a South Texas population.” [Martin Terry, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams, Teodoso Herrera & Norma Fowler]

Terry, M. et al. (2012) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 6 (2): 567–577. “Limitations to natural production of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae) II. Effects of repeated harvesting at two-year intervals in a South Texas population.” (Martin K. Terry, Keeper Trout, Bennie Williams, Teodoso Herrera & Norma Fowler)

Tesoriere, L. (2005) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 53 (20): 7851–7855. “Biothiols, taurine, and lipid-soluble antioxidants in the edible pulp of Sicilian cactus pear (Opuntia ficus-indica) fruits and changes of bioactive juice components upon industrial processing.” (Tesoriere L, Fazzari M, Allegra M, Livrea MA.) [from PubMed]

Texas Department of Public Safety. Peyote sales totals and distributors of Texas. Unpublished data available to the public on a walk-in basis.

Thale, T. et al. (1950) American Journal of Psychiatry, 106 (9): 686–691. “Hallucination and Imagery Induced by Mescaline.” (Interesting in spite of the fact they used psychiatric patients as guinea pigs.) (Thomas Thale, Beverly Wescott Gabrio and Kurt Salomon)

Thevet, André (1574) Histoire du Mexique.

Thompson, Charles Henry (1898) Annual Report of the Missouri. Botanical. Gardens, 9: 127–135. “The species of cacti commonly cultivated under the generic name Anhalonium.”

Thord-Gray, Ivor (1955) TARAHUMARA – ENGLISH ENGLISH – TARAHUMARA DICTIONARY, University of Miami Press, Coral Gables, Florida, 1170 pages with map.

Thuillier, J. (1956) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 150: 1150–1151. “Suppression par la chlorpromazine des contractions utérines provoquées par la mescaline.”

Titelar, M. et al. (1988) Psychopharmacology 94(2): 213–216. “Radioligand binding evidence implicates the brain 5-HT2 receptor as a site of action for LSD and phenylisopropylamne hallucinogens.”

Tjio, J.H. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Medical Association, 210: 849. “LSD and chromosomes: A controlled experiment.” (Joe-Hin Tjio, Walter N. Pahnke & Albert A. Kurland) [Does not cause damage]

Tocher, R.D. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 1161

Todd, James S. (1969) Lloydia, 32 (3): 395–398. “Thin Layer Chromatographic analysis of Mexican populations of Lophophora (Cactaceae).”

Tomaso (1934) La Chimica, 10: 408

Tomina, L.D. et al. (1971) Izv. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, Ser. Khim. 10:2181. “Separation of racemic phenyl-α- and β-dialkylamino alcohols into optical isomers.” (L.D. Tomina, E.I. Klabunovskii, I. Yu, L.A. Kretova, N.L. Kholdyakov, T.A. Antonova and E.M. Cherkasova) [from Ranieri & McLaughlin 1977]

Tomita et al. (1963) Chem Pharm bull 11: 1477, 1484

Tomita et al. (1963) Tetrahedron Letters, 3: 127–130. “The Structure of Isopilocereine.” (M. Tomita, T. Kichuchi & K. Bessho)

Tomita, M & Y. Takano (1959) Yakugaku Zasshi, 79: 1331. From Patel 1968. [Unable to confirm. Our copies start with 1960.]

Tomita, M. & J. Kunitomo (1960) Yakugaku Zasshi, 80: 1300. [Also CA (1961) 55: 3641d.]

Tomko, J. et al. (1967) Lloydia, 30: 231.

Tonge, Sally R. & B.E. Leonard (1969) Life Sciences 8, part 1 (15): 805–814. “The Effects of Some Hallucinogenic Drugs Upon the Metabolism of 5-Hydroxy-Tryptamine in the Brain.”

Topchiev (1933) J. Appl. Chem., USSR 6: 529 [1934 CA 28: 2718]

Toro, Alfonso (1930) Proceedings of the Twenty-Third International Congress of Americanists (Held at New York, September 17–22, 1928) 101–121. “Las plantas sagradas de los Aztecas y su influencia sobre el arte precortesiano.”

Torres, Constantino Manuel (1996) Ann. Mus. civ. Roverto 11 (1995): 291–326. “Archaeological Evidence for the Antiquity of Psychoactive Plant Use in the Central Andes.”

Torres, Donna & Manuel Torres (1995) “San Pedro in the Pressure Pot.” pp. 283–284 in: Rätsch & Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedizin und Bewußtseinsforschung. Issue #4.

Torres-Castillo J.A. et al. (2009) Phytochemistry, 70 (11–12): 1374–1381. “Characterization of a highly stable trypsin-like proteinase inhibitor from the seeds of Opuntia streptacantha (O. streptacantha Lemaire).” (J.A. Torres-Castillo, C. Mondragón Jacobo & A. Blanco-Labra) [from PubMed]

Towle, Margaret Ashley (1961) The Ethnobotany of Pre-Columbian Peru. [Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology No. 30. Aldine Publications, Chicago.]

Tranzer, J. P. & Thoenen, H. (1967) Experientia, 23: 743–745. “Electron microscopic localization of 5-hydroxydopamine (3,4,5-trihydroxy-phenyl-ethylamine), a new ”false” sympathetic transmitter.”

Trebach, Arnold S. (1987) The Great Drug War and Radical Proposals that Could Make America Safe Again. Macmillan Co.: New York.

Trejo-Gonzalez, A. et al. (1996) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 55: 27–33. A purified extract from prickly pear cactus (Opuntia fulginosa) controls experimentally induced diabetes
in rats.” (A. Trejo-Gonzalez, G. Gabriel-Ortiz, A.M.
Puebla-Perez, M.D. Huizar-Contreras, M.R. Munguia-
Mazarigos & C.E. Mejia-Arreguins,)

Trout, K. (1998) Trout’s Notes on Tryptamines from Higher Plants. [TN# FS-X0] Better Days Publishing; Austin, TX.

Trout, K. (1999)a Trout’s Notes on Cactus Chemistry By Species. [TN#C-10a] Better Days Publishing; Austin, TX.

Trout, K. (1999)b Trout’s Notes on Sacred Cacti. Second Edition. [TN#SC2] Better Days Publishing; Austin, TX. [First edition 1997 by Narayan Publications; Sedona, AZ]]

Trout, Keeper & Burnt Norton (2010) Peyote in the Wilds of Texas. (http://www.erowid.org/plants/peyote/peyote_article4.shtml)

Trulson, M.E. et al. (1983) European Journal of Pharmacology, 96 (1-2): 151–154. “Mescaline elicits behavioral effects in cats by an action at both serotonin and dopamine receptors.” (M.E. Trulson, T. Crisp & L.J. Henderson)

Tsa Toke, Monroe (Huntinghorse) (1957) Visions and Descriptions of the Peyote Ritual. Grabhorn Press

Tsao, Makepeace U. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 5495–5496. “A new synthesis of Mescaline.”

Tullar, J. (1948) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 70: 2067.

Turner, D.M. (1998) Comment made in correspondence during 1995 (Posthumously published: Entheogen Review 7 (1): 18.)

Turner, D.M. (Joseph Vivian) (1994) The Essential Psychedelics Guide. Panther Press; San Francisco. ISBN: 0-9642636-1-0. 112 pages.

Turner, William J. & Jack J. Heyman (1960) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 25: 2250–2251. “The Presence of Mescaline in Opuntia cylindrica.”

Tursch, B. et al. (1965) Tetrahedron Letters, 47: 4161–4166. “Structure de l’acide mesembryanthemoidigenique, triterpene nouveau des cactacees.” (B. Tursch, J. Leclercq & G. Chiurdoglu)

Udenfriend, S. & J.R. Cooper (1952) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 196 (1): 227–223. “The chemical estimation of tyrosine and tyramine.”

Udenfriend, S. et al. (1959) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 85 (2): 487–490. “Physiologically active amines in common fruits and vegetables.” (Sidney Udenfriend, Walter Lovenberg & Albert Sjoerdsma)

Ulett, George A. (1953) American Journal of Psychiatry, 109 (10): 741–748. “Preliminary observations on convulsive and subconvulsive treatments induced by intermittent photic stimulation.”

Umberger, C.J. (1954) in T.A. Gonzales, M. Vance, M. Halpern & C.J. Umberger (eds.) Legal Medicine, Pathology and Toxicology. 2nd Edition. Appleton-Century-Crofts: New York.

Underhill, Ruth (1952) Proceedings of the XXXth International Congress of Americanists, 143–148. “Peyote.”

Underhill, Ruth (1957) Ann. Am. Acad. Political and Social Sciences, 311: 127–136. “Religion Among American Indians.”

Unger, S.E. et al. (1980) Journal of Natural Products, 43 (2): 288–293. “Chemotaxonomy of Columnar Mexican Cacti by Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry” (S.E. Unger, R.G. Cooks, R. Mata & J.L. McLaughlin)

Unger, Sanford M. (1963)a LSD, Mescaline, Psilocybin and Psychotherapy: An Annotated Chronology. Washington, DC: National Institute of Mental Health

Unger, Sanford M. (1963)b Psychiatry. Journal for the Study of Interpersonal Processes. 26 (2): 111–125. “Mescaline, LSD, Psilocybin and Personality Change: A Review.”

Unger, Sanford M. (1965) LSD and Psychotherapy: A Bibliography of the English-Language Literature. pp. 241–248 in The Psychedelic Reader (Weil, G.M. et al. Editors).

United Nations (1989) Recommended methods for testing peyote cactus (mescale buttons) and mescaline and Psilocybe mushrooms/psilocybin. Manual for use by national narcotic laboratories. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; NewYork. (United Nation’s publication ST/NAR/19 — st-nar-19.pdf)

United Nations (2006) Multilingual Dictionary of Narcotic and Psychotropic Substances Under International Control. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. NewYork. (UN publication ST/NAR/1/Rev.2)

Uphof, J.C. Th. (1968) Dictionary of economic plants. 2nd edition. J. Cramer.

Urbina, Manuel (1900) Anales del Museo Nacional de México, 7: 26–48. “El Peyote y el Ololiuhqui.”

US Army (1974) Tactical Land Clearing, [US Army Field Manual 5-164 (FM 5-164)] Chapter Three: “Clearing methods and techniques.”

Usdin & Usdin (1961) Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 108: 461.

Usdin, Earl & Daniel H. Efron (1979) Psychotropic Drugs and Related Compounds. Second Edition. Pergamon Press. 791 pp. ISBN# 0 08 025510 8. [First edition was published in 1972 by the US HEW]

USFWS (2001) AESO/SE 2-21-01-F-189.  (Formal U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service consultation for the Pleasant Valley Allotment.) Prepared for John C. Bedell, 30 November, 2001. [Posted online at: http://www.fws.gov/southwest/es/Arizona/Documents/Biol_Opin/01189_Pleasant_Valley.pdf]

Uyeno, Edward T. (1966) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 55 (2): 215–216. “Inhibition of Isolation-Induced Attack Behavior of Mice by Drugs.” [Mescaline inhibited but less so than LSD]

Valadez, Mariano & Valadez, Susana (1992) Huichol Indian Sacred Rituals. Dharma (Amber Lotus): Oakland. 111 pages. ISBN 0-945798-80-6.

Valcárcel, Luis Eduardo (1938) Cuadernos de Arte Antiguo del Perú. Issue No. 6 [Lima. Imprenta del Museo Nacional].

Valente, L.M.M. et al. (2007) Pharmacognosy Magazine 3: 167–172. “Evaluation of the antitumor and trypanocidal activities and alkaloid profile in species of Brazilian Cactaceae.” (L.M.M. Valente, L.A. Scheinvar, G.C. da Silva, A.P. Antunes, F.A.L. dos Santos, T.F. Oliveira, M.R.R. Tappin, F.R. Aquino Neto, A.S. Pereira,S.F. Carvalhaes, A.C. Siani, R.R. dos Santos, R.O.A. Soares, E.F. Ferreira, M. Bozza, C. Stutz & D. Gibaldi)

Van Den Berg, J.H (1951) Folia Psychiat. (Amst.) 54 (6): 385–406, “Ein Beitrag zur Psychopathogie des Meskalinrausches.” Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1952), Vol. 5, No. 8; entry #3306.

van den Berg, Maria Elisabeth (1984) “Ver-o-Peso: The Ethnobotany of an Amazonian Market.” Pages 140–149 in: Ghillean T. Prance & Jacquelyn A. Kallunki (eds.) Ethnobotany in the Neotropics. Proceedings in the Neotropics Symposium Society for Economic Botany, 13–14 June, 1983. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York.] [aka Advances in Economic Botany, 1: 140–149]

Vanderveen, R.L. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13 (5): 866–867. “N-Methyltyramine from Opuntia clavata.” (Randall L. Vanderveen, Leslie G. West & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Van der Walt, S.J. & D.G. Steyn (1940) Onderstepoorte Journal of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Industry, 15: 261–277. “Recent Investigations Into the Toxicity of Known and Unknown Plants of the Union of South Africa.” (From Watt 1967)

Van Praag, H.M. (1982) Lancet, ii: 1259

Van Vunakis, H. et al. (1969) Biochemical Pharmacology, 18: 393–404. “Production and Specificity of Antibodies Directed Towards 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenethylamine, 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine and 2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine.” (Helen Van Vunakis, Hilda Bradvica, Phillipe Benda and Lawrence Levine.)

Van Welsum, R.A. (1973) Journal of Chromatography, 78: 237–240. “A simplified procedure for the identification of drugs from the illicit street market by thin-layer chromatography.”

Vanderveen, R.L. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13 (5): 866–867. “N-Methyltyramine from Opuntia clavata.” (Randall L. Vanderveen, Leslie G. West & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Vargas, Plutarco Naranjo (1959) Revista. Confederacion Medica Panamericana, 6: 1–8 [CA (1959) 53: 19151f-g.] [“Comparative study of harmine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and mescaline.”] (said by CA to include 33 references.)

Vaupel, Friedrich (1916) Monatsschrifte für Kakteenkunde, 26: 120–125. “Neue südamerikanische Kakteen.” [Pages 122–123: II. Cereus tacaquirensis Vaupel spec. nov.]

Vazquez-Cruz, M.A. et al. (2012) Journal of Food Science, 77 (4): C366-C373. “Effect of maturity stage and storage on flavor compounds and sensory description of berrycactus (Myrtillocactus geometrizans).” (Moises Alejandro Vazquez-Cruz, Sandra Neli Jimenez-Garcia, Irineo Torres-Pacheco, Salvador Horacio Guzman-Maldonado, Ramon Gerardo Guevara-Gonzalez, & Rita Miranda-Lopez)

Vecsey, Christopher (ed.) (1991) Handbook of American Indian Religious Freedom. New York: Crossroad. 176 pages. ISBN 0-8245-1067–4

Vellozo, Fr. Jose Mariano da Conceição [a Conceptione] (1823) Florae Fluminensis, vol 5, plate 18. “Icosandria Mongynia Cactus hexagonus.”

Verdeax, G. (1950) [Cited by Deniker 1957 but not listed among his references. Said to have shown that the alpha rhythm is blocked at the moment hallucinations begin.] The closest reference I can locate is Delay, Baruk, Verdeaux & Verdeaux.

Verpoorte, R. & A. Baerheim Svensen (1983) Chromatography
of Alkaloids. Part B. gas-liquid chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography
. Journal of Chromatography,
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Vignon, M.R. et al. (2004) Carbohydrate Research, 339: 123–131. “Arabinan–cellulose composite in Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear spines.” (M. R. Vignon, L. Heux, M.-E. Malaininea & M. Mahrouz)

Vigueras, A. L. & L. Portillo (2001) Florida Entomologist, 84:493–498. “Uses of Opuntia species and the potential impact of Cactoblastis cactorum (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) in Mexico.”

Vilcapoma, Graciela (2000) Quepo, 14: 59- “Frutas Silvestres de la Cuenca del Rio Chillón (Cactáceas).”

Viloria-Matos, A.J. et al. (2002) Rev. Fac. Agron., LUZ, 19: 324–331. “Estabilidad de betalaínas en pulpa de tuna (Opuntia boldinghii Britt. et Rose) sometidas a un proceso de liofilización.” (A.J. Viloria-Matos, D. Corbelli-Moreno, M.J. Moreno-Álvarez & D.R. Belén-Camacho) [from García Pantaleón et al. 2009]

Vinson, J.A. & J.E. Hooyman (1975) Journal of Chromatography, 105 (2): 415–417. “A universal thin-layer chromatographic visualization reagent for drugs.”

Vistoli, G. (1955) Bollettino Chimico Farmaceutico, 94: 133-?. “Application of a color reaction to the photometric determination of sympathomimetic amines of pharmaceutical importance.”

Vitalis, Daniel (2009a) “Ever Tried This PsychoActive Cactus?” [Online article at http://www.danielvitalis.com/2009/12/ever-tried-this-psychoactive-cactus/]

Vitalis, Daniel (2009b) “The Psychedelic Suguaro Cactus.” [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_-kNjwVO2g]

Vivanco Hidalgo, Eliana (2001) “El San Pedro entre ‘el bien y el mal: prácticas, discursos y conflictos en torno asu consumo en el Valle de Vilcabamba, Ecuador.” Artículo presentado en el Congreso Internacional de LASA 2001. Washington D.C, Septiembre, 6–8, 2001-08-20 (http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/Lasa2001/VivancoHidalgoEliana.pdf)

Vivanco Hidalgo, Eliana (2000) “Vilcabamba: Conflictos culturales, prácticas y discursos en torno de uso del San Pedro.” Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Facultad de Ciencias humanas, Departamento de Antropología. Disertación previa a la obtención de la Licenciatura en Antropología, Quito. 122 pages. [Cited in Glass Coffin 2010 as Vivanco, Eliana 2000 ‘‘Vilcabamba: conflictos culturales, pra´cticas y discursos en torno al uso del San Pedro. Thesis, Quito: PUCE.] Thusfar this document has been unobtainable via any available channels. [from Vivanco Hidalgo 2001 and also http://www.beisa.dk/Publications/BEISA%20Book%20pdfer/Capitulo%2019.pdf.

Vogel, J.H. et al. (2005) Journal of the American College of
Cardiology,
46 (1): 184–221. “Integrating
Complementary Medicine Into Cardiovascular Medicine. A Report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation Task Force on Clinical Expert Consensus Documents.”
(J.H. Vogel, S.F. Bolling, R.B. Costello, E.M. Guarneri, M.W. Krucoff, J.C. Longhurst, B. Olshansky, K.R. Pelletier, C.M. Tracy, R.A. Vogel, R.A. Vogel, J. Abrams, J.L. Anderson, E.R. Bates, B.R. Brodie, C.L. Grines, P.G. Danias, G. Gregoratos, M.A. Hlatky, J.S. Hochman, S. Kaul, R.C. Lichtenberg, J.R. Lindner, R.A. O’Rourke, G.M. Pohost, R.S. Schofield, S.J. Shubrooks, C.M. Tracy & W.L. Winters, Jr)(Downloadable from http://content.onlinejacc.org/cgi/reprint/46/1/184.pdf)
Why is it that anything containing the words “Consensus” with regards to the process of scientific inquiry is increasingly causing me to be cautious about trusting its results?

Vogel, W.H. (1970) Biochem. Pharm. 19: 2663.

Vogel, W.H. et al. (1967) Int. J. Neuropsychiatry, 3: 292.

Vogel, W.H. et al. (1973) Psychopharmacologia, 30: 145–151. “Macromerine, Normacromerine and Bisnormacromerine: Non-Psychoactive Methylated Derivatives of Norepinephrine.” (W.H. Vogel, B.D. Evans, E.M. Bonnem, J.F. Fischer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Vogt, M. (1935) Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 178: 560–576. “Die Verteilung von Arneneitstoffen auf verschiedene Regionen des Zentralnervensystems, Zugleich ein Betrag Zu Ihrer quantitativen Mikrobestimmung im Gewerbe Chinin und Mezkalin.”

Vollenweider, F. X. (2001) Dialogues in clinical neuroscience, 3: 265–279. “Brain mechanisms of hallucinogens and entactogens. “

Vollenweider, Franz X. & Michael Kometer (2010) Nature  Reviews Neuroscience, 11: 642–651 “The Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs.”

Von Euler, Ulf S. (1955) Noradrenaline. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, Ilinois.

Von Euler, U. S. & S. Hellner (1951) Acta Physiologica
Scandinavica
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adrenaline and hydroxytyramine in urine.”

von Euler, U.S. & F. Lishajko (1961) Acta Physiologica
Scandinavica
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von Kamienski, Elard Stein (1957) Planta, 50: 315–330. “Untersuchungen über die flüchtigen amine der pflanzen. II. Mitteilung. Die amine von blüttenpflanzen und moosen.”

von Ladenberg, B. (1893) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde. 3: 70- . “Die Kakteen und Sukkulenten auf der internationalen Ausstellung in Gent.” [This includes the oldest photograph of a macrogonus that I can presently locate. See page 71.]

von Martius See as Martius

Von Reis Altschul, Siri (1973) Drugs and Foods from Little-Known Plants. Notes in Harvard University Herbaria. Harvard University Press. (Second printing in 1975.) ISBN 0-674-21676-8.

Von Studnitz (1968) Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Invest. 21: 333 [CA 70: 1799] “Urinary excretion of methoxy catechol amines in neuroblastoma.” (from Crosby & McLaughlin 1973)

Voogelbreinder, Snu 1999 & 2000 (personal communication)

Voogelbreinder, Snu (2009) Garden of Eden: The Shamanic Use of Psychoactive Flora and Fauna, and the Study of Consciousness. Snu Voogelbreinder.

Voss, A. (1872) Vilmorin’s Ilustrierte Blumengärtnerei, 368 (A. Siebert, ed.) “Genus 427. Ariocarpus Scheidw. Aloecactus.” [from Grym 1997 & Anderson 1980]

Voss, A. (1872) Vilmorins Ilustrierte Blumengärtneri, 368.

Voswinckel, Hugo (1912) Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 45 (1): 1004–1006. “Über eine neue Synthese des Hordenins.”

Waalkes, T.P. et al. (1958) Science, 127 (3299): 648-650. “Serotonin, Norepinephrine, and Related Compounds in Bananas.” (T.P. Waalkes, A. Sjoerdsma, C.R. Creveling, H. Weissbach & S. Udenfriend)

Wadworth, A.N. & D. Faulds (1992) Drugs, 44: 1013–1032. “Hydroxyethylrutosides: A Review of Pharmacology and Therapeutic Efficacy in Veneous Insufficiency and Related Disorders.”

Waeber, A. (1912) St. Petersburg Medizinische Zeitschrift, 37: 17–20. “Zur Wirkung von Anhalonium Lewinii.”

Wagner, Günter (1932) Baessler-Archiv, 15: 59–144. “Entwicklung und Verbreitung des Peyote-Kultes.”

Wagner, H. & J. Grevel (1982a) Planta Medica, 44: 36–40. “Neue herzwirksame Drogen II, Nachweis und Isolierung herzwirksamer Amine durch Ionenpaar-HPLC” [New Cardioactive Drugs II, Detection and Isolation of Cardiotonic Amines with Ionpair-HPLC] (Selenicereus grandiflorus )

Wagner, H. & J. Grevel (1982b) Planta Medica, 45: 95–97. “Cardioactive Drugs III, Cardioactive Amines from Echinocereus blanckii.”

Wagner, Hildebert (1969) Rauschgift-Drogen. [pp 85–91] Springer-Verlag: Berlin-Heidelberg-NewYork.

Walewski, Count Stefan Colonna (1955) Secrets of Caucasian Yoga. Falcon Press.

Walker, A.R. (1953) Bull. Inst. Étud. Centrafr. (N.S.) 5: 1940 / 6: 275–329. “Usages Pharmaceutiques des Plantes Spontanées du Gabon.” (From Watt 1967)

Wallace, Anthony F.C. (1956) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12 (1): 1–21. “New religions among the Delaware Indians, 1600–1900.”

Wallace, Anthony F.C. (1959) A.M.A. Archives of General Psychiatry, 1 (July): 58-69. “Cultural Determinants of Response to Hallucinatory Experience.”

Wallace, Robert S. (1986) Cactus & Succulent Journal (US), 58: 35–38. “Biochemical taxonomy and the Cactaceae.”

Wallace, Robert S. & Arthur C. Gibson (2002) “Evolution and Systematics.” pages 1–21 (Chapter 1) in Nobel 2002

Wallraff, Günter (1968) Meskalin – ein Selbstversuch. Verlag Peter-Paul Zahl: Berlin.

Walpole, G.S. (1910) J. Chem. Soc. Trans. 97: 941–999. [from Reti 1953]

Walter, V.J. & W. Grey Walter (1949) Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 1 (1): 57–86. “The central effects of rhythmic sensory stimulation.”

Walter, William Gray (1946) Nature, 158: 540. “Analysis of the Electrical Response of the Human Cortex to Photic Stimulation.”

Walter, William Gray (1953) The Living Brain. Duckworth, 1953. [Also W.W. Norton, NewYork 1953.]

Walters, G.C. & P.D. Cooper (1968) Nature, 218: 298–300. “Alicyclic Analogue of Mescaline.”

Wanag, Gustav & Anna Dombrowski (1942) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 75: 82–86. “Verwendung von 2-Nitro-indandion-(1,3) für die Isolierung und Identifizierung organischer Basen. II. Mitteilung.”

Wani, M.C. et al. (1980) Journal of Chemical Research (M) 0301–0331. “X-ray crystal and molecular structure of the racemic, dimeric tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid Lophocine, probably an artefact [SIC], from Lophocereus schottii” (Mansukh C. Wani, James B. Thompson, Harold L. Taylor, Monroe E. Wall, Richard W. Miller & Andrea T. McPhail)

Waser, E. (1925) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 8: 758–773. “Untersuchungen in der Phenylalanin-Riehe. VI. Decarboxylierung des Tyrosins und des Leucins”

Waser, E. & H. Sommer (1923a) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 6: 54–61. “Untersuchungen in der Phenylalanin-Reihe. II. Synthese des 3,4-Dioxyphenyl-äthylamins”

Waser, E. & H. Sommer (1923b) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 6: 1797. (from Neme et al. 1977)

Wasson, R. Gordon (1961) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 19 (7): 137–162. “The Hallucinogenic Fungi of Mexico: An Inquiry Into the Origins of the Religious Idea Among Primitive Peoples.”

Wasson, R. Gordon (1968) SOMA: Divine Mushroom of Immortality. Mouton & Co.

Wasson, R. Gordon (1970)a Bulletin on Narcotics, 22 (3): 25–30. “Soma of the Aryans: An ancient hallucinogen?”

Wasson, R. Gordon (1970)b Indo-Iranian Journal, 12 (4): 286–298. “Soma: Comments inspired by Professor Kuiper’s review.”

Wasson, R. Gordon (1971) Journal of the American Oriental Society, 91 (2): 169–187. “The Soma of the Rig Veda: What was it?”

Wasson, R. Gordon (1972) Soma and the Fly-Agaric: Mr. Wasson’s Rejoinder to Professor Brough. Botanical Museum of Harvard University.

Wasson, R. Gordon (1978) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 26 (6): 211–223. “Soma brought up-to-date.”

Wasson, R.G. et al. (1978) The Road To Eleusis: Unveiling the Secret of the Mysteries. (R. Gordon Wasson, Albert Hofmann & Carl A.P. Ruck) Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich. [See also as (1995) El Camino a Eleusis. Fondo de Cultura Económica. 235 pp. ISBN 968-16-0655-8.]

Wasson, R. Gordon et al. (1986) Persephone’s Quest. Entheogens and the Origins of Religion. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05266-9. 257 pages. (R. Gordon Wasson, Stella Kramrisch, Jonathan Ott & Carl A.P. Ruck) [See also as (1996) La Búsqueda de Perséfone. Fondo de Cultura Económica. 339 pp. ISBN 968-16-3695-3.]

Watanabe, K. et al. (1995) Biol. Pharm. Bull, 1995, 18, 696. (K. Watanabe, Y. Kayano, T. Matsunaga, I. Yamamoto and H. Yoshimura, )

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Watt, John Mitchell & Maria Gerdina Breyer-Brandwijk (1962) The Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Southern and Eastern Africa. Second Edition. E. & S. Livingstone, Ltd. 1457 pp.

Watt, John Mitchell (1967) Lloydia, 30 (1): 1–22. “African Plants Potentially Useful in Mental Health.”

Weber (1902) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 21 [Cereus bolivianus] [From Britton & Rose] See as Schumann 1902

Webster (1972) Webster’s English Dictionary, Pyramid Communications, Inc.

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Weil-Malherbe, H. & L.B. Bigelow (1968) Anal. Biochem. 22: 321–334.

Weil, Andrew & Winifred Rosen (1983) Chocolate to Morphine. Understanding Mind-Active Drugs. Houghton Mifflin Co, ISBN 0-395-33108-0/ 0-395-33190-0 (pbk.)

Weiner, C.D. & M.A. Collins (1978) Biochemical Pharmacology, 27: 2699–2703. “Tetrahydroisoquinolines derived from catecholamines or DOPA: Effects on brain tyrosine hydroxylase activity.”

Weiner, H. (1980) Substance & Alcohol Actions/Misuse, 1 (3): 317–322. “Estimation of the in vivo concentration of salsolinol and tetrahydropapaveroline in rat brain after the administration of ethanol.”

Weiner, N. (1980b) “Norepinephrine, epinephrine, and the sympathomimetic amines.” pages 138–175 in, A.G. Gilman, L. S. Goodman & A. Gilman (eds.) Goodman and Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics (6th Ed.). New York: Macmillan.

Weiner H. (1981) Federation Proceedings, 40 (7): 2082–2085. “Possible steady-state concentrations of tetrahydroisoquinolines in brain after the consumption of ethanol.”

Weiner, N. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 137: 47–55. “The Ability of Tyramine to Liberate Catecholamines IN VIVO” (N. Weiner, P.R. Draskóczy and W.R. Burack)

Weir Mitchell, S. (1896) British Medical Journal, 2: 1625–1629. “Notes upon the Effects of Anhelonium [sic] Lewinii (The Mescal Button).”

Weisenborn 1978 (in the literature) apparently refers to J. Weisenborn (Unpublished data)

Weisenborn, J. (Unpublished data). Kapadia et al. 1970c mentions that Dr. Weisenborn (at Squibb) first presented this in a discussion during the 5th Ann. Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy, June 22–25, 1964 (Pittsburgh, PA) and that it was planned for publication submission. Appears cited numerous places but apparently either no details were ever published for the isolation or the structural determination of Tehuanine or it was published under the name of a different lead author.

Welch, A.S. & B.L. Welch (1969) Anal. Biochem. 30: 161–179.

Wellman, Klaus F. (1978a) Journal of the American Medical Association, 239 (15): 1524–1527. “North American Indian Rock Art and Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Wellman, Klaus F. (1978b) A Survey of North American Indian Rock Art. Akademisch-Druck und Verlagsanstalt: Austria.

Weltman [sp?] and associates (1968) Journal of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, 26: 187. [from Aboul-Enein 1973]

Weniger, Del (1984) Cacti of Texas and Neighboring States. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Werdermann, Erich (1931) pages 73, 101 in Backeberg Neue Kakteeen

Werdermann, Erich (1934) Kakteenkunde, 9: 176. [as Thelocactus lophophoroides]

Werdermann 1931 See within Backeberg Neue Kakteeen

Werdermann, Erich (1933) Brasilien und seine Säulenkakteen. [Werdermann correctly assigns identity to what Glazious mistook for Cereus macrogonus but fails to acknowledge Schumann’s corrections.]

Werfel, Franz (1976) Star of the Unborn. Bantam: NY. 627 pages. [First published in 1946 by Viking: NY. 645 pp.]

Wertham, Frederick (1952)a Atlantic Monthly, 189 (March): 52–55. “A study of pain.” [mescaline and pain]

Wertham, Frederick (1952)b “A psychosomatic study of myself.” pp. 102–118 in Max Pinner & Benjamin F. Miller (eds.) When Doctors Are Patients. NewYork: Norton. [mescaline and pain]

Wertham, Frederick & Manfred Beuler (1932) Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, vol. 28: “Inconstancy of the Formal Structure of the Personality: Experimental Study of the Influence of Mescaline on the Rorschach Test.”

West, Leslie G. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1973) Lloydia, 36 (3): 346–348. “Cactus Alkaloids. XVIII. Phenolic β-Phenethylamines from Mammillaria elongata.”

West, Leslie G. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1977) Lloydia, 40 (5): 499–504. “Triterpenes from the Button Cactus, Epithelantha micromeris.

West, L.G. et al. (1974)a Phytochemistry, 13 (3): 665–666. “β-Phenethylamines from the Genus Gymnocactus.” (L.G. West, R.L. Vanderveen & J.L. McLaughlin)

West, L.G. et al. (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 291–292. “Pilocereine from Lophocereus schotti Formae Monstrosus and Mieckleyanus.” (Leslie G. West, Jerry L. McLaughlin & W. Hubert Earle)

Westlund, Derek in Adam Gottlieb (1997) Peyote and Other Psychoactive Cacti.

Whaley, W.M. & T.R. Govindachari (1951) Organic Reactions, 6: 151–190. “The Pictet-Spengler synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines and related compounds.”

Wheatley, M.D. & F.W. Schueler (1950) Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 2: 226. “A synergism between mescaline and rhythmic stimulation by light.” [Abstract of paper presented at the meeting of the Southern Electroencephalographic Society, Nov. 30, 1949, New Orleans, Louisiana.] [Showed low doses of mescaline, too low to produce visual effects were “adequate for the production of striking visual effects when these subjects were placed, with eyes closed, in front of a flashing light of frequency approximating that of the normal alpha rhythm.”]

Wheaton, T.A. & Ivan Stewart (1970) Lloydia, 32 (2): 244–254. “The Distribution of Tyramine, N-Methyltyramine, Hordenine, Octopamine, and Synephrine in Higher Plants.” Page 247

Whitby, L.G. et al. (1961) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 132: 193–201. “The fate of H3[sic]-norepinephrine in animals.” (L.G. Whitby, J. Axelrod & H. Weil-Malherbe)

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White, E.P. (1944)a New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 25, Sec. B; 4: 139–142. “Alkaloids of the Leguminosae. Part IX.- Isolation of β-phenethylamine from Acacia species.”

White, E.P. (1951) New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 33, Sec. B; 1: 54–60. “Part XXII.- Legumes Examined for Alkaloids- Additions and Corrections.”

White, E.P. (1954) New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 35, Sec. B; 6: 451–455. “Alkaloids of the Leguminosae. Part XXIII.- The Occurrence of N-Methyl-β-phenethylamine in Acacia prominens A. Cunn..”

White, E.P. (1957) New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 38, Sec. B; 7: 718–725. “Part XXVI: Examination of Further Legumes, Mainly Lupinus and Acacia species for Alkaloids.”

White, E.P. (1970) New Zealand Journal of Science, 13: 359.

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Whitley, David S. (1994)a World Archaeology, 25 (3): 356–377 “By the Hunter, for the Gatherer: Art, Social Relations and Subsistence Change in the Prehistoric Basin.”

Whitley, David S. (1994)b “Shamanism, Natural Modeling and the Rock Art of Far Western North American Hunter-Gatherers.” in: Shamanism and Rock Art in North America. Rock Art Foundation, Special Publication 1: San Antonio Texas.

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Wiedman, Dennis (1985) American Indian Art Magazine, 10 (3): 38–45. “Staff, Fan, Rattle and Drum: Spiritual and Artistic Expressions of Oklahoma Peyotists.”

Wiedman, Dennis & Candace Green (1985) American Indian Art Magazine, 13 (4): 32–41. “Early Kiowa Peyote Ritual and Symbolism: The 1891 Drawing Books of Silverhorn (Huangooah).”

Wijeratne, E.M.K. et al. (2006) Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry 14: 7917–7923. “A new dihydroxanthenone from a plant-associated strain of the fungus Chaetomium globosum demonstrates anticancer activity.” (E. M. Kithsiri Wijeratne, Thomas J. Turbyville, Anne Fritz, Luke Whitesell & A. A. Leslie Gunatilaka)

Wikler, Abraham (1952) American Journal of Psychiatry, 108 (8): 590–599. “Mechanisms of action of drugs which modify personality functions.”

Wikler, Abraham (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 120 (3–4): 157–175. “Clinical and electroencephalographic studies on the effects of Mescaline, N-allylnormorphine and morphine in man.”

Wikler, Abraham (1957) The Relation of Psychiatry to Pharmacology. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. [Summary of psychiatric and pharmacological work on mescaline.]

Wilcox, R.W. (1898) New York Lancet, p. 81. “Pellotine.”

Wild, H. (1953) A Southern Rhodesian Botanical Dictionary of Native and English Plant Names. Salisbury, Rhodesia. (From Watt 1967)

Willaman 1961 (in the literature) meant Willaman & Schubert 1961

Willaman, J.J. & Bernice G. Schubert (1961) Alkaloid-bearing plants and their contained alkaloids. USDA Technical Bulletin No. 1234. Agricultural Research Service, USDA, US Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1961.

William (1967) (in the literature) meant Geber, William F. (1967)

Willner, P. (1983) Brain Res. Rev. 6: 211

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Winter, J.C. et al. (2007) Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 87 (4): 472–480. “Psilocybin-induced stimulus control in the rat.” (J.C. Winter, K.C. Rice, D.J. Amorosi & R.A. Rabin)

Winters, J.C. (1971) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 178: 625–630. “Tolerance to a behavioral effect of lysergic acid diethylamide and cross-tolerance to mescaline in the rat: absence of a metabolic component.”

Winter, Hildegard (1956) H. WINTER Kakteen Cacti Cactées Samen — seed — semence FRANKFURT A.M – FECHENHEIM. 36 pages

Winter, Hildegard (1957) H. WINTER Kakteen Cacti Cactées Samen — seed — semence FRANKFURT A.M – FECHENHEIM. 36 pages

Winter, Hildegard (1958) H. WINTER Kakteen Cacti Cactées Samen — seed — semence FRANKFURT A.M – FECHENHEIM. 40 pages

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Wise, R. A. (1980) Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 13: 213–223. “Action of drugs of abuse on brain reward systems.”

Wisser, H & D. Stamm (1969) Zeit. Klin. Chem. Klin. Biochem. 7: 631–648.

Witkiewicz, Stefan L. (1932) Nikotyna-alcohol-kokaina-peyotl-eter. Warsaw.

Witt, P.N. (1951) Experientia, 7: 310–311. “d-Lysergsäure-diäthylamid (LSD 25) im Spinnentest.” [Also discusses mescaline.]

Witt, Peter N. (1956) Arzneimittel-Forschung, 6 (10): 628-635. “Der Netzbau der Spinne als Test zur Prüfing zentralnervös angreifender Substanzen.”

Witt, P.N. & R. Weber (1956) Monatsschrift fur Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 132: 193–207. “Biologische Prüfung des Urins von drei Kranken mit akut psychotischen Zustandsbildern auf pathogene Substanzen mit dem Spinnentest.”

Wohlpart, A. (1967) Dissertation. University of Texas at Austin. [From Wohlpart & Mabry 1968]

Wohlpart, A. & T.J. Mabry (1968) Taxon, 17: 148–152. “The Distribution and Phylogenetic Significance of the Betalains With Respect to the Centrospermae.”

Wolbach, A.B. et al. (1962)a Psychopharmacologia, 3 (1): 1–14. “Cross-tolerance between mescaline and LSD-25, with a comparison of the mescaline and LSD reactions.” (A.B. Wolbach Jr., Harris Isbell & E.J. Miner)

Wolbach, A.B. et al. (1962)b Psychopharmacologia, 3 (3): 219–223. “Comparison of Psilocin with Psilocybin, Mescaline and LSD-25.” (A.B. Wolbach Jr., E.J. Miner & Harris Isbell)

Wolf, R. (1952) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 77 (6): 168–170. “Das Raum- und Zeiterleben unter abnormaler Bedingungen, besonders im Meskalinrausch.” [also see Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1952), Vol. 5, No. 8; entry #3307.]

Wollenweber, Eckhard & Marion Dörr (1995) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 23 (5): 577. “Wax Composition of the Two Cacti Hylocereus purpusii and Stenocereus benecki.”

Wong, D. L. (2003) Endocrine Pathology, 14(1): 25–36. “Why is the adrenal adrenergic?”

Wood, Richard: Wooden Penny Trading Post; 409–297-8953, FAX 409-265-6813. [Literature obtained at the Intertribal Pow-wow.]

Woodard, R.W. et al. (1978) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, B, 32 (8): 619–623. “The absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid (-)-calipamine” (Ronald Woodard, J. Cymerman Craig and Jan G. Bruhn)

Woods, L.A. et al. (1951) J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 101: 205. (in the literature) meant Cochin et al. 1951

Woods, L.A. et al. (1951) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 101 (2): 188–199. “Estimation of amines in biological materials with critical data for cocaine and mescaline.”

Woodward, Hope Draper (1991) M.A. Thesis University of Texas at Austin. “Ashaninca Shamanic Healing Ritual and Song.”

Woolley, D.W. & E. Shaw (1954) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, (Washington, DC) 40: 228–231. “A biochemical and pharmacological suggestion about certain mental disorders.”

Wright, Jon (1994) Peyote in Sanskrit. Naked Bums. 98 pages. 0-9643358-0-8 [? No idea what this is. It is listed in Books-In-Print.]

Wu, G. et al. (1994) Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 33: 718–723. “Improved Alkaline Oxidation Process for the Production of Aldehydes (Vanillin and Syringaldehyde) from Steam-Explosion Hardwood Lignin.” (Guoxiong Wu, Michele Heitz, & Esteban Chornet)

Wu, J. et al. (1980) Journal of Natural Products, 43 (2): 270–277. “Alkaloids of Thalictrum. XXXII. Isolation and Identification of Alkaloids From Thalictrum revolutum DC. Fruit.” (Jinn Wu, Jack L. Beal, Wu-Nan Wu & Raymond W. Doskotch)

Wu, S.H. et al. (2008) Journal of Basic Microbiology 48: 140–142. “A new spiroketal from Aspergillus terreus, an endophytic fungus in Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.” (Shao-Hua Wu, You-Wei Chen, Sheng Qin & Rong Huang)

Wu, W.-N. et al. (1980) Journal of Natural Products, 43 (1): 143–150. “Alkaloids of Thalictrum XXX. Eleven Minor Alkaloids From Thalictrum rugosum.” (Wu-Nan Wu, Jack L. Beal & Raymond W. Doskotch)

Wu, X. et al. (2011) J Asian Nat Prod Res. 13 (8): 728–733. “Three new glycosides from Hylocereus undatus.” (X. Wu, Y. Wang, X.J. Huang, C.L. Fan, G.C. Wang, X.Q. Zhang, Q.W. Zhang & WC. Ye)

Wybraniec, Sławomir & Yosef Mizrahi (2002) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50 (21): 6086–6089. “Fruit Flesh Betacyanin Pigments in Hylocereus Cacti”

Wybraniec, Sławomir & Barbara Nowak-Wydra (2007) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 55 (20): 8138–8143. “Mammillarinin: A New Malonylated Betacyanin from Fruits of Mammillaria.”

Wybraniec, S. et al. (2001) Phytochemistry, 58 (8): 1209–1212. “Betacyanins from vine cactus Hylocereus polyrhizus.” (Sławomir Wybranieca, Itzhak Platzner, Shimona Geresh, Hugo E. Gottlieb, Marcela Haimberg, Michael Mogilnitzki & Yosef Mizrahi)

Wybraniec, S. et al. (2007) Phytochemistry, 68: 251–259. “Minor betalains in fruits of Hylocereus species.” (Sławomir Wybraniec, Barbara Nowak-Wydra, Katarzyna Mitka, Piotr Kowalski & Yosef Mizrahi)

Wybraniec, S. et al. (2009) Journal of Chromatography, A, 1216 (41): 6890–6899. “Separation of polar betalain pigments from cacti fruits of Hylocereus polyrhizus by ion-pair high-speed countercurrent chromatography.” (S. Wybraniec, P. Stalica G. Jerz, B. Klose, N. Gebers, P. Winterhalter, A. Spórna, M. Szaleniec & Y. Mizrahi)

Wyler 1979 should read Wyler & Meuer 1979

Wyler, Hugo & Ursula Meuer (1979) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 62 (4): 1330–1339. “Zur Biogenese der Betacyane: Versuche mit [2-14C]-Dopaxanthin.“

Wynd, F.L. (1944) The American Midland Naturalist, 200–235. “Geological and Physiographic Background of the Soils in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas.”

Wysong, E. et al. (1994) Social Problems, 41 (3): 448–472. “Truth and DARE: Tracking Drug Education to Graduation and as Symbolic Politics.” (Earl Wysong, Richard Aniskiewicz & David Wright)

Yácovleff, Eugenio & Fortunato L. Herrera (1934) Revista del Museo Nacional. Lima 3 (3): 243–322. “El Mundo Vegetal de Los Antigous Peruanos.” [References are in Yácovleff & Herrera 1935]

Yácovleff, Eugenio & Fortunato L. Herrera (1935) Revista del Museo Nacional. Lima 4 (1): 31–102. “El Mundo Vegetal de Los Antigous Peruanos.”

Yamada et al. (1981) Tetrahedron Letters, 22: 3869

Yamamoto 1972 See as Palomino Yamamoto 1972

Yamanaka, Yasumitsu (1971) Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 883–836. “Effect of salsolinol on rat brain and liver monoamine oxidase.”

Yamanaka, Y. et al. (1970) Nature, 227: 1143–1144. “Salsolinol, an alkaloid derivative of dopamine formed in vitro during alcohol metabolism.” (Yasumitsu Yamanaka, Michael J. Walsh and Virginia E. Davis)

Yang, T.-H. & C.M. Chen 1970 J. Chin. Chem Soc (Taipei) 17: 235–242; (CA 73: 99072s & 74: 100254g

Yang, T.-H. & G.J.H. Fan (1966) T’ai-Wan Yao Hsueh Tsa Chih, 18 (1): 33–36. [CA (1970) 72: 136333e.]

Yang, T.-H. et al. (1962) Yakugaku Zasshi, 82: 811. [CA 58: 7991]

Ye, Y. et al. (1998) Journal of Natural Products, 61: 456–460. “New Triterpenes from Machaerocereus eruca.” (Yang Ye, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Yi, Y. et al. (2011) Zhong Yao Cai, 34 (5): 712–716. “[Studies on the flavonoids from the flowers of Hylocereus undatus].” [Article is in Chinese] (Y. Yi, X. Wu, Y. Wang , W.C. Ye & Q.W. Zhang)

Yue, M.-E. et al. (2005) Journal of Separation Science, 28 (4): 360–364. “Simultaneous determination of noradrenaline and dopamine in Portulaca oleracea L. by capillary zone electrophoresis.” (Mei-E Yue, Ting-Fu Jiang & Yan-Ping Shi)

Yurashevskii, N.K. (1939) J. Gen. Chem. USSR, 9: 595–597 [From Reti 1950 & White 1954]

Yurashevskii, N.K. (1941) J. Gen. Chem. USSR, 11: 157–162. [From Reti 1950 & White 1954]

Zachar, M. et al. (1996) Rod Turbinicarpus (M. Zachar, R. Staník, A. Lux & I. Dráb)

Zhang, F & M. Lu (1992) Tianran chanwu Yanjiu Yu Kaifa 4: 15–22. “Natural pigment from fruit of Opuntia dillenii.” [from Gupta et al. 2002]

Zeller, E. Albert (1963) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 107 (3): 811–821. “A New Approach to the Analysis of the Interaction Between Monoamine Oxidase and its Substrates and Inhibitors.”

Zeller, E.A. et al. (1958) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 124 (1): 282–289. “Degradation of Mescaline By Amine Oxidases.” (E. Albert Zeller, James Barsky, Elaine R. Berman, Marshall S. Cherkas & James R. Fouts)

Zeller, E.A. et al. (1976) Experientia, 32 (11): 1453–1454. “Mescaline: its effects on learning rate and dopamine metabolism in goldfish (Carassius auratus).” (Zeller EA, Couper GS, Huprikar SV, Mellow AM, Moody RR.)

Zenteno, E. et al. (1988) FEBS Letters, 238(1): 95–100. “Purification and partial characterization of two lectins from the cactus Machaerocereus eruca.” (Edgar Zenteno, Henri Debray & Jean Montreuil)

Zenteno, E. et al (1995) Glycoconjugate Journal, 12 (5): 699–706. “Specificity of the isolectins from the plant cactus Machaerocereus eruca for oligosaccharides from porcine stomach mucin.” (E. Zenteno, L. Vázquez, R. Chávez, F. Córdoba, J.M. Wieruszeski, J. Montreuil & H. Debray)

Zhang, F. & M. Liu (1992) Tianran Chanwu Yanjiu Yu Kaifa 4: 15–22. [Natural pigments from fruit of Opuntia dillenii] in Chinese with English Abstract. (See also 1992 Chemical Abstracts 117, 190506 z)

Zhang, J.-Y. et al. (2002) Analytica Chimica Acta, 471: 203–209. “Quantification of noradrenaline and dopamine in Portulaca oleracea L. by capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection.” (Ji-you Zhang, Xing-guo Chen, Zhi-de Hu & Xiao Ma)

Zhao, X. et al. (2002) Chin. J. Integrated Tradition. Western Med. 8: 215- 218. “Clinical Observation of Opuntia dillenii Tablet in Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.” (X. Zhao, J. Yang, Z. Tong, Y. Zhou, W. Zhang, S. Qi, & G. Yuan)

Zingg, Robert Mowry (1938) The Huicholes: Primitive Artists. Stechter Publ.: NY. Also as (1982) Los huicholes: (2 volumes) INI: Mexico.

Zuccarini, Joseph Gerhard (1832–1847?) Plantarum novarum vel minus cognitarum, quae in horto botanico herbarioque regio Monacensi servantur. München :Königlich Bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften.

Zucker, K. (1928) Archiv für Psychiatrie, 83: 706–754. “Experimente über Sinnestäuschungen.”

Zucker, K. (1930) Zentralblatt für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 56: 447–448. “Ueber die Zunahme spontaner Halluzinationen nach Meskalin.”

Zwicky, E. (1914) “Über Channa, ein Genussmittel der Hottentotten (Mesembrianthemum expansum L. und tortuosum L.)” Ph.D. Dissertation, Zurich. [Wurder eins Doktors der Naturwissenschaften, Eidgenossichen Technischen Hochschule in Zurich] [Variously cited as “Thesis Conf. Tech., High School, Zurich.” or “Ph.D. Dissertation, Zurich”]

 

Echinocereus coccineus at Sul Ross

References: A through D

References A-D used for Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.

[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

References as a single listing

E through J

K through O

P through S

T through Z

 

 

Aardvark, David (ed.) (1998) Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) 7 (3): 70–71 & 7 (4): 99–100. [Aardvark: editor; beginning with Volume 7 (1998)] ISSN 1066-1913.]

Aardvark, David (ed.) (1999) Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) 8 (1): 22–24 [Ott & Aardvark’s MAOI-less jurema bioassays]

Aardvark, David (2006) Entheogen Review, 15 (3): 95-96.
Epiphyllum oxypetalum and Checking Citations.”

Abdel-Kader, M.S. et al. (2003) Natural Product Sciences, 9 (2): 1–4. “Two Alkaloids from Ephedra aphylla growing in Egypt.” (Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Fahima F. Kassem & Rokia M. Abdallah)

Abdel-Rahman, M.O. et al. (1968) J. Chem. UAR 11: 401–?. “An improved method for the synthesis of mescaline.”

Abel, J.J. & D.I. Macht (1911–1912) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 3: 319. [From Deulofeu & Rúveda 1971] 

Aberle, David F. (1966) Peyote Religion among the Navaho. University of Chicago Press. 454 pages. ISBN 0-226-00082-6 (hardcover.)/ 0-226-00083-4 (paperback)

Aberle, David F. (1982) Peyote Religion among the Navaho. Second Edition. University of Oklahoma Press. 503 pages. ISBN 0-8061-2382-6.

Abou-Donia, A. et al. (1978) Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1078–1079. “X-Ray Crystal and Molecular Structure of Channaine, an Unusual Alkaloid, Probably an Artefact from Sceletium strictum.” (Amina Abou-Donia, Peter W. Jeffs, Andrew T. McPhail & Richard W. Miller) 

Aboul-Einen, Hassan Y. (1973) American Journal of
Pharmacology
, 145 (4): 125–128. “Mescaline: A Pharmacological Profile.” 

Aboul-Enein, N. Nabil & Attait I. Eid (1979) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 16: 267–270. “A novel route for the synthesis of mescaline.” 

Abramovitch, R.A. et al. (1968) Planta Medica, 16 (2): 147–157. “Identification of constituents of Opuntia fragilis.” (R.A. Abramovitch, R.T. Coutts & E.E. Knaus)

Abramson, H.A & A. Rollo (1967) “Comparison of LSD with methysergide and psilocybin on test subjects.” pp. 53–73 in Abramson (ed.) The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism. Bobbs Merrill, New York.

Abramson, H.A. (ed.) (1956) Neuropharmacology. Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation [According to Ott 1993 this was a phony research foundation front for the CIA]

Abramson, H.A. et al. (1960) Journal of Psychology, 49: 151–154. “Production of cross-tolerance to psychosis-producing doses of lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin.” (H.A. Abramson, A. Rolo, B. Sklarofsky & J. Stache)

Abramson, Harold A. (1960) Journal of Psychology, 49: 57–65, “Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25): XXX. The Questionaire Technique with Notes on its Use.”

Achari et al. (1980) Planta Med. Suppl. 5–7

Achiwa (1977) Heterocycles, 8: 247

Ackermann, D. et al. (1924) Zeitschrift fuer Biologie (Munich), 82: 278–284. “The occurrence of methyladenine, dimethylhistamine, guanidine, betaine, and elodinine in Geodia gigas.” (D. Ackermann, F. Holtz & H. Reimwein)

Acosta, P. José de (1590) Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias. J. de León: Seville. 535 pages [from Yacovleff & Herrera 1935 & Guerra 1967]

Acosta, José (1954) Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) in Obras, Madrid, Biblioteca de Autores Españoles.

Adams, Herman R. & Bennie J. Camp (1966) Toxicon, 4: 85–90. “The Isolation and Identification of Three Alkaloids From Acacia berlandieri.”

Adavasio, J.M. & G.F. Fry (1976) Economic Botany, 30: 94–96. “Prehistoric psychotropic drug use in northeastern Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas.” 

Adler, A. & O. Poetzl (1936) Jahrbuch für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 53: 13–34. “Ueber eine eigenartige Reaktion auf Meskalin bei einer Kranken mit doppelseitigen Herden in der Sehsphäre.” (coworkers in Boston Psychopathic Hospital Report)

Adrian, E.D. & Matthews, B.H.C. (1934) Brain, 57: 355–384. “The Berger Rhythm; potential changes from the occipital lobes in man.”

Aghajanian, George K. (1970) “LSD and mescaline: Comparison of effects on single units in the mid-brain raphe.” pp. 165–176 in D.H. Efron (ed.) Psychotomimetic Drugs. Raven Press.

Aghajanian, George K. (1980) Brain Research, 186 (2): 492–498. “Mescaline and LSD facilitate the activation of locus coeruleus neurons by peripheral stimuli.” 

Aghajanian, George K. (1994) Psychiatric Annals, 24 (3): 137–141. “Serotonin and the Action of LSD in the Brain.”

Aghajanian, George K. & G.J. Marek (1999) Neuropsychopharmacology, 21 (2S): 16S-23S. “Serotonin and Hallucinogens.”

Aghajanian, George K. et al. (1968) Science, 161: 706–708. “Lysergic acid diethylamide: sensitive neuronal units in the midbrain raphe.” (G.K. Aghajanian, W.E. Foote & M.H. Sheard)

Aghajanian, George K. et al. (1970) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 171 (2): 178–187. “Action of Psychotogenic Drugs on Single Midbrain Raphe Neurons.” (G.K. Aghajanian, W.E. Foote & M.H. Sheard) [Found that while LSD inhibits all raphe units, mescaline only inhibits raphe units located in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe.]

Ågren, H. (1983) p. 297, in J. Angst (ed.) The Origins of Depression: Current Concepts and Approaches. Springer, Berlin.

Aguas de Silva, M.T. et al. (1968) (in the literature) See as Silva 1968 

Aguerre, A.M. et al. (1973) Relaciones. Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia (Buenos Aires) (new series), 8: 197–231. “Hallazgo de un sitio aceramico en la Quebrada de Inca Cueva (Provincia de Jujuy).” (A.M. Aguerre, A. Fernandez Distel & C.A. Aschero) 

Aguerre, A.M. et al. (1975) Relaciones. Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia (Buenos Aires) (new series), 9: 211–214. “Comentarios sobre nuevas fechas en la cronologia aqueologica preceramica de la Provincia de Jujuy.” (A.M. Aguerre, A. Fernandez Distel & C.A. Aschero)

Agurell, Stig (1969) Experientia, 25: 1132. “Cactaceae alkaloids. VIII. N-Methyl-4-methoxy-phenethylamine from LepidoCoryphantha runyonii (Br. & R.)” [This actually should be (1969)a but, due to their use by ourselves and others in works concerning only mescaline producing cacti, it was felt that changing the other two to b and c, respectively, would create more confusion than it would alleviate.]

Agurell, Stig (1969)a Lloydia, 32 (1): 40–45. “Identification of Alkaloid Intermediates by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. I. Potential Mescaline Precursors in Trichocereus Species.”

Agurell, Stig (1969)b Lloydia, 32 (2): 206–216. “Cactaceae Alkaloids I.”

Agurell, Stig & Jan Lundström (1968) Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1968: 1638–1639. “Apparent intermediates in the biosynthesis of mescaline and related tetrahydroisoquinolines.” 

Agurell, S. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, (26): 2433–2435. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline in Peyote.”

Agurell, S. et al. (1969) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 58 (11): 1413–1414. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. VII. Alkaloids of Echinocereus merkeri.” (Stig Agurell, Jan Lundström & A. Masoud)

Agurell, S. et al. (1971)a Abh. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (in press) [From Lundstrom 1983; ILLS has been unable to locate this.]

Agurell, S. et al. (1971)b Lloydia, 34 (2): 183–187. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. X. Alkaloids of Trichocereus species and some other cacti.” (Stig Agurell, Jan G. Bruhn, Jan Lundström & Ulla Svensson)

Ahmad, A. et al. (1996) Antiviral Research, 30 (2-3): 75–85. “Antiviral properties of extract of Opuntia streptacantha.” (A. Ahmad, J. Davies, S. Randall & G.R. Skinner)

Ahmed, M.S. et al. (2005) Phytotherapy Research, 19 (9): 807–809. “Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. flowers growing in Egypt.” (M.S. Ahmed, N.D. El Tanbouly, W.T. Islam, A.A. Sleem & A.S. El Senousy)

Ainslie, J.R. (1937) A List of Plants Used in Native Medicine in Nigeria. Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford. Institute Paper No. 7. 109 pages. [From Watt 1967]

Aires, V. et al. (2004) Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 260 (1-2): 103–110. “Modulation of intracellular calcium concentrations and T cell activation by prickly pear polyphenols.” (V. Aires, S. Adote, A. Hichami, K. Moutairou, E.S. Boustani & N.A. Khan)

Aizawa, Y., & K. Yamada (1969) Jap. J. Pharm. 19: 474. 

Alarcon-Aguilar, A.F. et al. (2003) Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society (46): 139–142. “Hypoglycemic activity of two polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica and O. streptacantha.” (Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar, Argelia Valdes-Arzate, Santiago Xolalpa-Molina, Tania Banderas-Dorantes, Manuel Jimenez-Estrada, Erica Hernandez-Galicia & Ruben Roman-Ramos)

Albaugh, Bernard J. & Philip O. Anderson (1974) American Journal of Psychiatry, 131: 1247–1250. “Peyote in the Treatment of Alcoholism Among American Indians.”

Albers, Patricia & Seymour Parker (1971) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 27 (3): 203–233. “The Plains Vision Experience: a Study of Power and Privilege.”

Albesiano, Sofía (2012) Haseltonia 18: 119–142. “Taxonomic revision of the genus Trichocereus (Cactaceae) in Chile.” 

Albesiano, Sofía & Roberto Kiesling (2012) Haseltonia, 17: 24–34. “Identity and neotypification of Cereus macrogonus, the Type of the generic name Trichocereus (Cactaceae).”

Albesiano, Sofía & Teresa Terrazas (2012) Haseltonia, 17: 3–23. “Cladistic Analysis Of Trichocereus (Cactaceae: Cactoideae: Trichocereeae) Based On Morphological DATA And Chloroplast DNA Sequences.”

Albónico, S.M. et al. (1967) Journal of the Chemical Society, C: Organic, 1327–1328. “Tembamide from Fagara hyemalis (St. Hill.) Engler.” (S. M. Albónico, A. M. Kuck & V. Deulofeu)

Aldunate, Carlos et al. (1981) Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile, 38: 183–223. “Estudio etnobotanico en una communidad precordillerana de Antofagasta: Toconce.” 

Aldunate, Carlos et al. (1983) Economic Botany, 37 (1): 120–135. “Ethnobotany of Pre-Altiplanic Commnity in the Andes of Northern Chile” 

Aleksandrovskii, A.B. et al. (1936) Arkhiv Biologischeskikh Nauk, 42: 147–173. [“Local parabiotic changes in the brain produced by mescaline poisoning.”] (A.B. Aleksandrovskii, E.B. Babskii & V. Kryazhev)

Alles, Gordon A. (1957) “Some Relations between Chemical Structure and Physiological Action of Mescaline and Related Compounds.” pp. 181–267 in Harold Alexander Abramson (ed.) Neuropharmacology, New York: Macy Foundation 1957. [According to Ott 1993 the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation was a research foundation front for the CIA.]

Alles, Gordon A. & Erik V. Heegard (1943) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 147: 487–503. “Substrate Specificity of Amine Oxidase.”

Altamirano, Fernando (1900) Gaceta Médica de México, 36: 59–64. “Anhalonium Lewinii: Cacteas.”

Altamirano, Fernando (1905) Anales. Instituto Medico Nacional México, 7: 389–423. “Memoria acerca de una excursion botánica al Estado de Querétaro.” 

Altschul, Siri Von Reis (1973) Drugs and foods from
little-known plants
. Harvard University Press

Ammassari et al. (1986) Pharmacological Research Communications 18 (12): 1169–1178 Ammassari et al. (1988) Physiology and Behavior 42 (3): 281–285. 

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1971) Dynamische Psychiatrie 23–45. “Ergebnisse früher Meskalin-Forschung.”

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1974)a Psichiatria Dinamica, 1: 17–32. “I risultati dei primi studi sulla mescalina.”

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1974)b Psichiatria Dinamica, 1: 33–48. “Peyote: due diverse esperienze dell’Io.”

Amos, D. (1964) The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy, 45 (529) Suppl. 13: S8–S10. “The preparation of mescaline from eucalypt lignin.” (Listed in the On-Line catalog as The Australian Journal of Pharmacy)

Andersen, A.M. 1975 Acta Chem Scand., Ser. B, 29: 871 

Anderson, B. (2004a) “Antidepressant Effects of Ethanolic Plant Extracts on Mice,” Ethnobiology, Cost Rica. Organization for Tropical Study Abroad Program.  [from Aardvark 2006]

Anderson, B. (2004b) “Searching in the Dark Jungle for Answers to Dark Times: An Ethnobiological Investigation into Therapies for Mental Illness,” Ethnobiology, Cost Rica. Organization for Tropical Study Abroad Program.  [from Aardvark 2006]

Andersen, F. et al. (1999) Allergy, 54 (5): 511–516. “Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti.” Erratum in: (1999) Allergy 54 (8): 891. (F. Andersen, C. Bindslev-Jensen, P. Stahl Skov, E. Paulsen & K.E. Andersen)

Anderson, E. et al. (1925) American Journal of Pharmacy 97: 589–592. “Some Plant Gums of the Southwestern United States.” (Ernest Anderson, Lila Sands & Nelson Sturgis) Anderson, Edward F. (1961) PhD Dissertation; Claremont College. “A taxonomic revision of Ariocarpus, Lophophora, Pelecyphora, and Obregonia.”

Anderson, Edward F. (1962) American Journal of Botany, 49 (6): 615–622. “A revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). II. The status of the proposed genus Neogomesia

Anderson, Edward F. (1966) Brittonia, 21: 299–310 : “The biography, ecology and taxonomy of Lophophora (Cactaceae).”

Anderson, Edward F. (1967) American Journal of Botany, 54 (7): 897–903. “A Study of the Proposed genus Obregonia (Cactaceae).”

Anderson, Edward F. (1980) Peyote. The Divine Cactus. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson. ISBN 0-8165-0680-9 / 0-8165-0613–2 (pbk.) 248 pages. Second edition in 1997. ISBN 0-8165-1653-7 (hardcover)/ 0-8165-1654-5 (paperback). 

Anderson, Edward F. (1995) Cactus and Succulent Journal, 67: 67–73. “The “Peyote Gardens” of South Texas: A Conservation Crisis.”

Anderson, Edward F. (1996) Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie, 6 (1995): 369–379. “Peyote and its derivatives as Medicine.”

Anderson, Edward F. (2001) The Cactus Family. Timber Press; Portland, Cambridge. 776 pages. ISBN 0-88192-498-9.

Anderson, Edward F. & Margaret S. Stone (1969) Cactus and Succulent Journal, (US) 43 (2): 77–82. “A Pollen Analysis of Lophophora (Cactaceae).” 

Anderson, Edward F. & W.A. Fitz Maurice (1997) Haseltonia, 5: 1–20. “Ariocarpus Revisited” (comment on page 19) See the full text at www.livingrocks.com/anderson.htm

Anderson, Miles (1998) The Ultimate Book of Cacti & Succulents. Lorenz Books/ Anness Publishing, London. 256 pages. ISBN 1 859667 460 7. Loads of color photos & cultivation tips but sparse details on the plants theselves.

Andritzky, Walter (1989) Schamanismus und rituelles Heilen im Alten Peru. Band 2: Viracocha, Heiland der Anden. 

Angeloni, A.S. et al. (1977) Gazz. Chim. Ital. 107: 421.

Anggard, E. & Sedvall, G. (1969) Anal. Chem. 41: 1250–1256.

Anjaneyule, B. et al. (1965) Indian J. Chem. 3 (5): 2378 in the literature meant Anjaneyulu et al. (1965) Indian Journal of Chemistry, 3 (5): 237–238

Anjaneyulu, B. et al. (1965) Indian Journal of Chemistry, 3 (5): 237–238. “Chemical Investigation of Some Indian Plants.” (B. Anjaneyulu, V. Babu Rao, A.K. Ganguly, T.R. Govindachari, B.S. Joshi, V.W. Kamat, A.H. Manmade, P.A. Mohamed, A.D. Rahimtula, A.K. Saksena, D.S. Varde & N. Viswanathan)

Anonymous (1895) Medical Record, (October 19) 558. “Mescal buttons.” 

Anonymous (1896) The British Medical Journal, (July 4) page 3. “Pellotine”

Anonymous (1896) Universal Medical Journal (n.s), 4: 229–230. “Pellotine, a new hypnotic.”

Anonymous (1959) Bulletin on Narcotics, 11 (2): 16–20. “Peyotl.”

Anonymous (1948-1976) The Wealth of India raw materials. 11 volumes. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi.

Anonymous (1999) The Economist (April 3): 27. “A field full of buttons.” 

Anonymous (other than above) indicates correspondence or reports from workers who requested anonymity.

Anonymous 1998 Entheogen Review 7 (3): 70–71. 

Anonymous 1998 Entheogen Review 7 (4): 99–100. 

Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna & Hans Rommelspacher (2012) Isoquinolines and beta-carbolines as neurotoxins and
neuroprotectants: new vistas in Parkinson’s disease therapy
. Springer, New York.

Anton, A.H. & D.F. Sayre (1968) European Journal of Pharmacology, 4 (4): 435–440. “Possible sources of error in solvent extraction procedures for catecholamines.”

Appel, W. & E. Werle (1959) Arzneimittel-Forschung, 9 (1): 22–26. “Identification of histamine, N,N-dimethylhistamine, N-acetyl-histamine, and acetylcholine in Spinacia oleracea.”

Appel, J.B. & D.X. Freedman (1968) Psychopharmacologia, 13: 267–274. “Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance among Psychotomimetic Drugs.”

Appel, J.B. & P.M. Callahan (1989) European Journal of Pharmacology,  159 (1): 41–46. “Involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus properties of mescaline.”

Appelt, G.D. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (3): 527–528. “Effect of Mescaline on Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Synthesis in the Central Nervous System.” (Glenn D. Appelt, Norman O. Walker & Robert G. Brown)

Applewhite, P.B. (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (1): 191–192. “Serotonin and norepinephrine in plant tissues.”

Apter, J.T. (1957)a American Journal of Ophthalmology, 46: 238–246, “Changes in spontaneous and evoked potentials in the eyes of cats induced by drugs.” 

Apter, J.T. (1957)b Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66: 508–516, “The effect of the hallucinogenic drugs LSD-25 and mescaline on the electroretinogram.” 

Aragane, M. et al. (2011) Journal Natural Medicine, 65: 103–110. “Peyote identification on the basis of differences in morphology, mescaline content, and trnL/trnF sequence between Lophophora Williamsii and L. diffusa.” (Masako Aragane, Yohei Sasaki, Jun’ichi Nakajima, Nobutaka Fukumori, Masao Yoshizawa, Yukiko Suzuki, Shigemi Kitagawa, Ken’ichiro Mori, Shuzo Ogino, Ichiro Yasuda & Seiji Nagumo) [This paper oddly ignores their supplier’s clear identification assignment and, incredibly, based on simple morphology and their comparison to Anderson theydecided that their L. fricii was really L. decipiens so published this as evidence that not all L. williamsii contains mescaline.]

Aragão, T.C. et al. (200) Brazilian Journal of Medical & Biological Research, 33 (8): 897–903. “Characterization of a methionine-rich protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae).” (T.C. Aragão, P.A. Souza, A.F. Uchôa, I.R. Costa, C. Bloch Jr & F.A. Campos)

Arcoleo, A. (1961) Ann. Chim. (Rome), 51: 751–758. “Flavonoid pigments from Opuntia. I. Isorhamnetin from the flowers of Opuntia ficus-indica.” (Antonino Arcoleo, Michele Ruccia & Sigismondo Cusmano) [From 1962 CA 56: 10578h-i] 

Arcoleo, A. (1966) Atti. Accad. Sci., Lettere Arti Palermo Pt. 1. (1964–1965) 25: 323–332. “β-Sitosterol from flowers of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae).” (Antonino Arcoleo, Michele Ruccia & Maria Concetta Natoli) [From 1966 CA 65: 14092] 

Ardi, J.A. & P. McKellar (1956) Journal of Mental Science, 102: 22–29. “Hypnogogic Imagery and Mescaline.”

Arendt, Paul (1891–1892) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 1: 92–94. “Anhalonium Lewinii, Hennings”

Arizona Republic (1956) Feb. 20. “24 Nabbed Sniffing Cactus-Button Drug.”

Armendaris, Eduardo (1900) Anales del Instituto Medico Nacional, 4: 18–20. “Secíon tercera”

Armstrong, M.D. et al. (1956) J. Biol. Chem. 218: 293.

Arndt, R.R. & P.E.J. Kruger (1970) Tetrahedron Letters, 37: 3257–3240. “Alkaloids from Sceletium Joubertii L. Bol. The Structure of Joubertiamine, Dihydrojoubertiamine, and Dehydrojoubertiamine.”

Arnold, Eugene L. (1972) The Analysis of L-3-Hyroxytyrosin (l-Dopa) and its Metabolites. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, AMRL-TR-71-128 (ADØ745944).

Arnold, E.L. & R. Ford (1973) Analytical Chemistry, 45: 85–89. “Determination of catechol-containing compounds in tissue samples bygas-liquid chromatography.”

Artaud, Antonin (1966) Al Paese dei Tarahumara e altri scritti. Adelphi: Milano.

Artaud, Antonin (1975) Die Tarahumaras. Rogner & Bernhard: Hamburg 

Artaud, Antonin (1976) The Peyote Dance (tr. Helen Weaver) Farrar, Strauss & Giroux: New York 

Asberg & Träskman (1981) Adv. Exp. med. Biol. 133: 739 

Aschero, C. & H. Yacobaccio (1994) Revista del Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael (Mendoza) 13 (1/4): 116–119. “20 años después: Inca Cueva 7 revistado. Actas y Memorias del XI Congreso de Argueología.”

Askar, A. et al. (1972) Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebens. 1: 187.

Åström, A. & U. Samelius (1957) British Journal of Pharmacology, and Chemotherapy, 12: 410–414. “The Action of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Some of its Antagonists on the Umbilical Vessels of the Human Placenta.”

Aures, D. et al. (1968a) Journal of Chromatography, 33: 480–493. “Separation and detection of biogenic amines by thin layer chromatography.“ (D. Aures, R. Fleming & R. Håkanson)

Aures, D. et al. (1968b) Zeit. Anal. Chem. 243: 483. (D. Aures, R. Hakanson and L. Spolter)

Austin American Statesman (1998) page A12 in Sunday, November 22 edition.

Author? (1977) Pacific Information Service on Street Drugs, 5 [I have been unable to obtain a copy. From Sax 1984]

Avakian, O.V. & J.S. Gillespie (1968) British Journal of Pharmacology, and Chemotherapy, 32: 168–184. “Uptake of noradrenaline by adrenergicnerves, smooth muscle and connective tissue in isolated perfused arteries and its correlation with the vasoconstrictor response.”

Ávila, Francisco de (1966) Dioses y Hombres en Huarochirí. (first published ~1598) Museo Nacional de Historia, Lima.

Axelrod, Julius (1961) Science, 134 (3475): 343. “Enzymatic Formation of Psychotomimetics from Normally Occurring Compounds.” 

Axelrod, Julius (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 138: 28–33. “The Enzymatic N-Methylation of Serotonin and Other Amines.”

Axelrod, Julius & I.J. Kopin (1969) “The uptake, storage, release and metabolism of noradrenaline in sympathetic nerves.” pp. 21–32 in K. Akert & P.G. Waser, (eds.) Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 31, Mechanisms of SynapticTransmission, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Axelrod, Julius & Juan M. Saavedra (1977) Nature, 265: 501–504. “Octopamine.”

Axelrod, Julius & Thomas Tomchick (1958) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 233 (3): 702–705. “Enzymatic O-Methylation of Epinephrine and other Catechols.” 

Axelrod, Julius & Herbert Weissbach (1961) The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 236 (1): 211–213. “Purification and Properties of Hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase.”

Axelrod, Julius et al. (1958) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 233: 697–701. “O-Methylation of catecholamines in vivo.“ (J. Axelrod, S. Senoh & B. Witkop)

Axelrod, J. et al. (1959) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 127: 251–256. “The physiological disposition of H3[sic]-epinephrine and its metabolite metanephrine.” (J. Axelrod, H. Weil-Malherbe & R. Tomchick)

Azevedo, L. Warren (1995) Lo spirito del peyote. Racconti dei Washoe. in Roberto Fedelli (ed.) Psichedelica. Stampa Alternativa: Rome.

Bach, Dan (1981) Desert Plants, 3 (1): 3–8. “The Double-Cut Technique For Grafting Cacti to Trichocereus pachanoi Rootstock.”

Bächtold, H. & A. Pletscher (1957) Experientia, 13 (4): 163–165. “Einfluss von Isonikotinsäurehydraziden aufden Verlauf der Körpertemperatur nach Reserpin, Monoaminen und Chlorpromazin.” 

Backeberg, Curt (& Erich Werdermann) (1931) Neue Kakteen. Jagden, Arten, Kultur. Frankfurt/Berlin.

Backeberg, Curt (1935) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 4: 4. “Lophophora (Anhalonium) williamsii v. crist.”

 6: 2 Strombocactus pseudomacrochele Bckbg. n. sp.”

Backeberg, Curt (1936) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 1: 4 “Strombocactus macrochele (Werd.) Bckbg.”

Backeberg, Curt (1937) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 4: 2 “Ariocarpus retusus Scheidw., 1838”

 5: 5. “Coryphantha Scolymoides (Scheidw.) Berg.”

 6: 3. “Trichocereus Werdermannianus Bckbg.”

 6:4. “Trichocereus cephalomacrostibas Bckbg.”

 9: 6. “Trichocereus peruvianus Br. & R. (1920).”

Backeberg, Curt (1941) Kakteenkunde, 16–20. “Seltene Cereen des Westandinen Suedamerica.” [On page 20 Backeberg shows the same photo appearing in Backeberg 1937 but this time declares it to be Trichocereus macrogonus he found in the wild.]

Backeberg, Curt (1956) “Descriptiones Cactarearum Novarum. (Erstbeschreibungen neuer Kakteen)” page 20. Veb Gustav Fischer Verlag – Jena. [This work was soundly blasted by Myron Kimnach in a 1957 review. “The work will probably always be regarded as a curiosity of botanical literature, for here the customary low quality of Backeberg’s work sinks to a grotesque level. Indeed, it could well be used as a classroom example of what the conscientious taxonomist should avoid in his own work.” Among Kimnach’s criticisms was questioning its ethics of being released as a means of enabling Rauh to scoop Johnson, Ritter & Aker’s newly discovered species that Backeberg knew were in the process of being prepared for publication, accompanied by shoddy and inadequate descriptions including many minor variants being described as new species. Backberg’s sputtering defense, in a letter to Cyril Parr, included the wonderful comment “I must require that my special and unusual method is consented”.]

Backeberg, Curt (1957) Monatsschrift der Deutschen Kakteen-Gesellschaft, 8 (7): 106–107. “Ein rosa blühender Trichocereus aus Peru.”

Backeberg, Curt (1957/1958) Schöne Kakteen für den Liebhaber. Berlin.

Backeberg, Curt (1958–1962) Die Cactaceae. Handbuch der Kakteenkunde. Backeberg (1958) “Einleitung und Beschreibung der Peireskioideae und Opuntioideae.” Vol. I: pages 1–638, plates 1–35.

Backeberg (1959) “Cereoideae (Hylocereeae-Cereeae [Austrocereinae])” Vol. II: pages 639–1360, plates 36–107. Backeberg (1960) “Cereoideae (Boreocereeae)” Vol. IV: pages 1927–2629, plates 161–211.

Backeberg (1961) “Cereoideae (Boreocactinae)” Vol. V: pages 2631–3543, plates 212–255.

Backeberg (1962) “Nachträge und Index.” Vol. VI: pages 3545–4041.

Backeberg, Curt (1966) Das Kakteenlexikon. Enumeratio diagnostica cactacearum. Gustav Fischer Jena. 741 pages. First edition.

Backeberg, Curt (1970) Kakteenlexikon. Second edition.

Backeberg, Curt (1976) Kakteenlexikon. Third edition with Appendix by W. Haage.

Backeberg, Curt (1977) Cactus Lexicon. Enumeratio diagnostica Cactacearum. Fourth edition. (translated from German by Lois Glass) Blandford Press; Dorset ISBN 0 7137 0840 9. [1978 by Sterling Publishing. 828 pages.]

Backeberg, C. & F.M. Knuth (Knuthenborg) (“1935”/1936) Kaktus A B C. en Haandbog for Fagvolk og Amatoerer. Gyldendalske Boghandel – Nordisk Forlag- København. [Published in 1936 but dated 1935. The deliberate misdating is believed to have occurred in order for Backeberg to get a scoop on Kreuzinger 1935.]

Badger, G.M. et al. (1963) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 16: 734.

Bahnholzer, K. et al. (1952) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 35: 1577–1581: “Notiz über eine neue Synthese von Mezcalin, N-Methyl und N-Dimethylmezcalin.” (K. Bahnholzer, Tod W. Campbell & H. Schmid)

Bailey et al. (1975) Can. J. Pharm. Sci. 10: 31.

Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1963) How Plants Get Their Names. Dover: New York (First published by Macmillan Co 1933) 181 pages. 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde & Ethel Zoe Bailey (1976) Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Revised and expanded by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. Macmillan Publishing Co, 1976. 1290 pages.

Bain (1955) is unpublished laboratory results; cited in Bain 1957.

Bain, James A. (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66 (3): 459–467. “A Review of the Biochemical Effects In Vitro of Certain Psychotomimetic Agents.”

Baird-Lambert & Cohen (1975) J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 27: 958–961. “Effects of several catecholamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinolines on the hypogastric nerve-vas deferens preparation of the rat.”

Balabanova, S. et al. (1992) Naturwissenschaften, 79: 358. “First Identification of Drugs in Egyptian Mummies.” (S. Balabanova, F. Parsche & W. Pirsig)

Balen, B. et al. (2003) Journal of Plant Physiology, 160 (11): 1401–1406. “Isoenzymes of peroxidase and esterase related to morphogenesis in Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. tissue culture.” (B. Balen, M. Krsnik-Rasol & V. Simeon-Rudolf)

Balen, B. et al. (2006) Journal of Proteome Research, 5 (7): 1658–1666. “Glycoproteomic survey of Mammillaria gracilis tissues grown in vitro.” (B. Balen, M. Krsnik-Rasol, A.D. Zamfir, J. Milosević, S.Y. Vakhrushev & J. Peter-Katalinić)

Balestrieri, A. (1960) Psychopharmacologia, 1: 257–259, 

Balestrieri, Antonio (1957) p. 581 in Garattini & Ghetti 

Balestrieri, Antonio & Diego Fontanari (1959a) Archives of General Psychiatry, 1: 279–282. “Acquired and Crossed Tolerance to Mescaline, LSD-25 and BOL-148.”

Balestrieri, Antonio & Diego Fontanari (1959b) “Acquired and Crossed Tolerance to Mescaline, LSD-25 and BOL-148.” page 438, in: Bradley, P.B. et al. (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Neuro-psychopharmacology. (Rome, September 1958). 

Bamford, F. (1951) Poisons, Their Isolation and Identification. 3rd. Edition. Churchill: London.

Ban, T.A. et al. (1961) Journal of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, 6: 150–157. “Observations on the action of Sernyl- a new psychotropic drug.” (T.A. Ban, J.J. Lohrenz & H.E. Lehmann)

Banholzer, K. et al. (1952) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 35: 1577–1581: “Notiz über eine neue Synthese von Mezcalin, N-Methyl und N-Dimethylmezcalin.” (K. Bahnholzer, Tod W. Campbell and H. Schmid) 

Barca et al. (1959) Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim. Ser. B. (Madrid) CA 54: 14289g 

Barceloux, Donald G. (2008) Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals, ISBN-10: 047172761X; ISBN-13: 978-0471727613. Wiley. 1200 pages. (pp. 837–840 “Cactus”)

Barceloux, Donald G. (with Robert B. Palmer as editor & contributor) (2012) Medical Toxicology of Drugs Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471727601, 9780471727606, 1041 pages (Barceloux’s problematic Coryphantha macromeris comment is on page 63.) 

Barchas, J.D. & Daniel X. Freedman (1963) Biochemical Pharmacology, 12: 1225–1235. “Brain Amines: response to physiological stress.”

Bard, l.L. (1941) Revista Médica Latino-America (Buenos Aires) 26: 471–487. “ “El peyote,” algunas observaciones clinicas sobre sus efectos.”

Barfknecht, C.F. & David E. Nichols (1975) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 18 (2): 208–210. “Correlation of psychotomimetic activity of phenethylamines and amphetamines with 1-octacosanol-water partition coefficients.”

Barger, George (1909)a Journal of the Chemical Society, (London), Transactions 95: 1123–1128. “Isolation and Synthesis of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine, an Active principle of Ergot soluble in water.” [Synthesis pages 1127–1128.] 

Barger, George (1909)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London), Proceedings, 25: 289 and (1909)c Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 95: 2193–2197. “Synthesis of Hordenine, the Alkaloid from Barley” 

Barger, G. & H.H. Dale (1910) Journal of Physiology, 41: 19–59. “Chemical Structure and Sympathomimetic Action of Amines.”

Barger, George & Arthur James Ewins (1911)a J. Chem. Soc. (London), Proc. 26: 248 and (1911)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 97: 2253–2261. “Phenolic Derivatives of p-Phenylethylamine.” 

Barger, George & George Stanley Walpole (1909)a Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Proceedings 25: 229 and (1909)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 95: 1720–1724. “Further Synthesis of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine.”

Barnes, C.D. & L.G. Eltherington (1965) Drug Dosages in Laboratory Animals – A Handbook. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barrera-Díaz, C. et al. (2005) Environmental Technology, 26 (7): 821–829. “Cd(II) and Pb(II) separation from aqueous solution using clinoptilolite and Opuntia ectodermis.” (C. Barrera-Díaz, C. Almaraz-Calderón, M.T. Olguín-Gutiérrez, M. Romero-Romo & M. Palomar-Pardavé)

Barrera, H et al. (2006) Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136 (3): 846–853. “Removal of chromium and toxic ions present in mine drainage by Ectodermis of Opuntia.” (H. Barrera, F. Ureña-Núñez, B. Bilyeu & C. Barrera-Díaz)

Barrett (1947) Anesth. and Analg. 26: 74 and 105 

Barron et al. (1964) Scientific American, 210: 29–37. “The Hallucinogenic Drugs.” (Barron, Jarvik & Bunnell)

Baruk, H. et al. (1956) Revue Neurologique, 95: 62.

Bashyal, B.P. et al. (2007) New Zealand Grassland
Association; Endophyte Symposium
, 211–214. “Discovery of Small Molecule Bioactive Agents from Endophytic Fungi of the Sonoran Desert.” (B.P. Bashyal, A.M. Burns,
M.X. Liu, P.A. Paranagama, C.J. Seliga, T.J. Turbyville,
E.M.K. Wijeratne, J. Zhan, M.K. Gunatilaka, A.E. Arnold, S.H. Faeth, L. Whitesell & A.A.L. Gunatilaka)

Basmadjian, Garabed P. & Ara G. Paul (1971) Lloydia, 34 (1): 91–93. “The Isolation of an O-Methyltransferase From Peyote and its Role in the Biosynthesis of Mescaline.”

Basmadjian, G. et al. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (4): 375–380. “Biosynthetic relationships between phenylethylamine and tet rahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in peyote.” (G.P. Basmadjian, S. F. Hussain & A. G. Paul)

Bastos, Milton Lesso (1956) Boletim. Instituto de Quimica Agricola (Rio de Janeiro), 45: 7–16 (English Summary). “Applications of a modified chromic acid reagent in toxicological chemistry.” [also see CA (1958) 52: 156b ]

Batis, A. & M. Rojas (2002) Biodiversitas, 40:12–17. “El peyote y otros cactos alucinógenos de México.“

Batiste, L.M. et al. (1999) Pharmaceutical Biology, 37 (1): 50–53. “Isolation and identification of putative hallucinogenic constituents from the roots of Mimosa ophthalmocentra.” (L.M. Batista, R.N. Almeida, E.V.L da-Cunha, M.S. da-Silva and J.M. Barbosa-Filho) [DMT: 1.6%; MMT: 0.0012%; Hordenine: 0.0065% in dried roots]

Batov, Sergei [1999 e-mail forwarded by M.S. Smith]. 

Battersby, A.R. & T.P. Edwards (1960) Journal of the Chemical Society, 1214–1221. “Chemical Correlation of the Absolute Configuration of Salsolidine, Salsoline and Calycotomine with the Amino acids”

Battersby, A.R. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, 6: 563–565. “Biosynthesis of Cactus Alkaloids.” (A.R. Battersby, R. Binks & R. Huxtable)

Battersby, A.R. et al. (1968) Tetrahedron Letters, 58: 6111–6115. “Biosynthesis of Pellotine.” (A.R. Battersby, R. Binks & R. Huxtable)

Bauer (1907) Monatsschr. Kakteenk 17: 55 [Cereus hempelianus.] [From Britton & Rose] This is actually a reference to Fobe 1907.

Baxter, Claire & Michael Slaytor (1972) Phytochemistry, 11:2763–2766. “Partial Purification and Some Properties of Tryptophan Decarboxylase from Phalaris tuberosa.”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1968) Revue de Mycologie, 33 (1): 94–95. “Toiles d’araignées et champignons hallucinogènes.”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1969) Revue de Mycologie, 34 (2-3): 243–248. “Toiles d’araignées et champignons hallucinogènes. (Suite)”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1971) Revue de Mycologie, 36 (1): 25–46. “Action de la Psilocybine, substance hallucinogène extraite de champignons du Mexique, sur l’édification des toiles d’araignées.”

Beccari, E. (1936)a Archivio di farmacológia sperimentale e scienze affini, 61, 96. “Farmacognosia del Peyotl. Farmacognosia botanica. Parte I.”

Beccari, E. (1936)b Archivio di farmacológia sperimentale e scienze affini, 161. “Parte II. Farmacognosia Microscopica Chimica.”

Becker, Harald (1985) Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit, 14 (5): 129–137. “Inhaltsstoffe der Kaktee Lophophora Williamsii.” [Constituents of the cactus Lophophora Williamsii.]

Beifuss, Will (1996) Psychedelic Sourcebook. Rosetta. 

Beilstein’s Handbuch der Organischen Chemie. (Friedrich Konrad Beilstein) 4th edition (1998) is 503 volumes.

Bell, C.E. & A.R. Somerville (1966) Biochemical Journal, 98: 1C–3C. “A New Fluorescence Method for Detection and Possible Quantitative Assay of some Catecholamine and Tryptamine Derivatives on Paper.”

Bellman, Sander W. (1968) Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 51 (1): 164–175. “Mass Spectral Identification of Some Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Bellman, S.W. et al. (1970) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 15 (2): 261–286. “Spectrometric Forensic Chemistry of Hallucinogenic Drugs.” (Sander W. Bellman, John W. Turczan & Theodore C. Kram) [See also (1970) CA 73:75110b]

Below, L.E. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (3): 515–516. “Macromerine from Coryphantha runyonii” (L.E. Below, A.Y. Leung, J.L. McLaughlin & A.G. Paul)

Beltrami, L. (1941) Archivo Farmaceutico Sperimentale Scienze Affini, 71: 1. “La lignificazione dei peli di Peyotl studiata dal punto di vista farmacognistico, chimico e botanico.”

Bembenek, M.E. et al. (1990) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 33 (1): 147–152. “Inhibition of monoamine oxidases A and B by simple isoquinoline alkaloids: racemic and optically active 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-, 3,4-dihydro-, and fully aromatic isoquinolines.” (M.E. Bembenek, C.W. Abell, L.A. Chrisey, M.D. Rozwadowska, W. Gessner & A. Brossi) 

Bender, L. & D.V.S. Sankar (1968) Science, 159 (letter) “Chromosome damage not found in leukocytes of children treated with LSD-25.” [Concluded that LSD does not cause damage.]

Benington, Fred & Richard D. Morin (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 1353. “An improved synthesis of mescaline.”

Benington, F. et al. (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 5555–5556. “Synthesis of 4-Hydroxy- and 4-Ethoxy-3,5-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamines.” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benington, F. et al. (1955) J. Org. Chem, 20: 1292–1296. “Mescaline Analogs. III. 2,4,6-Trialkyl- and 3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Methoxy-β-phenethylamines” From Patel 1968 Article stolen from library; could not confirm.

Benington, F. et al. (1957) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 22: 227–228. “New Synthesis of Trichocereine” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benington, F. et al. (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24 (7): 917–919. “Synthesis of 5,6,7-Trimethoxy-2,3-dihydroindole and 6,7-Dimethoxyindole.” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benitez, Fernando (1961) La Tierra Magica del Peyote. Biblioteca Era: Altos, Mexico

Benitez, Fernando (1972) Peyoteros. Viaggio nella terra magica della droga. Il Saggiatore: Milano.

Benitez, Fernando (1975) In the Magic Land of Peyote. 238 pp. & 32 photographs. University Of Texas Press ISBN # 0-446-89306-4 

Bennett, Wendell Clark & Robert Mowry Zingg (1935) The Tarahumara, an Indian tribe of northern Mexico. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. 412 pages, 48 leaves of plates. ISBN 0873801326 (Reprinted in 1976 by Rio Grande Press, Glorietta, N.M.) 

Bennington (in the literature) See as Benington

Benson, Elizabeth P. (1972) The Mochica. A culture of Peru. Prager Publishers; New York. Washington

Benson, Lyman (1982) Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press 1982. Peyote pp. 680–683, ISBN 0-8047-0863-0. 1044 pages Bentley, Kenneth W. (1997) Natural Product Reports, 387–411. “β-Phenylethylamines and the isoquinoline alkaloids” 

Benvento, Fr. Toribo de (1848) “Ritos Antiquos” in Lord Kingsborough’s Antiquities of Mexico 9: 153 [From LaBarre 1975] 

Benzi, M. (1969) Hygiene Mentale 3: 61–97. “Visions des Huicholes sous l’effet du peyiotl.” 

Benzi, Mario (1972) Les derniers Adorateurs du Peyotl. Gallimard: Paris

Benzi, Mario (1998) Wirárika. Gli sciamani della Sierra Madre. Celleno (VT), La Piccola Editrice.

Berecek Kh., B.M. & M.J. Brody (1982) American Journal of Physiology, 242 (4): H593–H601. “Evidence for a neurotransmitter role for epinephrine derived from the adrenal medulla”.

Berger, Alwin (1904) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde, 190. “Cereus macrogonus S.-D.”

Berger, Alwin (1905) Missouri Botanical Garden. Sixteenth Annual Report, “XII. Trichocereus A. Berg.” (73–86 in “Revision of the Genus Cereus Mill.” 57–86) 

Berger, Alwin (1929) Kakteen. [Nice image of a macrogonus being used for grafting in figure 5.]

Berger, J.M. et al. (2007) Chemical Biodiversity, 4 (7): 1525–1532. “The effect of ultraviolet-depleted light on the flavonol contents of the cactus species Opuntia wilcoxii and Opuntia violacea.” (J.M. Berger, Y. Itagaki & K. Nakanishi)

Bergman, Robert (1971) American Journal of Psychiatry, 128: 695–699. “Navajo Peyote Use: Its Apparent Safety.”

Bergström, G.A. (1934) Kungl. Fysiograf. Sällskapets i Lund Förhand, 4: 235 “Further Note on the Occurrence of Citrate in Succulent Plants.” [From Hegnauer 1964]

Beringer, Kurt (1920) Zeitschrifte für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Volume 24. “Experimentelle Psychosen durch Meskalin.” [Also 1922 Vortrag auf der südwestdeutshen Psychiater-Versammlung in Erlangen]

Beringer, Kurt (1927) Der Mezcalinrausch, seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise. Springer, Berlin. (Reti 1950 commented that Beringer has a good bibliography of early works on the subject.) [Anderson & also LaBarre give as “Der Mezcalinrausch, seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise.” (1927) Monographien aus dem Gesamtegebiete der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 49: 35–89, 119–315.] [Beringer 1927 was reprinted in 1969 by Springer-Verlag, New York.] 

Beringer, Kurt (1928) Archivo Argentino de Neurologia, 2: 145–154. “Intoxication due to alkaloids from mescaline: Resulting mental and physical phenomena.”

Berlin, Louis et al. (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 487–491. “Studies in Human Cerebral Function: The Effects of Mescaline and Lysergic Acid on Cerebral Processes Pertinent to Creative Activity.” (Louis Berlin, Thomas Guthrie, Arthur Weider, Helen Goodell & Harold G. Wolff)

Bernabai, A. (1966) Annales della Sanitá Pubblica, 27 (Nov-Dec.) : 1265–1296. “Plante magiche Americana (Psilocybe-Stropharia-Anhalonium).”

Bernheim, Frederick & Mary L.C. Bernheim (1938) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 123: 317–326. “The Oxidation of Mescaline and Certain Other Amines.”

Bernstein, Dennis & Howard Levin (1994) The Texas Observer. (June 17): 14–15. “Ollie Takes a Powder: A Texas DEA Agent Once Tracked Oliver North’s Contra Drug Deals.” [A darkly amusing article about the problems a DEA agent ran into while trying to unravel a cocaine ring he uncovered]

Berrin, Kathleen (1978) Art of the Huichol Indians. The Fine Arts Museum: San Francisco.

Bertani et al. (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 30: (L.M. Bertani, S.W. Dziedzic, D.D. Clarke & S.E. Gitlow)

Bertler, A., et al.(1958) Acta Physiol. Scand. 44: 273–292. (A. Bertler, A. Carlsson & E. Rosengren)

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963) Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1491–1494. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. IV. Synthesis of O-Methylisopilocereine.”

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963)a Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1495–1499. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. V. Synthesis of O-Methylisopilocereine. (2).”

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963)c Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1504–1507. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. VII. Cleavage of O-Methylisopilocereine by Metallic Potassium in Liquid Ammonia.”

Betanzos, Juan de (1880) Suma y narración de los Incas que los indios llaman Capaccuna, que fueron señores de la ciudad del Cuzco y de todo lo a ello subjecto. Madrid [from Yacovleff & Herrera 1935]

Beyer, Karl & Albert R. Latven (1944) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 81: 203. “An evaluation of the influence of succinate and malonate on barbiturate hypnosis.” 

Bezerra, J.D.P. et al. (2013) Symbiosis, 60: 53–63. Fungal endophytes from cactus Cereus jamacaru in Brazilian tropical dry forest: a first study.” (Jadson D. P. Bezerra, Marília G. S. Santos, Renan N. Barbosa, Virgínia M. Svedese, Débora M. M. Lima, Maria José S. Fernandes, Bruno S. Gomes, Laura M. Paiva, Jarcilene S. Almeida-Cortez & Cristina M. Souza-Motta)

Bianchi, Antonio (1991) Annali dei Musei Civici-Rovereto, 6: 147–152. “Psicofisiologia dei rituali allucinatori dello sciamanesimo nord-peruviano.” Discusses the role of the ritual context in producing a religious experience.

Bianchi, Antonio & Giorgio Samorini (1993) “Plants in Association with Ayahuasca.” pp. 21–42 in Christian Rätsch & John R. Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness. Issue 2. [Epiphyllum] 

Bianchi, Antonio & Mario Polia (1991) Integration: Zeitschrift fur Geistbewegende Pflanzen und Kultur, 1: 65–70. “Ethnological evidence and cultural patterns of use of Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose among Peruvian curanderos.” Published in Italian (1990) Annali dei Musei Civici-Roverto, 6: 139–146. “Dati etnofarmacologici e modelli culturali dell’uso del Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose tra I curanderos peruviani.”

Biel, J.H. et al. (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 3149–3153. “Bronchodilators, N-substituted derivatives of 1-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyI)- 2-aminoethanol (Artenerol).” (J.H. Biel, E.G. Schwarz, E. P. Sprengeler, H.A. Leiser & H.L. Friedman)

Bigdeli, M.G. & M.A. Collins (1975) Biochem. Med. 12: 55–65. “Tissue catecholamines and potential tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid metabolites: A gas chromatographic assay method with electron capture detection.” 

Bird, H.L., Jr. (1974) PhD dissertation; University of
Arizona at Tucson
. “Sterols and Fatty Acids of Organ Pipe
Cactus (Lemaireocereus thurberii).” [From Gibson & Horak; also Kircher & Bird 1982]

Bisset, N.G. (1985) Agricultural University Wageningen Papers, 85 Number 3: 115–122. “Uses of Voacanga species.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Björnstad, K. et al. (2008) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 32 (4): 227–231. “Development and Clinical Application of an LC-MS-MS Method for Mescaline in Urine” (Kristian Björnstad, Anders Helander & Olof Beck)

Blair, Thomas S. (1921) Journal of the American Medical Association, 76 (15): 1033–1034. “Habit indulgence in certain cactaceous plants among the Indians’ 

Blanco Labra, Victor (1992) Wirikuta: La tierra sagrada de los huicholes. Daimon: Mexico.

Bland, D.E. et al. (1950) Australian Journal of Scientific Research, 3A: 642–?. [Extraction of syringaldehyde from E. diversicolor, E. obliqua or Eucalyptus regnans sawdust.]

Blaschko, H. (1944–1945) Journal of Physiology, 103: (Proc.) 13–14 P. “Enzymatic oxidation of mescalin in the rabbit’s liver.”

Blaschko, H. (1952) Pharmacological Reviews, 4 (4): 415–458. “Amine oxidase and amine metabolism.“

Blatt, A.H. (ed.) (1943) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, NY. 1943. Page 619

Block, Wolfram (1953) Z. Physiol. Chem. 294: 1–10 in the literature should read Block 1954.

Block, Wolfram (1953a) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 294: 1–12. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. I. Mitteilung. Der enzymatische Vorgang.” 

Block, Wolfram (1953b) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 294: 49–56. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. II. Mitteilung. Einflüss der Aminooxydase.”

Block, Wolfram (1953c) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 8b: 8 : 440–444. Zur Physiologie des 14C-radioactiven Mescalins in Tierversuch, IV. Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit 14C-Mescaline und 14C-β-Phenyl-äthylamine.” 

Block, Wolfram (1954a) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 296: 1–10. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. III. Mitteilung.” 

Block, Wolfram (1954b) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 296: 108–121. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. IV. Mitteilung. Einbau versuche in Zellkerne, Mitochondrien, Mikrosomen und Cytoplasma.” 

Block, Wolfram (1958) “Pharmacological aspects of mescaline.” pp. 108–119 in M. Rinkel & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) Chemical Aspects of Psychosis NewYork: McDowell.

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)a Angewandte Chemie 64 (6): 166–167. “Tierversuche mit 14C-radioaktivem Mescaline und sein Einbau in das Eiweiß der Leber.” 

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 85: 1009–1012. “Synthese von 14C-radioaktivem Mescalin.” 

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)c Congrès International de Biochimie, Résumés de Communications, 2nd, Paris, July 21-27 1952. p. 429. “La distribution de la méscaline marquée (14C-radioactif) dans l’organisme animal et son association avec les protéines du foie.” [CA (1954) 48: 8966d-e.] [“The distribution of mescaline (labeled with radioactive carbon14 ) in the animal organism and its association with the proteins of the liver.”] [Should be written 14carbon] 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)a Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 290: 160–168. “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. I. Mitteilung. Fermentsuche und Ausscheidungsproduckte.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)b Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 290: 230–236 “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. II. Mitteilung. Verteilung der Radioaktivität in den Organen in Abhangigkeit von der Zeit.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)c Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 291: 119–128. “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. III. Mitteilung. Mescaline in bau in Leberprotein.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Blofeld, John (1966) Psychedelic Review, 7: 27–32. “A High Yogic Experience Achieved with Mescalin.”

Bloom, A.D. et al. (1970) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 66 (3): 920–927. “Chromosome Aberrations among the Yanamama Indians.” (Arthur D. Bloom, James V. Neel, Kyoo W. Choi, Shozo Iida & Napoleon Chagnon)

Bloom et al. (1973) Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 12: 175–186

Bloom et al. (1982) Beta-carbolines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines. Proceedings of a workshop held at the Salk Institute, La Jolla, California, December 12 and 13, 1981. Alan R. Liss, NY (Floyd Bloom, Jack Barchas, Merton Sandler & Earl Usdin)

Blossfeld, Harry (1946) Cactus & Succulent Journal, of America 18 (10): 153–155. “Field list of Blossfeld collections.”

Blum, K. et al. (1978) Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res. 2: 113–120. “Putative role of isoquinoline alkaloids in alcoholism: A link to opiates.” (K. Blum, M.G. Hamilton, M. Hirst & J.E. Wallace) 

Blum, K. (1980) “Alcohol and opiates: a review of common mechanisms.” pp. 71–90 in L. Manzo (ed.) Advances in Neurotoxicology, Pergamon, London.

Bobbitt, J.M. & C.P. Dutta (1969) J. Org. Chem. 34: 2001.

Bobbitt, J.M. & Tsu-Teh Chou (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24: 1106–1108. “Synthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids. I. Lophocerine.” 

Bobbitt et al. (1965) J. Org Chem 20: 2247 (synth)

Böchtold (in the literature) See as Bächtold

Bödecker (1928) Zeitscrift für Sukkulentenkunde, 3(11):229–230. [as Echinocactus schmiedickeanus]

Bodendorf, K. & P. Kloss (1961) Archiv der Pharmazie, 66: 654–661. “Über Abbau und Biogenese der Alkaloide Mesembrin und Mesembrenin.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Bodendorf, K. & W. Krieger (1957) Archiv der Pharmazie, 62: 441–448. “Über die Alkaloide von Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L.” See also Krieger 1956

Böhm, Hartmut (2008) Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development, 148–170. “ “Opuntia dillenii” – An Interesting and Promising Cactaceae Taxon.”

Boire, Richard Glen (ed.) The Entheogen Law Reporter. 

Boit, Hans G. (1961) Ergebnisse der Chemie bis 1960. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin

Boke, Norman H. & Edward F. Anderson (1970) American Journal of Botany, 57 (5): 569–578; “Structure, Development and Taxonomy in the Genus Lophophora.”

Bolland, A. (1911) Monatshefte für Chemie, 32: 117–131. “Mikrochemische Studien.” 

Bollhart, Thomas Benno (1985) “Nearika: Visionen der Huichol.” pp. 9–75 in Umgarnte Mythen. Völkerkundemuseum Freiburg.

Borch, R. & A.I. Hassid (1972) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37: 1673–1674. “New method for the methylation of amines.”

Borg, John (1937) Cacti. A Gardener’s Handbook for Their Identification and Cultivation. First Edition. MacMillan and Co.: London.

Borg, John (1976) Cacti. A Gardener’s Handbook for Their Identification and Cultivation. Fourth Edition. Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-0132-3. [3rd ed. (enlarged) was in 1959.]

Borsy, J. et al. (1961) Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19: 27–32.

Borsy, J. et al. (1964) International Journal of Neuropharmacology, 2 (6): 273–277. “Antimescaline properties of some lysergic acid derivatives.” (J. Borsy, Zs. Huszti & M. Fekete)

Borud, O. & L.R. Gjessing (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 27: 552

Bost, J. et al. (1965) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, (Société de Biologie Lyon. Séances des 21 Décembre 1964 et 18 Janvier 1965.] 159 (2): 403–406. “Influence de la réserpine sur l’action centrale de la mescaline: Potentialisation de l’excitation motrice chez la Souris.” (J. Bost, Y. Ruckebusch & M. Roche)

Bouerget, S. (1990) Boletín del Instituto Françés de Estudios Andinos. 19 (2): 45–58. “Caracoles sagrados en la iconografía Moche.”. (from Ott 1993)

Bouma, Marcel (1994) Kaktusy, 30 (2): 59–60. “Lophophora sp. nova od Rio Verde.”

Bourn, W.M. et al. (1978) Life Sciences, 23 (11): 1175–1184. “Psychoactivity of Normacromerine in animals”

Bovet, D. & F. Bovet-Nitti (1948) Médicaments du Système Nerveux Végétatif, p. 102. Bale: Karger [from Erspamer & Glässer 1960]

Boyd, Carolyn E. & J. Philip Deering (1996) Texas Archaic. Antiquity, 70: 256–275. “Medicinal and hallucinogenic plants identified in the sediments and pictographs of the Lower Pecos.” 

Boyer, L.B. et al. (1968) Shamanism and Peyote Use Among the Apaches of the Mescalero Indian Reservation. Paper presented at the Hallucinogens and Shamanism symposium at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. (L. Bryce Boyer, Ruth M. Boyer & Harry W. Basehart) Published as pages 53–66, in Michael J. Harner (ed.) (1973) Hallucinogens and Shamanism. ISBN 0-19-501649-1. 

Braacca, Andrea B.J. & Teodoro S. Kaufman (2004) Tetrahedron 60 (47): 10575–10610. “Synthetic approaches to carnegine, a simple tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid.”

Bradley, C.A. et al. (1961) Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2: 175. 

Bradley, Richard (1989) Current Anthropology, 30 (1): 68–75. “Deaths and Entrances: A Contexual Analysis of Megalithic art.” 

Braga, D.L. & J.L. McLaughlin (1969) Planta Medica, 17 (1): 87–94. “Cactus alcaloids.[sic] V. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyltyramine from Ariocarpus retusus 

Braga, R. (1976) Plantas do Nordeste, Especialmente do Ceará. Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró. Pages 210–211. [from da Silva & Parente 2002]

Brako, Lois & J. Zarrucchi (1993) Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru 

Brant, Charles S. (1950) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology Vol. 6. “Peyotism among Kiowa, Apache and Neighboring Tribes.”

Braun, U. et al. (1978) “Mescaline Analogs: Substitutions at the 4-Position.” (Ulrich Braun, Gisela Braun, Peyton Jacob III, David E. Nichols & Alexander T. Shulgin) pp. 27–37 in G. Barnett, M. Trsic, & R. Willette, (eds.) ‘QuaSAR’ Research Monograph 22, National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Bravo H., Helia (1931) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 2 (2): 117–126. “Cactaceas del Valle de Oaxaca.”

Bravo H., Helia (1932) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 3 (1): 15–18. “Contribucion al Conocimiento de las Cactaceas de Mexico. Myrtillocactus grandiareolatus, sp. nov.”

Bravo Hollis, Helia (1937) Las Cactáceas de México. UNAM. Imprenta Universitaria. México. 755 pages. [First edition]

Bravo, H. (1967) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 12: 8–17. “Una revision del genero Lophophora.”

Bravo-Hollis, Helia (1978) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 1. (in collaboration with Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R.) [Second edition.]

Bravo, Helia & Don K. Cox (1958) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 3: 3–12. “Estudios Cactalógicos. Heliabravoa chende (Goss.) Backeberg”

Bravo-Hollis, Helia & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R. (1991a) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 2 

Bravo-Hollis, Helia & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R. (1991b) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 3 

Breese, G.V. et al. (1969) J. Pharm. Exptl. Ther. 165: 9–13. (G.V. Breese, T.N. Chase & I.J. Kopin)

Brenneisen, Rudolf & Hans-Jörg Helmlin 1993 “Lophophora” in Hager’s Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis (5. Aufl.), Bd. 5: 707–712. Springer: Berlin.

Brickell, Christopher & Judith D. Zuk (eds.) (1996) The American Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-1943-2.

Bridger, W.H. & I.J. Mandel (1967) Life Sciences, 6: 775–781. “The effect of dimethoxyphenylethylamine and mescaline on classical conditioning in rats as measured by the potentiated startle response”

Bridger, Wagner H. & W. Horsley Gantt (1956) American Journal of Psychiatry, 113 (4): 352–360. “The effect of mescaline on differentiated conditional reflexes.”

Brien, J.F. et al. (1983) Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology, 61 (6): 632–640. “Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of salsolinol in the striatum of rat brain during the calcium carbimide–ethanol interaction.” (J.F. Brien, P.J. Andrews, C.W. Loomis & J.A. Page)

Briggs, J.R. (1887) Medical Register, 1: 276–277. “Muscale buttons – Physiological action – Personal experiences.” 

Brimblecombe, Roger W. & Roger M. Pinder (1975) Hallucinogenic Agents. Bristol: Wright Scientific.

Brito, Silverster J. (1989) The Way of a Peyote Roadman. Peter Lang: New York.

Britton, H.T.S. & R.A. Robinson (1932) The Hydrogen Ion. Chapman and Hall, London.

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1913) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16: 239–242. “Studies in Cactaceae.”

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1913) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16 (9): 255-. “The genus Epiphyllum and its Allies.”

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1919–1923) The Cactaceae. Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. [The Carnegie Institute of Washington, Publication No. 248, Washington.]

Reprinted many times. Our information came from the 1937 reprint by Scott E. Haselton, Abbey San Encino Press, Pasadena, California. Also reprinted in 1977, with the four volumes bound as two volumes, by Dover, New York.

[1919:Vol. One; 1920: Vol. Two; 1922: Vol. Three; 1923: Vol. Four.]

Brock, Thomas D. & Michael T. Madigan’s (1991) Biology of Microorganisms, Sixth Edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-083817-9.

Bromberg, W. & C.L. Tranter (1943) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 97: 518–527. “Peyote intoxication: some psychological aspects of peyote rite.”

Brooke, F.K. (1914) Report of the Thirty-Second Annual Lake Mohonk Conference on the Indian and Other Dependent Peoples 72–75. “Cooperation of State and Federal Authorities.”

Brossi, A. et al. (1964) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 47 (7): 2089–2098. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe Neue Synthesen der Kaktusalkaloide Anhalamin, Anhalidin, rac. Anhalonidin und rac. Pellotin” (A. Brossi, F. Schenker and W. Leimgruber)

Brossi, A. et al. (1965) Monatshefte für Chemie, 96: 25–36. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe: Zur Ätherspaltung 6,7,8-trimethoxy-substituierter Isochinol verbindungen mit wässeriger Salzsäure” (A. Brossi, M. Baumann and R. Borer)

Brossi, A. et al. (1966) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 49 (44): 403–411. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe. Zur Darstellung 6,7,8,-Hydroxy-dimethoxy-substituierter 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisochinoline aus 3-Benzyloxy-4,5-dimethoxy-phenäthylamin und Bericht über die Resultate der pharmakologischen prüfung von Anhalamin, Anhalidin, rac. Anhalonidin und rac. Pellotin” (A. Brossi, F. Schenker, R. Schmidt, R. Banziger & W. Leimgruber)

Brossi, A. et al. (1971) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 93 (23): 6248-6252. “New Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Cactus Alkaloids” (Arnold Brossi, John F. Blount, Jay O’Brien and Sidney Teitel”

Broughton, I.B. & W.T. Hardy (1941) 54th Ann. Rep., Texas Agric. Exper. Stat. p. 1159. [from Clement et al. 1998).

Brown, F. et al. (1949) Journal of the Chemical Society (London), 1761–1766. “Cholla Gum.” (F. Brown, E.L. Hirst & J.K.N. Jones)

Brown, Joel H. (1996–1997) MAPS 7(1): 28–34. “Drug education and democracy [in]action.”

Brown, J.K. et al. (1972) Journal of Chromatography, 64: 129–133 “A Rapid Screening Procedure for some Street Drugs by TLC.” (J.K. Brown, L. Shapazian & G.D. Griffin)

Brown, John Kennedy & Marvin H. Malone (1978) Clinical Toxicology 12 (1): 1–31. “ “Legal Highs”- Constituents, Activity, Toxicology and Folklore.”

Brown, Robert E. (1968) (1975-4th edition) Guide to Preparation of the Eucharist. In a few of its many guises. (Linga Sharira Incense Company)

Brown, S.D. et al. (1968) Phytochemistry, 7 (11): 2031–2036. “Cactus Alkaloids.” (Stanley D. Brown, John L. Massingill, Jr. & Joe E. Hodgkins) 

Brown, S.D. et al. (1972)a Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37 (5): 773–775. “The isolation, structure, synthesis and absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid macromerine” (Stanley D. Brown, Joe E. Hodgkins & Manfred G. Reineke) 

Brown, S.D. et al. (1972)b Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37 (11): 1825–1828. “The isolation, structure, synthesis and absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid gigantine” (Stanley D. Brown, J.E. Hodgkins, J.L. Massingil, Jr. & M.G. Reinecke)

Bruh & also Bruhh in the literature both refer to JG Bruhn 

Bruhn & Bruhn 1971, given in the literature, refers to Bruhn 1971a

Bruhn, Jan G. (1978) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 23 (2): 27–35. “Tres Hombres y Una Droga: Investigaciones sobre el peyote en los Años 90.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1971)a Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas, 16 (3): 51–58, English summary 68–70. “Alcaloides en las Cactáceas.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1971)b Economic Botany, 25 (3): 320–329. “Carnegiea gigantea: The Saguaro and its Uses”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1973)a Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas, 18 (1): 8–11, English summary 11–13. “Búsqueda Etnobotánica de Cactáceas Alucinógenas”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1973)b Planta Medica, 24 (4): 315–319. “Ethnobotanical Search for Hallucinogenic Cacti”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975) Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 3–38. See as Bruhn 1975a.

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975)a Doctoral thesis: Uppsala University. “Pharmacognistic studies of peyote and related psychoactive cacti.” ISBN 91-0554-0335-2. 38 pages. This document appears to be missing the contents of Bruhn’s actual doctoral thesis.  It is misleading if being presented as his doctoral thesis which actually includes the work that was published in several other papers.

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975)b Phytochemistry, 14: 2509–2510. “Phenethylamines of Ariocarpus scapharostrus.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1976) Cactus and Succulent Society Journal 48: 115–118: “Early Records of Lophophora diffusa.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1974) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 63 (4): 574–576. “Cactaceae alkaloids. XVIII. Two new alkaloids from Coryphantha calipensis H. Bravo” 

Bruhn, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 1442–1443. “O-Methylpellotine, a new peyote alkaloid from Lophophora diffusa.” 

Bruhn, Jan G. & Catarina Bruhn (1973) Economic Botany, 27 (2): 241-251 “Alkaloids and Ethnobotany of Mexican Peyote Cacti and Related Species.” [Nice anthropological review of other sacred cacti. Their chemical analysis did not include any quaternary or neutral compounds. This work is commonly mistakenly presented as providing evidence for the psychoactivity of N-Me-DMPEA.]

Bruhn, Jan G. & Peter A.G.M. DeSmet (2003) HerbalGram 58: 30–33. “Ceremonial Peyote Use and its Antiquity in the Southern United States.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Bo Holmstedt (1974) Economic Botany, 28 (4): 353–390. “Early Peyote Research. An Interdisciplinary Study.”

Bruhn, J. G. & J. Lindgren (1976) Lloydia, 39 (1-2):175–177. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. XXIII. Alkaloids of Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum and Cereus jamacaru.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Jan Lundström (1976)a American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 40: 159–160. “A Student Experiment in Pharmacognosy: Biosynthesis of Mescaline in the Cactus Trichocereus pachanoi.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Jan Lundström (1976)b Lloydia, 39 (4): 197–203. “Alkaloids of Carnegiea gigantea. Arizonine,
a New Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloid.”
Concerning our math-work for Bruhn & Lundström 1976b: 15 kg of fresh cactus yielded 32 grams of alkaloids. 80% was nonphenolic and 20% was phenolic. When purifying these fractions they only used 1 gram of the nonphenolic and 0.5 grams of the phenolic fractions. The amounts listed in their account is what was obtained from these aliquots rather than totals. For all compounds except dopamine the yields were calculated, by kt, as if they had used all of their product and then recalculated them in terms of their free bases (Alkaloids were obtained as the hydrochloride salts in all cases except for Arizonine)

Bruhn, Jan G. & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada (1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 622–623. “Phenethylamines From Echinocereus cinerascens and Pilocereus chrysacanthus

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1970) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 24 (10): 3775–3777. “Biosynthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines in Carnegiea gigantea Br. and R.” (Jan G. Bruhn, Ulla Svensson & Stig Agurell)

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1975) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 12 (2): 199–204. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. XXI. Phenethylamine Alkaloids of Coryphantha Species” (Jan G. Bruhn, Stig Agurell & Jan-Erik Lindgren)

Bruhn et al. (1976) Lloydia, 39: 175 in the literature refers to Bruhn & Lindgren 1976.

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1978) Science, 199: 1437–1438. “Peyote alkaloids: Identification in a Prehistoric Specimen of Lophophora from Coahuila, Mexico.”

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (2002) Lancet (correspondence) 359 (9320): 1866–1866. “Mescaline use for 5700 years.” (Jan G Bruhn, Peter A G M De Smet, Hesham R El-Seedi & Olof Beck) [Amazingly neither Bruhn nor any of his coworkers spotted the fact that their material was a manufactured effigy of a peyote crown and not a dried peyote button. See Terry et al. 2006 for details and images]

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (2008) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 40 (2 ): 219–222. “Ecstacy analogues found in cacti.” (Jan G. Bruhn, Hesham R. El-Seedi, Nikolai Stephanson, Olof Beck & Alexander T. Shulgin) [In a personal conversation in 2009, Sasha expressed his extreme embarassment to have been included as an author for such poor quality work.]

Buchanan, Douglas N. (1929) British Journal of Medical Psychology, 9: 67–88, with discussion pp. 89–92. “Meskalinrausch.” 

Buchanan, Douglas N. (1931) Medical Annual, 1931: 12.

Buck, J. S. (1930) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 52: 4119–4122. “Synthesis of iodal and epinine.”

Buck, J.S. (1933)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 55: 2593–2597. “Catalytic Reduction of Mandelonitriles.”

Buck, J.S. (1933)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 55: 3388–3390. “Reduction of Hydroxymandelonitriles. A New Synthesis of Tyramine.”

Buck, J.S. (1934) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 56: 1769–1771. “Some substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline hydrochlorides.”

Buckholtz, N.S. et al. (1990) Neuropsychopharmacology, 3(2): 137–148. “Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) administration selectively downregulates serotonin2 receptors inthe rat brain.” (N.S. Buckholtz, D.F. Zhou, D.X. Freedman & W.Z. Potter)

Buelow, D.W. & O. Gisvold (1944) J. Am. Pharm. Ass. 33: 270.

Bullis, Ronald K. (1990) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 22 (3): 325–332. Swallowing the Scroll: Legal Implications of the Recent Supreme Court Peyote Cases”

Burke, J.C. & A.R. McIntyre (1938) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 64: 465.

Burkill, J.D. (1966) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Art Printing Works. [from Aardvark 2006 and Duke]

Burt-Davy, J. (1913) Agricultural Journal of the Union of South Africa 6: 66. (From Watt 1967)

Buscaino, V. (1949) Gazzetta Sanitaria, 20: 417. [From Turner & Heyman]

Bussmann, Rainer W. & Douglas Sharon (2006) Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 44-55? “Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.” (The available copy online of this 11 page article does not include the actual page numbers.)

Bussmann, Rainer W. & Douglas Sharon (2006) Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 47-65? “Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.” [The available online copy of this 18 page article does not include the actual page numbers.)

Butera, D. et al. (2002) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 50 (23): 6895–6901. “Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.” (Daniela Butera, Luisa Tesoriere, Francesca Di Gaudio, Antonino Bongiorno, Mario Allegra, Anna Maria Pintaudi, Rohn Kohen & Maria A. Livrea)

Butler, George F. (1908) The American Journal of Clinical Medicine, 15: 1043–1056. “A Study of Cactus grandiflorus. A demonstration of the fact that theoretical pharmacology and practical clinical experience do not always agree. A presentation of the case for the latter.”

Bwititi, P.T. et al. (2001) Renal Failure, 23 (2): 149–158. “Effects of Opuntia megacantha leaves extract on renal electrolyte and fluid handling in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats.” (P.T. Bwititi, T. Machakaire, C.B. Nhachi, & C.T. Musabayane)

Bwititi, P. et al. (2000) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 69: 247–252. “Effects of Opuntia megacantha on blood glucose and kidney functions in streptozotocin diabetic rats.” (P. Bwititi, C.T. Musabayane & C.F.B. Nhachi)

Byarlay, Patricia (ed.) The Peyote Awareness Journal later as Peyote: A Medicine Journal.

Bye, Robert A., Jr. (1979) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1: 28–48. “Hallucinogenic Plants of the Tarahumara”

Bygdeman, S. (1960) Ark. Kemi. 16: 247.

Cacti_etc archives: http://www2.labs.agilent.com/bot/cactus_home. Early references on Selenicereus from the 1800s onward can be found in CACTI_ETC Digest 4521.

Cai, Y.Z. et al. (2006) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 54 (18): 6520–6526. “Rapid identification of betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus polyrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS).” (Y.Z. Cai, J. Xing, M. Sun & H. Corke)

Calderón, Eduardo & Douglas Sharon (1978) Terapia de la Curanderia. Edigraf-Trujillo. (Discusses modern use in healing and philosophy. Discusses other herbs pp. 59–67.)

Calderón, Eduardo et al. (1982) Eduardo el Curandero: The words of a Peruvian Healer. North Atlantic Books & Society for the Study of Native Arts & Sciences, Richmond, CA.

Caldwell, Roger Lee (1966) PhD Dissertation; University of Arizona. “A Biochemical Investigation of Callus Tissue in the Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea Gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose).”

Callaway, Jace C. (1995) Eleusis, 1: 4–10. “Ayahuasca, Now and Then.”

Camilla, Giberto (1998) “Cactus Mescalinici.” pages 83–91 in Altrove #5. [Very general overview of mescaline containing and other psychoactive cacti.]

Camino, Alejandro (1992) Takiwasi 1 (1): 99–109. “El Peyote: Derecho histórico de los pueblos indios.”

Camisaca, L. (1949) Oto-rino-laringologia italiana 18: 90–107. “L’azione della mescalina sull’-apparato vestibolare.”

Camp, Bennie J. & Carl M. Lyman (1956) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition 45 (11): 719–721. “The Isolation of N-Methyl beta-Phenethylamine from Acacia berlandieri.”

Camp, Bennie J. & Carl M. Lyman (1957) The Southwestern Veterinarian 10: 133. [Have not yet obtained a copy.]

Camp, Bennie J. & Michael J. Norvell (1966) Economic Botany, 20 (3): 274–278. “The Phenethylamine Alkaloids of Native Range Plants.”

Camp, Bennie J. and Joan A. Moore (1960) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. 49 (3): 158–160. “A Quantitative Method for the Alkaloid of Acacia berlandieri.”

Camp, B.J. et al.(1964) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 111 (2): 744–750. (Bennie J. Camp, Ray Adams and J.W. Dollahite) “The Chemistry of the Toxic Constituents of Acacia berlandieri.”

Campbell, Carolyn E. & Henry W. Kircher (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2777–2779. “Senita Cactus: A Plant With Interrupted Sterol Biosynthetic Pathways.”

Campbell, C.J. et al. (1946) Federation Proceedings, 5: 15. “Sodium succinates as an analeptic in man.” [Paper presenteed to the American Physiological Society, 55th annual meeting Atlantic City, NJ, Mar. 11–15, 1946.] (C.J. Campbell, J.P. Males & R.H. Bennet)

Campbell, Thomas N. (1947) The Texas Journal of Science, 9: 7–25. “The Fields shelter: an archeological site in Edwards County, Texas.”

Campbell, Thomas N. (1958) American Anthropologist, 60 (1): 156–160. “Origin of the Mescal Bean Cult.”

Camus, L. (1906)a Archives internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 16: 43. “Étude physiologique du sulfate d’hordénine” (from Kapadia & Fayez 1970)

Camus (1906)b Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 110–113. “L’hordénine, son degré de toxicité, symptômes de l’intoxication”

Camus (1906)c Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 237–239. “Action du sulfate d’hordénine sur la circulation”

Camus (1906)d Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 350–352. “Action du sulfate d’hordénine sur les ferments solubles et sur les microbes.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1983) Boletín de Lima, 5 (26): 13–28. “El Obelisco Tello de Chavin.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1985) Boletín de Lima, 7 (37): 38–44. “Problemas Arqueológicos e Iconográficos-Enfoques Nuevos.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1988) Boletín de Lima, 10 (56): 35–40. “Alucinógenos utilizados en la región andina prehispánica.”

Canestrini, D. (1993) Airone, 144: 66–77. “Un peyote, e poi perdeersi fra mille colori.”

Cannell, Richard J.P. (ed.) (1998) Natural Products Isolation (Methods in Biotechnology 4) Humana Press: Totowa, NJ 473 pages ISBN 0-89603–362-7

Capps, T.M. et al. (1977) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkins Transactions II, 8: 1098–1104. “Sceletium Alkaloids. Part 7. Structure and Absolute Stereochemistry of (-)-Mesembrane and 3’-Methoxy-4’-O-methyljoubertiamine, Two Minor Bases from S. Namaquense L. Bolus: X-Ray Analysis of (-)-Mesembrane Hydrochloride Monohydrate.” (Thomas M. Capps, Karl D. Hargrave, Peter W. Jeffs & Andrew T. McPhail)

Cárdenas, Martín (1953) Revista de Agricultura (Cochabamba) 11 (8): 15–19 (plus three unnumbered pages with illustrations and/or photographs). “Notas Cactológicas de Bolivia. Dos Trichocereus Nuevos.”

Cardinale, G.J. (1987) Life Sciences 40: 301–306. “Morphine and Codeine are Endogenous Components of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.” (George J. Cardinale, Josef Donnerer, A. Donald Finck, Joel D. Kantrowitz, Kazuhiro Oka & Sydney Spector)

Carling, C. & F. Sandberg (1970) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 7 (3): 285–288. “Alkaloids of Haloxylon articulatum.” [See also 1970 CA 73: 63154f,]

Carlini, E.A. et al. (1965) Experientia, 21 (2): 72–73. “Potentiation of Histamine and Inhibition of Diamine Oxidase by Mescaline.” (E.A. Carlini, M. Santos & M.R.P. Sampaio)

Carlini, E.A. et al. (1967) Med. Pharmacol. Exp. 17: 534–542. “Effects of chronic administration of β-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine and β-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine on the climbing rope performance of rats.” (E.A. Carlini, M.T.A. Silva, L.C. Cesare & R.M. Endo) 

Carlsson, A. & M. Lindquist (1962) Acta Physiol. Scand. 54: 83.

Cashaw, J.L. et al. (1974) Journal of Chromatography, 99: 567–573. “Identification of catecholamine-derived alkaloids in mammals by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.” (J.L. Cashaw, K.D. McMurtry, H. Brown & V.E. Davis)

Casillas Romo, Armando (1990) Nosologia mítica de un pueblo: Medicina tradicional huichola. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara: Guadalajara.

Castellanos-Santiago E & E.M. Yahia (2008) Journal of
Agricultural & Food Chemistry
, 56 (14): 5758–5764.
“Identification and quantification of betalains from the fruits of 10 mexican prickly pear cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.”

Castellar, R. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (9): 2772–2776. “Color Properties and Stability of Betacyanins from Opuntia Fruits.” (Rosario Castellar, José M. Obón, Mercedes Alacid & José A. Fernández-López)

Castellar, R. et al. (2006) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86: 122–128. “The isolation and properties of a concentrated red-purple betacyanin food colourant from Opuntia stricta fruits.” (R. Castellar, J.M. Obón & J.A. Fernández-López)

Castetter, Edward F. (1935) The University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biological Series, 4 (1): 160–220. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest I. Uncultivated Native Plants Used as Sources of Food.”

Castetter, Edward P. & Morris Edward Opler (1936) University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biological Series. 297: 85–88. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest. III. The Ethnobiology of the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache. A. The Use of Plants for Foods, Beverages and Narcotics.” [In Castetter, Edward P. & Morris E. Opler (1936) The University of New Mexico Bulletin, 297: 85–155. “The Ethnobiology of the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache.”]

Castetter, Edward F. & Ruth Underhill (1935) University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biology Series, 4 (5): 3–84. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest. II. The Ethnobiology of the Papago Indians.”

Castrillón, José A. (1950) Thesis, Buenos Aires University. [from Reti 1954]

Castrillón, José A (1952) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 74: 558–559. “Cactus Alkaloids. I. Condensation of Mescaline with Formaldehyde by the Eschweiler-Clarke Reaction.” [An interesting reaction in a failed attempt to produce trichocereine.]

Cattell, James P. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 119 (3): 233–244. “Influence of Mescaline on Psychodynamic Material.”

Caycho Jimenez, Abraham (1977) Folklore Americana, 23: 89–100. “Folklore médico y fitoalucinismo en el Perú.”

Caycho Jimenez, Abraham (1979) Folklore Americana, 28: 159–161. “Sistemática nosográfica del folklore médico en el Perú.”

Ceroni, Luigi (1932) Rivista Sperimentale Freniatria, 56: 42–104. “L’intossicazione mescalinica (Autoesperienze).”

CESAR (University of Maryland Center for Substance Abuse Research.) (2006) Peyote.

Céspedes, C.L. et al. (2005) Phytochemistry, 66 (20): 2481-2493. “Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.” (Carlos L. Céspedes, J. Rodrigo Salazar, Mariano Martínez & Eduardo Aranda)

Chachoyan, A.A. et al. (1973) Biol. Zh. Arm. 25: 102. [Chemical Abstracts (1973) 78:52538m] (A.A. Chacoyan, B.T. Garibdzhanyan & E.Z. Markaryan) [from Strombom & Bruhn 1978]

Chalet, Jean Marc (1980)a Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 25: 75–92. “Los Alcaloides de las Cactáceas.”

Chang Po-tuan (translated by Thomas Cleary) (1987) Understanding Reality. A Taoist Alchemical Classic. With a Concise Commentary by Liu I-Ming [A translation of the Chinese 12th century classic; Wu Chen P’ien] University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1139-7.

Chang, C. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 2771-2775. “Biogenesis of Betalamic Acid.” (Christina Chang, Linda Kimler & Tom. J. Mabry)

Chang, C.-S. et al. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4081–4084. “A new synthesis of hordenine and other p-dialkylaminoethylphenols and some of their derivatives.”

Chang, S.-F. et al. (2008) Food Chemistry, 106: 569–575. “The protective effect of Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit against low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and its active compounds.” (S.-F. Chang, C.-L. Hsieh & G.-C. Yen)

Chapman, N.B. et al. (1965) Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Ser. B, Biological Sciences, 163 (990): 116–135. “The synthesis, reactivity, and pharmacological properties of some substituted N N-dimethyl-2-halogeno-2-phenylethylamines, and related compounds.” (N.B. Chapman, K. Clarke & R.D. Strickland)

Charalampous, K.D. & L.W. Tansey (1967) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 155: 318–329. “Metabolic fate of beta-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)- ethylamine in man.“

Charalampous, K. D. et al. (1964) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 145 (2): 242–246. “Metabolic Fate of β-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine (Mescaline) in Humans: Isolation and Identification of 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenylacetic Acid.” (K.D. Charalampous, Antonio Orengo, K.E. Walker & John Kinross-Wright)

Charalampous, K. D. et al. (1966) Psychopharmacologia, 9: 48-63. “Metabolic Fate of Mescaline in Man.” (K.D. Charalampous, K.E. Walker & John Kinross-Wright)

Chatterjee, A. et al. (1976) Tetrahedron 32: 3051–3053. “Lewis Acid Catalyzed Rearrangement of Triterpenoids.” (A.S. Chatterjee, S. Mukhopadhyay & K. Chattopadhyay)

Chaumerliac & Roche (1948) Bulletin de la société d’ophtalmologie de Paris. 800–802. “Un vasodilateur inattendu, la mescaline.” [CA (1952) 46: 2191a] [“An unexpected vasodilator, mescaline.”]

Chen, C. et al. (1999) Zhong Yao Cai, 22 (11): 581–583. [Studies of Echinopsis multiplex on antineoplastic effects.] (Article is in Chinese. (C. Chen, R. Jin, Z. Sun & H. Zhang) (From PubMed)

Chen, C.R et al. (1974) Lloydia, 37 (3): 493–500. “A phytochemical study of Doryphora sassafras. II. Isolation of eleven crystalline alkaloids from the bark.“ (C.R. Chen, J.L. Beal, R.W. Doskotch, L.A. Mitscher & G.H. Svoboda)

Chen, K.K. & A.Ling Chen (1933) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 49: 503–513. “The poisonous secretions of twelve species of toads.”

Chen, K.K. & A.Ling Chen (1933b) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 22 (9): 813–819. “The pharmacological action of ten amines related to ephedrine and tryptamine.”

Chen, K.K. et al. (1931) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 43: 13. (K.K. Chen, H. Jensen, and A.L. Chen) [From Deulofeu & Rúveda 1971]

Chen, F. et al. (2012) Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences U S A. 109 (5): 1772–1777. “A polymer of caffeyl alcohol in plant seeds.” (Fang Chen, Yuki Tobimatsu, Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Richard A. Dixon & John Ralph)

Chen, I.S. et al. (1995) Phytochemistry, 40 (3): 983–986. “Alkaloids from Hernandia sonora.” (Ih-Sheng Chen, Jih-Jung Chen and Ian-Lih Tsai) [Appears in PubMed as Ih-Sheng, C. et al.] 

Chen, J. et al. (2003) Journal of Chromatography, A, 1003: 127–132. “Determination of noradrenaline and dopamine in Chinese herbal extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. by high-performance liquid chromatography.” (Juan Chen, Yan-Ping Shi & Jing-Yan Liu)

Chen, S.-B. & H.-M. Meng (1997) Pharmacol. Clin. Chin. Mater. Med. 13: 36–37. [Study on Anti-Lipid Peroxidation of Opuntia dillenii Haw] in Chinese with English Abstr..

Chen, X.P. & X. Zhao (1998) Chin. J. Tradition. Med. Sci. Technol. 5: 335–336. [The progress on pharmacological action of Opuntia dillenii study] in Chinese

Cheng, C.-S. et al. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4081–4084. “A New Synthesis of Hordenine and Other p-Dialkylaminoethylphenols and Some of Their Derivatives” (Chao-Shing Cheng, Claus Ferber, Raymond I. Bashford, Jr. & Gerald F. Grillot)

Cherayil, George D. (1973) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 62 (12): 2054–2055. “N-dimethylation of β-phenylethylamine derivatives.”

Chevalier, A. (1946) Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences 223: 767–769. “Le Sata mbwanda racine stimulante et aphrodisiaque employée par les Noirs du Gabon et son identification botanique.”

Chevalier, A. (1947) Revue de Botanique Appliquée, 27: 104–109. “Les Mostuea africains et leurs propriétés stimulantes.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Chevon, G. (1931) Journal de la Sociétè des Africanistes, 1: 285–289. “Le Dyidé.”

Chin, K.C. et al. (1962) Sheng Li Hsueh Pao, 25 (3): 182–190. [CA (1963) 59: 13249g-h.] [“Pharmacologic actions of tetrahydroberberine on the central nervous system.”] (Kuo-Chang Chin, Hsin-Ying Chu, Hsi-Ts’an T’ang & Pin Hsu)

Cho, J.Y, et al. (2006) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 58 (1): 113–119. “Radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Opuntia humifusa Raf.” (J.Y. Cho, S.C. Park, T.W. Kim, K.S. Kim, J.C. Song, S.K. Kim, H.M. Lee, H.J. Sung, H.J. Park, Y.B. Song, E.S. Yoo, C.H. Lee & MH Rhee)

Cholden, L. (ed.) (1956) Lysergic acid diethylamide and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry. New York & London: Grune & Stratton, 1956.

Chomcheon, P. et al. (2005) Journal of Natural Products, 68: 1103–1105. “3-Nitropropionic Acid (3-NPA), a Potent Antimycobacterial Agent from Endophytic Fungi: Is 3-NPA in Some Plants Produced by Endophytes?” (Porntep Chomcheon, Suthep Wiyakrutta, Nongluksna Sriubolmas, Nattaya Ngamrojanavanich, Duangnate Isarangkul & Prasat Kittakoop)

Chopra, I.C. et al. (1960) “With Particular Reference to the Botanical Aspects” in: Medicinal Plants of the Arid Zones. Arid Zone Research Publication No. 13. Paris: UNESCO 1960. (p. 42) (I.C. Chopra, B.K. Abrol & K.L. Handa) [From Anderson 1980]

Choudhury, A.M. (1971) Chemistry and Industry, 578. “Total Synthesis of (±)-Gigantine and its O-Methyl Ether.”

Choulis, N.H. (1967) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 56 (2): 196–199. “Separation and Quantitative Determination of Adrenaline using Thin-Layer Chromatography”

Chow, S.Y. et al. (1977) Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi (Journal of the Formosan Medical Association), 76 (12): 916–925. . [Pharmacological studies of Chinese herbs (6): Pharmacological effects of Epiphyllum oxypetalum Haw.] (article is in Chinese) (S.Y. Chow, C.F. Chen & S.M. Chen) [from Aardvark 2006]

Christenson, James G. et al. (1972) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 69 (2): 343–347. “On the Identity of DOPA Decarboxylase and 5-Hydroxytryptophan Decarboxylase.” [With Wallace Dairman and Sidney Udenfriend]

Christiansen, A. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 136: 31–37. “Changes in spider webs brought about by mescaline, psilocybin and an increase in body weight.” (Arnold Christiansen, Ricarda Baum & Peter N. Witt)

Church, A.C. et al. (1976) Psychopharmacology 47: 49–52. “Salsolinol differentially affects mice selected for sensitivity to alcohol.” (A.C. Church, J.L. Fuller & B.C. Dudek)

Church, A.C. et al. (1977) Drug & Alcohol Dependency, 2: 443–452. “Behavioral effects of salsolinol and ethanol on mice selected for sensitivity to alcohol-induced sleep time.” (A.C. Church, J.L. Fuller & B.C. Dudek)

Chweitzer, A. & E. Geblewicz (1938) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 128: 867–868. “L’action de la mescaline sur la coloration du Cyprin bronzé.”

Chweitzer, A. et al. (1936) L’Année psychologique (Paris) 37: 94–119. “Étude de l’Électroencéphalogramme Humain dans un cas D’Intoxication Mescalinique.” (A. Chweitzer, E. Geblewicz & W. Liberson)

Chweitzer, A. et al. (1937) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 124:1296–1299. “Action de la mescaline sur les ondes α (rythme de Berger) chez l’homme.” (A. Chweitzer, E. Geblewicz & W. Liberson)

Ciaranello, RD. et al. (1969) Nature, 221 (5178): 368–369.  “Enzymatic synthesis of adrenaline in mammalian brain.” (R.D. Ciaranello, R.E. Barchas, G.S. Byers, D.W. Stemmle & J.D. Barchas)

Cjuno. M. et al. (2007) Quepo,  21: 32–38. “Estudio del Echinopsis schoenii.” (Mijail Cjuno, Jorge Choquenaira & Carlos Serrano)

Cjuno, M. et al. (2009) Quepo,  23: 38–45. “El género Trichocereus, Ecología y Contenido Mescalínico.” (Mijail Cjuno, Jorge Choquenaira, Policarpo Quispe, Carlos Serrano & Ciro Tomaylla)

Clark, L.C. et al. (1954) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 13 (1): 27, entry # 87. “Effect of mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related compounds on respiratory enzyme activity of brain homogenates.” [Abstract of a paper presented to the American Physiological Society: 72nd meeting; Atlantic City, New Jersey, April 12–16, 1954.] (L.C. Clark, Jr., R.P. Fox, F. Benington and R. Morin.)

Clark, L.C. et al. (1964) Alabama Journal of Medical Sciences. 1: 417

Clark, L.C. et al. (1965) Journal of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 8 (3): 353–355. “The Effects of Ring-Methoxyl Groups on Biological Deamination of Phenethylamines.” (Leland C. Clark Jr., Frederick Benington & Richard D. Morin)

Clark, W. Dennis & Bruce D. Parfitt (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 1856–1857. “Flower Flavonoids of Opuntia Series Opuntiae.”

Clark, W.D. et al. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2042–2043. “Flower Flavonoids of Opuntia Subgenus Cylindropuntia.” (W. Dennis Clark, G.K. Brown & R.L. Mays)

Clarke, E.G.C. (1957) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (3): 187–192. “Microchemical identification of some less common alkaloids.”

Clarke, E.G.C. (ed.) (1969) Isolation and Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Post-Mortem Materials. London: The Pharmaceutical Press.

Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Post-Mortem Materials. Second Edition. London: The Pharmaceutical Press (1986) [Posthumous revision of Clarke’s classic.]

Clarke, E.C.G. & M. Williams (1955) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7: 255–262. “Microchemical Tests for the Identification of Alkaloids.”

Clarke, John Henry (1900) A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica, Volume 1, Homoeopathic Publishing Company.

Clarke, John Henry (2005) A Dictionary of Practical
Materia Medica
, Volumes 1-3, South Asia Books, ISBN-10 8131902617, ISBN-13 9788131902615, 2616 pages.
Also was reprinted in 1986 as: A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica, 3 volumes. Jain Publishers. ISBN-10 8170210135, ISBN-13 9788170210139. 736 pages

Claude, Henri & Henri Ey (1934) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 115: 838–841. “La Mescaline, substance hallucinogène.”

Clavijero, Francisco Javier (1789) Historia de la antigua ó Baja California, Four Volumes. Venice. Reprinted in 1852 by Impr. de J.R. Navarro (México) and in 1970 by Miguel Leon-Portilla (México).

Clayson, David B. (1949) Journal of the Chemical Society, 2016–2019. “Reduction of cotarnine and certain derivatives thereof.”

Clement, B.A. et al. (1997) Phytochemistry, 46 (2): 249–254. “Toxic Amines and Alkaloids From Acacia berlandieri,” (Beverly A. Clement, Christina M. Goff & David A. Forbes) [Paper needs to be regarded with reservations until answers are forthcoming about problems concerning their purported reference standards.]

Clement, B.A. et al. (1998) Phytochemistry, 49 (5): 1377–1380. “Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Acacia rigidula.” (Beverly A. Clement, Christina M. Goff & David A. Forbes) [Paper needs to be regarded with reservations until answers are forthcoming about problems concerning their purported reference standards.]

Clemente, Emmett & Vincent de Paul Lynch (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (1): 72–78. “In Vitro Action of Mescaline. Possible Mode of Action.”

Clerc, A. et al. (1935) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées 119: 828–830. “Etude expérimentale du chlorohydrate de peyotline.” (A. Clerc, M.-M. Janot & R. Paris)

Clerc, A. et al. (1936) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées 121: 1300–1302. “Contribution à l’étude experimentale du sulfate de mescaline.” (A. Clerc, R. Paris & M.-M. Janot)

Cobo, Barnabé (1653) Historia del Nuevo Mundo 1 (Book 5): pages 450–451: Comments on Huachuma.

Cobo, Father Bernabe (1956) “ ‘Historia del Nuevo Mundo.’ Obras del. P. Bernabe Cobo”, Vols. 1 and 2, Edited by P. Francisco Mateo. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Vol. 91 and 92. [Vol. 91, Page 205] [Also in 1964 Madrid: Ediciones Atlas.] [From Sharon 1978 & Polia] Also 4 volumes published 1890–1893 Seville; [from LaBarre] Written 1653.

Cobo, Father Bernabe (1956) “ ‘Historia del Nuevo Mundo.’ Obras del. P. Bernabe Cobo”, Vols. 1 and 2, Edited by P. Francisco Mateo. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Vol. 91 and 92. [Vol. 91, Page 205] [Also in 1964 Madrid: Ediciones Atlas.] [From Sharon 1978 & Polia] Also 4 volumes published 1890–1893 Seville; [from LaBarre] Written in 1653.

Cobo, Fr. Bernabe (1891–1893) Historia del Nuevo Mundo. Seville [from Yacovleff & Herrrera 1935]

Coch Frugoni, Juan A. (1956? 1958?) Anales. Facultad de Química. [y farmacia (?)], Universidad de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, in press] [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [From CA (1959) 53: 1633c which gives as Anales fac. quím. y farm, Univ. rep. oriental Uruguay.] Given by Marini-Bettòlo and Coch-Frugoni (1956) as (1956) Anal. Fac. Chim. y Farm. (Montevideo) 5: (in press). [Also in CA (1958) 52: 653c as “in press”] Unable to locate the specifics of when this was published. J.A. Coch Frugoni published a handful of papers during the next few years (several in the Journal of Chromatography,) but this one has not been found anywhere (so far). [For those who wish to pursue this, CITES lists him as J.A.C. Frugoni.]

Coch Frugoni, Juan A. (1956?) Anales. Facultad de Química. [y farmacia (?)], Universidad de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, in press] [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [From 1959 CA 53: 1633c which gives as Anales fac. quím. y farm, Univ. rep. oriental Uruguay. ] Given by Marini-Bettòlo & Coch-Frugoni 1956 as (1956) Anal. Fac. Chim. y Farm. (Montevideo) 5: (in press). [Also in 1958 CA 52: 653c as being “in press” ]

Cochin, J. et al. (1951) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 101 (2): 205–209. “The absorption, distribution and urinary excretion of mescaline in the dog.” [J. Cochin, L.A. Woods and M.H. Seevers]

Cocolas, G.H. et al. (1971) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 60 (11): 1749–1752. “Preparation and activity of -substituted acetylcholine iodides.” (G.H. Cocolas, E.L. Robinson, W.L. Dewey & T.C. Spaulding)

Coe, Michael D. & Gordon Whittaker (1982) Aztec Sorcerers in Seventeenth Century Mexico. The Treatise on Superstitions by Hernando Ruiz de Alarcón. “First Tract. Chapter 6. “Of the Superstition of the Ololiuqui.”

Cohen, G. & M.A. Collins (1970) Science, 167: 1749–1751. “Alkaloids from catecholamines in adrenal tissue: Possible role in alcoholism.”

Cohen, I. & W.H. Vogel (1970) Experientia, 26/11: 1231–1232. “An assay Procedure for Mescaline and its Determination in Rat Brain, Liver and Plasma.”

Cohen, M.M. et al. (1967) New England Journal of Medicine, 227: 1043. “In vivo and in vitro chromosomal damage induced by LSD-25.” (M.M. Cohen, K. Horshhorn & W.A. Frosch) [Claimed damage]

Cohen, M.M. et al. (1968) Science, 155: 1417. “Chromosomal
damage in human leukocytes induced by lysergic acid
diethylamide.” (M.M. Cohen, M. Marinello & N. Bach) [Claimed damage]

Cohen, S. et al. (eds.) (1985) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 17 (4): [Whole issue] “LSD in retrospect.” (S. Cohen, S. Krippner, E.L. Zerkin & J.H. Novey) [Social and clinical review]

Colasanti, B. & N. Khazan (1975) Psychopharmacologia, 43 (3): 201-205. “Electroencephalographic studies on the development of tolerance and cross tolerance to mescaline in the rat.”

Cole, D.T. (1995) Setswana – Animals and Plants. Botswana Society: Gaborone. [From Hargreaves 1998]

Cole, L.K. et al. (1975) Mycologia, 67: 701–708. “Antifungal properties of the insect alarm pheromones citral, 2-heptanone, and 4-methyl-3-heptanone.” (L.K. Cole, M.S. Blum & R.W. Roncadori) [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Collier, Donald (1929) (US Congress) Senate Committe on Indian Affairs, 34: 18234–18255. “Peyote, A General Study of the Plant, the Cult and the Drug.”

Collins, A.C. et al. (1973) Biochemical Pharmacology, 22: 2337–2348. “Dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids-inhibitors of neuroamine metabolism.” (A.C. Collins, J.L. Cashaw and V.E. Davis)

Collins, M. A. (1977) “Identification of isoquinolines alkaloids during alcohol intoxication.” pp. 155–166 in K. Blum (ed.), Alcohol and Opiates. Neurochemical and Behavioural Mechanisms, Academic Press, New York, NY.

Collins, Michael A. (1988) Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 387–403. “Acetaldehyde and Its Condensation Products as Markers in Alcoholism.”

Collins, Michael A. (1979) “Neuroamine condensation in human subjects.” in H. Begleiter (ed.) Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies.

Collins, M.A. & M.G. Bigdeli (1975) Life Sciences, 16: 585–601. “Tetrahydroisoquinolines in vivo. I. Rat brain formation of salsolinol, a condensation product of dopamine and acetaldehyde, under certain conditions during ethanol intoxication.”

Collins, M.A. & C.D. Weiner (1977) “Studies on the effects of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives of catecholamines and aldehydes on tyrosine hydroxylase.” 3: 511–519 in R.G. Thurman (ed.) Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing Systems. Academic Press: NY.

Collins, M.A. et al. (1979) Science, 206: 1184–1186. “Dopamine-related Tetrahydroisoquinolines: Significant Urinary Excretion by Alcoholics after Alcohol Consumption.” (M.A. Collins, W.P. Nijim, G.F. Borge & G. Teas).

Colomb, D. (1939) Contribution à l’étude pharmacologique de la mescaline. Lyon. 80 pp.

Cook, L. & E. Weidley (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 66 (3): 740–752. “Behavioral effects of some psychopharmacological agents.”

Cooper, M. et al. (2013) Strength Testing and Material Characterization of Cactus Spines. Senior Project, Materials Engineering Department California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 26 pages. (Mary Cooper, Jeff Goldstein, Tom Tarlton)

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1977) “Chavín art: Its shamanic/hallucinogenic origins.” In Alana Cordy-Collins & Jean Stearn (eds.) Pre-Columbian Art History: Selected Readings.” Peek Publications, pp. 353–362.

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1980) The Masterkey, 54: 84–93. “An artistic record of the Chavín hallucinatory experience.”

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1982) The Journal of Ethnobiology, 2 (2): 144–153. “Psychoactive painted Peruvian plants. The shamanism textile.”

Correa, M. et al. (2012) Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (1): 404–430. “Piecing together the puzzle of acetaldehyde as a neuroactive agent.” (M. Correa, J.D. Salamone, K.N. Segovia, M. Pardo, R. Longoni, L. Spina, A.T. Peana, S. Vinci& E. Acquas)

Correll, Donovan Stewart & Marshall Corning Johnson (1970) Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation; Renner, Texas

“Correspondent requesting anonymity” indicates people sharing bioassay information and/or analytical data but wisely requesting their identities be omitted due to the current state of illegality for both mescaline possession and usage. The Entheogen Review contains the published accounts; personal communications with the bioassayist(s) were the source for the others

Cortes, M. et al. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 849–850. “Cactaceae. Isolation of Candicine From Trichocereus chilensis.

Corti, Ulrich A. (1949) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 32 (3): 681–686. “Über Ergebnisse der Methylierung von Tyrosin mit Dimethylsulfat und einige Derivate des N-Methyltyramins.”

Costa, Erminio (1956)a Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 91 (1): 39–41. [Abstract; entry 22163] “Effects of Hallucinogenic and Tranquilizing Drugs on Serotonin Evoked Uterine Contractions.”

Costa, Erminio (1956)b Psychiatric Research Reports [Amer. Psychiatr. Ass.] 4: 11–13. [CA (1956) 50: 14120c-d.] “The effect of hallucinogenic and tranquilizing drugs on the serotonin-evoked uterine contractions.”

Coulter, John M. (1891) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 2 (1): 1–152. “Manual of the Plants of Western Texas.” [Peyote: page 129]

Coulter, John M. (1894) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 3 (3): 91–132. “Preliminary revision of the North American species of Cactus, Anhalonium, and Lophophora.” [Peyote: pages 131–132]

Coutts, R.T. et al. (1980) Res. Commun. chem. Path. Pharmac. 28: 177–184. [from Clarke 1986]

Cowdry, R.W. & F.K. Goodwin (1978) p. 281, in: R.L. Spitzer & D.F. Klein (eds.) Clinical Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Raven Press, New York.

Cover, Kimberly (2005) Sustainability of the Sacrament: A study of perspectives. 26 page manuscript.

Cowdry, R.W. & F.K. Goodwin (1978) p. 281, in: R.L. Spitzer & D.F. Klein (eds.) Clinical Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Raven Press, New York 1978.

Crawford, Albert C. & Walter K. Watanabe (1914) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 19: 303–304. “Parahydroxyphenethylamine, a pressor compound in an American mistletoe.” [from Durand et al. 1962]

Crawford, Albert C. & Walter K. Watanabe (1916) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 24: 169–172. “The occurrence of p-hydroxyphenylethylamine in various mistletoes.” [from Durand et al. 1962]

Crawford, T.B.B. & Celia M. Yates (1970) British Journal of Pharmacology, 38: 56–71. “A method for the estimation of the catecholamines and their metabolites in brain tissue.”

CRC (1980–1981) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 61st Edition. Weast (ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl. ISBN 0-8493-0461-X.

Crema, A. (1953) Bolletino della società italiana di biologia sperimentale, 29: 1520–1522. “Valutazione quantitativa dell’azzione dei farmaci sulla funzionalità vestibolare, III. Neurotosicita della mescalina.”

Creutzberg, Ulrich (2010) Gymnocalycium Taxa 2010-01. (PDF: http://uc.privat.t-online.de/Taxa.pdf) At http://www.creutzburg-info.de/ along with much more information. Based on Ulrich Creutzburg  (2006) Gymnocalycium Taxa. extraction and update of Metzing, Meregall, Kiesling (1995) Allonia, 33: 181-228. “An annotated checklist of the genus Gymnocalycium Pfeiffer ex Mittler (Cactaceae).”

Creveling, C.R. et al. (1962) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 64 (1): 125–134. “Substrates and Inhibitors of Dopamine-β-oxidase.” [Cyrus R. Creveling, John W. Daly, Bernhard Witkop and Sidney Udenfriend.]

Crichtly, M. (1931) British Journal of Inebriety, 28 (3): 99–108. “Some Forms of Drug Addiction: Mescalism.”

Crockett, Earl & Alexander T. (“Sasha”) Shulgin 1999 (Personal communication; unpublished findings)

Croizat, Leon (1943–1945) Desert Plant Life, 15: 116–120, 138–140, 152–154; 16: 7–10, 37–38, 43–44, 53–55, 90–93, 103–108, 118–122, 139–143, 150–156; 17: 11–16, 28–29. “A study of the genus Lophophora.”

Crosby, D.M. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973) Lloydia, 36 (4): 416–418. “Cactus Alkaloids. XIX. Crystallization of Mescaline HCl and 3-Methoxytyramine from Trichocereus pachanoi.”

Crosswhite, M. (1992) Ecology of the Arizona hedgehog cactus. (Unpublished manuscript prepared for Cedar Creek Associates, Inc. July 1992.) 16 pp. (cited by USFWS 2001)

Crout, R.J. (1961) Std. Method Clin. Chem. 3: 62.

Crout, J.R. et al. (1961) Journal of Phamacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 132: 269 “Norepinephrine metabolism in rat brain and heart.” (J.R. Crout, C.B. Creveling & S. Udenfriend) WHY IS THIS ENTRY NOT COMPLETE

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948) “Estudio Farmacologico de la Opuntia cylindrica.” PhD Thesis; Instituto de Farmacologia y Terapeutica Universidad Nacionale Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. (Trichocereus pachanoi misidentified as Opuntia cylindrica) (pp. 10–36) 27 pages

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948)a Revista de la Farmacologia y Medicina Experimental, (Lima) 1 (2): 253–258. “Informe sobre las aplicaciones de la Cimora en el norte del Perú.” [also given as 253ff]

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948)b Revista de la Farmacologia y Medicina Experimental, (Lima) 1: 143-?. “Farmacología de ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.” [From Gutiérrez-Noriega; also given elsewhere as 143ff]

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1951) Revista de medicina experimental, 8 (1): 159–166. “Estudio Folklórico de Algunas Plantas Medicamentosas y Tóxicas de la Región Norte del Perú.”

Csokán (1942) Z. Anal. Chem. 124: 344

Cucchi, A. (1939) Rivista sperimentale di Freniatria, 63: 393–404. “Azione della mescalina sul profilo psicologico.”

Culbreth, David M.R. (1927 ) A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology. 7th edition. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

Curtis 1847 See as Hooker 1847

Cybulski, T. (1935) Med. Dosw. Spoleczna, 20: 126 [CA (1936) 30: 30927]

Cymerman Craig, J. et al. (1977) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 99 (24): 7996–8002. “Chiroptical Properties of 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines. A Semi-empirical Quadrant Rule Based on One-Electron Theory.” (J. Cymerman Craig, S.-Y. Catharine Lee, Rosalind P.K. Chan and Irene Y.-F. Wang)

d’Azevedo, Warren (1978) Straight With the Medicine: Narratives of Washoe Followers of the Tipi Way. Heyday Books (Quick). ISBN 0-930588-19-3. 61 pages.

D’Harcourt, Raoul (1939) La Médicine dans l’Ancien Pérou. Librairie Maloine, Paris. (D’Harcourt 1939 also includes a very unmistakeable example of fellatio.)

da Silva, Bernadete & José P. Parente (2002) Planta Medica, 68 (1): 74–76. “Chemical properties and biological activity of a polysaccharide from Melocactus depressus.”

Daiker, F.H. (1914) Report of the Thirty-Second Annual Lake Mohonk Conference on the Indian and Other Dependent Peoples, 62–68. “Liquor and peyote a menace to the Indian”

Daly, John et al. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 37–43. “Methylation and Demethylation in Relation to the IN VITRO Metabolism of Mescaline.” (John Daly, Julius Axelrod and Bernhard Witkop)

Dammert Bellido, José (1974) Allpanchis Phuturinqa (Cusco) 9: 179–200. “Procesos por Supersticiones en la Provincia de Cajamarca en la Segunda Mitad del Siglo XVIII.” [From Sharon 1978]

Dandiya, P.C. & M.K. Menon (1965) Life Sciences. 4 (17): 1635–1641. “Interaction of Asarone with Mescaline, Amphetamine and Tremorine.” [Asarone appeared to antagonize all aspects of mescaline intoxication.]

Daniel, James (Jim) E. (1999) (Personal communication with J. Hanna during June)

Darth, Chewbacca (1977) The Whole Drug Manufacturers Catalog. (Prophet Press) [Primarily a complation of Irv Penkethman’s literature and anything else they could find]

Datta, R.K. & J.J. Ghosh (1970)a Biochemical Journal, 117: 961–968. “Mescaline-Induced Changes of Brain-Cortex Ribosomes. Effect of Mescaline on the Stability of Brain-Cortex Ribosomes.” [similar effects have also been noted with stimulant drugs, antidepressants and convulsants.]

Davet, Aline (2005) MS dissertation in pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil. “Estudo Fitoquímico e Biológico do Cacto – Cereus jamacaru DeCandolle, CACTACEAE.”

Davis, Bruce (1989) Journal of Chromatography, 466: 89–218. “Review. Biogenic amines and Their Metabolites in Body Fluids of Normal, Psychiatric and Neurological Subjects”

Davis, D.V. et al. (1983) Analytical Chemistry, 55 (8): 1302–1305. “Identification of Naturally Occurring Quaternary Compounds by Combined Laser Desorption and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” (D.V. Davis, R.G. Cooks, B.N. Meyer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Davis, E. et al. (1970) Federation Proceedings of the American Society for Experimental Biology (Abstracts) p. 454. “Alteration of Flash-Induced Responses by Intra-carotid Administration of Harmine.”

Davis, E. Wade (1983) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 29 (4): 367–386. “Sacred Plants of the San Pedro Cult.”

Davis, E. Wade (1997) One River. Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest, (First edition in 1996) Touchstone: New York. 537 pages ISBN 0-684-80886-2 (hard)/ 0-684-83496-0 (pbk.)

Davis, E. Wade (1999) Shaman’s Drum, 52: 50–60. “San Pedro, Cactus of the Four Winds.”

Davis, Leslie B. (1961) Studies in Plains Anthropology and History, 1: 1–5. “Peyotism and the Blackfeet Indians of Montana: An Historical Assessment.”

Davis, M. (1987) Psychopharmacology, 93 (3): 286–291. “Mescaline: excitory effects on acoustic startle are blocked by serotonin2 antagonists.”

Davis, Virginia E. & Michael J. Walsh (1970) Science, 167: 1005–1007. “Alcohol, Amines and Alkaloids: A Possible Biochemical Basis for Alcohol Addiction.”

Davis, W.M. et al. (1978) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 45 (1): 49–62. “Acute Toxicity and Gross Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine, Four Methoxyamphetamines, and Mescaline in Rodents, Dogs and Monkeys.” (W.M. Davis, J.A. Bedford, J.L. Buelke, M.M. Guinn, H.T. Hatoum, I.W. Waters, M.C. Wilson & M.C. Braude)

Dawborne, J.S. (1972) Organic Mass Spectrometry, 6: 211-215. “The electron-impact-induced fragmentation of some methylated histamines.”

Dawider, A.A. & M.B.E. Fayez (1961) J. Chem. United Arab Rep. 4: 145–147. “Identification of β-Sitosterol in Opuntia ficus-indica.” [from 1961 CA 56: 9121g]

de Alarcón, Hernando Ruiz (1892) “Tratado de las
supersticíones y costumbres gentílicas…de esta Nueva
España. Año 1629.
” Museo Nacional, Mexico. 124 pages. See also as de Alarcón, Hernando Ruiz (1898, 1900) Anales del Museo Nacional de Mexico, Volume 6: 123–223. “Tratado de las supersticíones y costumbres gentilicas, 1629.” See also the translation into English by Coe & Whittaker 1982

Deacon, W. & H.V. Marsh Jr. (1971) Phytochemistry, 10: 2915–2924. “Properties of an enzyme from bananas (Musa sapientum) which hydroxylatestyramine to dopamine.”

Dean, R.A. et al. (1980) Life Sciences, 27: 403–413. “A sensitive radioenzymatic assay for the simultaneous determination of salsolinol and dopamine.” (R.A. Dean, D.P. Henry, R.R. Bowsher & R.B. Forney)

Dean, W. et al. (1998) GHB: The Natural Mood Enhancer. The authoritative guide to its responsible use. Smart Publications [www.smart-publications.com] (Ward Dean, MD, John Morgenthaler & Steven Wm. Fowkes] Appropriately billed as “The book the FDA & DEA don’t want you to read!” Buy extra copies and send them to your state and federal representatives.

Decker, Herman & Paul Becker (1913) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 395 (3): 362–377. “Mitteilung VI. Über die quaternären Salze der Alkylidenamine und eine allgemeine Methode der Alkylierung primärer Amine zu sekundären.”

De Cordoba, José (2004) Wall Street Journal (12 May) pages 1 & A10. “Down in Texas Scrub ‘Peyoteros’ Stalk Their Elusive Prey. Rare Cactus Buttons Play Role in Native American Rites: Visions and All-Nighters.”

Deegan, John F. & Leonard Cook (1958) Journal of
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
, 122: 17A. “A study of the anti-mescaline property of a series of CNS active agents in mice.” (Abstract of paper from American Society for
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Abel
Centennial Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, Sept. 4–7, 1957.)

de Farias Freire, S.M., et al. (1996) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 48: 624–628. “Sympathomimetic Effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and Catecholamines Isolated from Plant Extracts.” (Sonia Maria de Farias Freire, Luce Maria Brandão Torres, Caden Souccar & Antonia José Lapa)

De Feo, Vincenzo (2000) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 85: 243–256. “Ethnomedical field study on northern Peruvian Andes with particular reference to divination practices.”

De Graffe, Bertha L. (1896) American Journal of Pharmacy,
68: 169–177 plus 1 plate. “Opuntia vulgaris.” (from
Hobschette 1929)

Deimel, Calus (1980) Tarahumara. Syndikat: Frankfurt.

Deimel, Calus (1985) Schreibheft, 25: 155–163. “Die Peyoteheilung der Tarahumara.”

Deimel, Calus (1986) “Der Heilsame Rausch.” pp. 86–87 in Geo Special #2 “Mexico

Deimel, Calus (1996) “Hikuri ba – Peyoteriten der
Tarahumara.
” Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum (Ansichten der Ethnologie 1): Hannover.

Deitrich, R. & V. Erwin (1980) Annual Review of Pharmacology
and Toxicology
, 25: 55–80. “Biogenic Amine-Aldehyde
Condensation Products: Tetrahydroisoquinolines and
Tryptolines (β-Carbolines).”

De Jongh, H.H. (1945) Experimental Catatonia. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkin’s Co.

DeKorne, Jim (1994) Psychedelic Shamanism, Loompanics.

DeKorne, Jim (1996) Ayahuasca Analogs and Plant-based Tryptamines (The Best of the Entheogen Review, 1992–1996) 58 pages. The Entheogen Review, El Rito, NM

DeKorne, Jim (1997) Entheogen Review, 6 (2): 12. “Night-
Blooming Cereus.”

Delay, Jean & H.P. Gerard (1948) L’Encéphale et l’Hygiène Mentale, Paris, 37 (7): 196–235, “L’intoxication mescalinique expérimentale.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1949) Vol. 2, No. 8; entry #2491.]

Delay, Jean & H.P. Gerard (1950) Clin. des Maladies
Mentales et de l’Encéphale à ‘Hóp. Sainte-Anne
, Paris, 39 (1): 55–63, with 1 illustration; “Les Illusions de la mescaline.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII (1951) Vol. 4, No. 2: Entry #732.]

Delay, Jean & Jean Thuillier (1956) Comptes Rendus
Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences
242: 3138–3140. “Potentialisation de la 5-hydroxytryptamine (sérotonine) par des molécules psychotoniques dérivées de la phényléthylamine.”

Delay, J. et al. (1949)a Annales médico-psychologiques,
2: 427–429. “Les nouvelles chimothérapies de l’alcoolisme.” (J. Delay, P. Pichot & J. Thuillier)

Delay, J. et al. (1949)b Presse Médicale, 57: 1210–1211.
“Illusions et hallucinations de la mescaline.” (J. Delay, H.P. Gerard and D. Hallaix) [From Excerpta Medica. Delay et al. 1950 lists this article as Delay & Gerard (1949) Presse Médicale, 81: 1-210.]

Delay, J. et al. (1950) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 144: 163. “Toxicité aiguë du sulfate de mescaline et antidotisme du succinate de sodium.” (Jean Delay, H.P. Gerard & Jean Thuillier)

Delay, J. et al. (1951) Clin. des Maladies Mentales et de l’Encéphale à ‘Hóp. Sainte-Anne, Paris, 40 (1): 1–10, “Les synthesthésies dans l’intoxication mescalinique.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1951) Vol. 4, No. 10; entry # 3852.] Journal also listed simply as “l’Encéphale,“ (J. Delay, H.P. Gerard, and P.C. Racamier)

Delay, J. et al. (1956) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 150: 512–513. “Antagonisme de la mescaline et de la chloropromazine.” (J. Delay, P. Deniker, M. Ropert & J. Thuillier)

Delgado Pang, Hildegard (1992) Pre-Columbian Art.

Delphant, J. & M. Lanza (1960) Journal de Physiologie (Paris), 52 (1): 70–71. “Action comparative de la mescaline, du L.S.D. 25 et de la yagéine sur la température centrale du Rat.”

De Melo, A.C. et al. (1973) Ciência e Cultura, 25 (7): 644–647. “Cross-tolerance studies among nutmeg compounds, (-) Δ9— Trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and mescaline.” (A. Cesário De Melo, E.A. Carlini & Jack Peter Green)

Demish, L. & M. Neubauer (1979) Psychopharmacology 64 (3): 361–363. “Stimulation of human prolactin secretion by mescaline.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1955) Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 433–438. “Studies on mescaline III Action in epileptics: Clinical observations and effects on brain wave patterns.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1956) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 124: 74–77. “Studies on mescaline, VII. The role of anxiety in the mescaline-induced state and its influence on the therapeutic result.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1957) “Drug-Induced States resembling Naturally Occurring Psychoses.” pp. 26–35 in Garattini & Ghetti

Denber, Herman C.B. (1958) p. 120 in Max Rinkel & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) Chemical Concepts of Psychoses. McDowell-Obolonsky, NY

Denber, Herman C.B. (1959) “Studies on Mescaline IX: Comparative action of various drugs on the mescaline-induced state.” in J. Masserman (ed.) Biological Psychiatry. Grune and Stratton [from Denber et al. 1962]

Denber, Herman C.B. (1961) Psychiatric Quarterly, 35: 18–48. “Studies on mescaline, XI. Biochemical findings during the mescaline-induced state, with observations on the blocking action of different psychotropic drugs.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1964) Rivista Neurobiologica, 10: 1157–1168. [Suppl.] “Studies with mescaline.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1954) Psychiatric Quarterly, 28: 635–640. “A note on some therapeutic implications of the mescaline induced state.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)a Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 463–469. “Studies on Mescaline, VI. Therapeutic Aspects of the Mescaline-Chlorpromazine Combination.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)a Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 463–469. “Studies on Mescaline, VI. Therapeutic Aspects of the Mescaline-Chlorpromazine Combination.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)b [or 1956a] Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 421–429. “Studies on mescaline I: Action in schizophrenic patients [before and after electroconvulsive treatment].”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1956)b “Studies on mescaline IV: Antagonism between mescaline and chlorpromazine.” in Nathan S. Kline (ed.) Psychopharmacology. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publ. No. 42. Washington, DC.

Denber, Herman C.B. & David N. Teller (1968) Agressologie, (England), 9 (1): 127–136. “Mescaline. XVIII. Effect of Phenothiazines, amphetamine, and amobarbital sodium on uptake into brain and viscera.” [from (1968) CA 68: 113189r]

Denber, Herman C.B. & David N. Teller (1969) Pharmacologist 11: 291.

Denber, Herman C.B. & Max Rinkel (eds.) (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 423–451. “Psychodynamic and Therapeutic Aspects of Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide. Round Table.”

Denber, Herman C.B. et al. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 120 (1): p. 87. “Studies on mescaline: its action on the clinical and brainwave patterns of schizophrenics.” [Abstract of paper presented to the NewYork Neurological Society and NewYork Academy of Medicine, Section on Neurology and Psychiatry. Dec. 8, 1953.] (Herman C.B. Denber, Sidney Merlis and Wallace Hunter)

Denber, Herman C.B. et al. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 14–36. “Studies on mescaline. XIII. The effect of prior administration of various psychotropic drugs on different biochemical parameters: a preliminary report.” (Herman C.B. Denber, David N. Teller, Paul Rajotte & Dorothy Kaufman)

Deniker, Pierre (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 427–431. “Biological changes in man following intravenous administration of mescaline.”

De Nito, G. (1934) Rassegna di Terapia e Patologia Clinica, 6 (10): 577–594. “Richerche tossicologiche e farmacologiche sulla mescalina.” [See also in CA (1937) 31: 39944]

De Nito, G. (1935) Berichte über die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmacologie, 84: p. 511. [“Toxicology and Pharmacology of Mescaline.”] [Abstract of De Nito 1934]

Densmore, Frances (1929) Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 90. “Papago Music.” [from Bruhn 1971b]

Densmore, Frances (1932) Winnebago Songs of the Peyote Ceremony. (US Bureau of American Ethnology, Manuscript 3261).

Densmore, Frances (1936) Southwest Museum Papers, (Los Angeles) 10: 15–23, 82–93. “Cheyenne and Arapahoe Music.”

Densmore, Frances (1938) American Anthropologist, 40: 175–177. “The influence of hymns on the form of Indian songs.”

Densmore, Frances (1941) American Anthropologist, 43: 77–82. “Native songs of two hybrid ceremonies among the American Indians.”

Densmore, Frances (nd) Winnebago Songs. (Bureau of American Ethnology, Manuscript 1971. nd).

De Oliveira, Arildo José Braz & Maria de Fátima Pires Da Silva Machado (2003) Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 104 (2): 149–155. “Alkaloid Production by Callous Tissue Cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae)” (In citation indexes as De Oliveira, A.J. & M.F. Machado 2003)

Der Marderosia, Ara (1966) American Journal of Pharmacy 138 (5): 204–212. “Current Status of Hallucinogens in the Cactaceae”

De Salva, S. & R. Evans (1960) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 125: 348–354. “Continuous intravenous infusion of strychnine in rats. II. Antagonism by various drugs.”

De Silva; See under Silva.

DeSmet, A.G.M. Peter (1999) Herbs, Health, Healers. Africa as Ethnopharmacological Treasury. Afrika Museum; Berg en Dal, Netherlands. ISBN 90-71611-09-4. 180 pages

DeSmet, Peter A.G.M. (1996) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 50: 141–146. “Some ethnopharmacological notes on African hallucinogens.”

Desoille, H. (1938) Revue d’oto-neuro ophtalmogie, 16: 136–138. “Remarque sur le mode de formation des hallucinations provoquées par le peyotl (expériences personelles).”

Dessi, Pietro (1950) Farmaco Scienze e Technica, 5: 32–38. “Sul dossagio fotometrico della mescalina e simpanina col reattivo di Richter.”

Dessi, Pietro & C. Rizzoli (1948) Bolletino. Societe Italiano di Biologia Sperimentale, 24: 1250–1254. “Sul dosaggio della 3:4:5:trimetossifenilethamina in soluzioni acquose nell’urina e nel sangue.” [“Testing of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine in aqueous solutions, urine and blood.”]

Dessi, Pietro & Giuseppe Labó (1950) La Ricerca Scientifica, 20 (12): 1831–1842. “Contributo allo studio farmacologico delle interazioni dell’aneurina con alcuni farmaci del sistema neurovegetativo.”

Dessi, Pietro & Tullio Franco (1949) Bolletino. Societe Italiano di Biologia Sperimentale, 25: 1368–1370. Applicazione della reazione di Beyer e Skinner al dosaggio fotometrico della mescalina e dell’istamina. – 1) Curve d’assorbimento nel visible.” [“Application of the Beyer and Skinner reaction to photometric determination of mescaline and histamine.”]

Deulofeu, V. (1935) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 237: 171–172. “Adrenaline in the venom of Bufo arenarum.”

Deulofeu, Venancio (1973) Ciência e Cultura, 25 (7): 649–659 “Distribution of indolethylamines and β-carbolines in plants.”

Deulofeu, V. & J.R. Mendive (1938) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 534: 288–292. “The poison of an Argentine toad.”

Deulofeu, Venancio & Edmundo A. Rúveda (1971) “The Basic Constituents of Toad Venoms” pp. 475–495, (Ch. 38), in: Wolfgang Bücherl & Eleanor E. Buckley (eds.) Venomous
Animals and their Venoms
. Academic Press/ New York, London.

Devereux, Paul (1997) The Long Trip: A Prehistory of
Psychedelia
. Penguin/ Arkana ISBN 0-14-019540-8. 298 pages.

DeVries, J.X. et al. (1971) Revista Latinoamericana de
Quimica
, 2 (1): 21-23. “Alcaloides de cactos del Uruguay” (Juan X. DeVries, Patrick Moyna, Victor Diaz, Stig Agurell and Jan G. Bruhn) [Have not seen. First three issues missing from our available copy.] [From Mata & McLaughlin 1982, Shulgin & 1971 CA 75: 31357]

Dewhurst , W.G. & E. Marley (1965a) British Journal of Pharmacology, 25: 682–704. “The effects of α-methyl derivatives of noradrenaline, phenethylamine and tryptamine on the central nervous system of the chicken.”

Dewhurst , W.G. & E. Marley (1965b) British Journal of Pharmacology, 25: 705–727. “Action of sympathomimetic and allied amines on the central nervous system in the chicken.”

Dewhurst et al. 1965 in the literature referred to Dewhurst & Marley 1965a

Díaz Medina, E.M. (2007) Food Chemistry, 103: 38–45. “Chemical characterization of Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica fruits.” (E.M. Díaz Medina, E.M. Rodríguez Rodríguez C. Díaz Romero)

Díaz, José Luis (1977) Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 17: 647–675. “Ethnopharmacology of Sacred Hallucinogenic Plants Used by the Indians of Mexican.”

Díaz, José Luis (1979) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 11 (1-2): 71–101. “Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Plants.”

Diaz, P.M. et al. (1968) “Factors modulating brain serotonin turnover.” p. 6 in: Advances in Pharmacology. Part B.
Academic Press. (P.M. Diaz, S.H. Ngai & E. Costa)

Dickson, Darylene (1978) Head, 59–61. “High Profile: The San Pedro Mescaline Cactus.” (Confused T. bridgesii for T. pachanoi)

Digenis, G.A. et al. (1972) Journal of Labelled Compounds, 8 (2): 231-235. “A convenient synthesis of 2-[14C]-hordenine.” (George A. Digenis, J. W. Burkett & V. Mihranian)

Diguet, Léon (1899) Nouvelles archives des missions scientifiques, Vol. IX: pp. 621–625.

Diguet, Léon (1907) Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris, 4 (1): 21-29. “Le “peyote” et son usage rituel chez les Indiens du Nayarit.”

Diguet, Léon (1928) Les Cactacées Utiles du Mexique. Paris: Société nationale d’acclimitation de France. 552 pages

Dill, R.E. et al. (1969) Fed. Proc., Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 28: 776 (Abstract) “The action of sympathomimetic amines on the isolated heart of frog.”

Dimayuga, Rosalba Encarnación (1996) Medicina Tradicional y Popular de Baja California Sur. SEP (Secretaría de Educación Pública), Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, ISBN-10: 9688960675: ISBN-13: 9789688960677, 121 pages

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)a Journal of
Pharmaceutical Sciences.
62 (10): 1663–1666. “Cactus
Alkaloids. XXI. β-Phenethylamines from Dolichothele sphaerica.

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)b Lloydia, 36 (4): 419–421. “Cactus alkaloids. XXII. Dolichothele surculosa and other Dolichothele species.”

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)c Lloydia,
(Proceedings) 439–440. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXI. β-Phenethylamines from Dolichothele sphaerica.”

Dishotsky, N.I. et al. (1971) Science, 172: 431. “LSD and
genetic damage.” (N.I. Dishotsky, W.D. Loughman, R.E. Mogar & W.R. Lipscomb) [Does not cause damage]

Dittman, Allen T. & Harvey C. Moore (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 642–649. “Disturbance in Dreams as Related to Peyotism among the Navajo.”

Divry, P. & H. Evard (1935) Psychiatr. Bl. 39: 58-64 [CA (1937) 31: 80252.] also (1935) Ber. ges. Physiol. exptl. Pharmakol. 88: 156. [“Antagonists to bulbocarpine.”]

Dixon, Walter E. (1899–1900) Journal of Physiology, 25: 69–86. “The Physiological Action of the Alkaloids Derived from Anhalonium Lewinii.” [Most often given as Dixon 1899]

Dixon, W.E. & Edmund White (1898) British Medical Journal, 2: 1060–1061. “A Preliminary Note on the Pharmacology of the Alkaloids Derived from the Mescal Plant.”

Djerassi, Carl (1957) “Cactus Triterpenes”, pp. 330–352; in Festschrift Professor Dr. Arthur Stoll. Birkhäuser, Basel. (Paper XXVI in Djerassi’s “Terpenoids” series) [p. 320 in the literature is a typo.]

Djerassi, Carl & A.E. Lippman (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 5780–5781. “Terpenoids. X. The
Triterpenes of the Cactus Lemaireocereus hystrix.”

Djerassi, Carl & A.E. Lippman (1955) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77: 1825–1828. “Terpenoids. XIII. The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Machaeric Acid and Machaerinic Acid.”

Djerassi, Carl & John S. Mills (1958) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 1236–1243. “Terpenoids. XXXII. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Treleasegenic Acid. Ring Conformational Alterations in a Pentacyclic Triterpene.”

Djerassi, Carl & H.G. Monsimer (1957) Journal of the
American Chemical Society
, 79: 2901-2905. “Terpenoids. XXVII. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Myrtillogenic Acid.”

Djerassi, C. & G.H. Thomas (1954) Chemistry & Industry, 1354. “Terpenoids. XII. The Constitution of the Cactus Triterpene Cochalic Acid.”

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 2254–2256. “Terpenoids. I. The Triterpenes of the Cactus Lemaireocereus Thurberi.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 3632–3635. “Alkaloid Studies I. The Isolation of Pilocereine from the Cactus Lophocereus schottii.” (C. Djerassi, N. Frick & L.E. Geller)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 5940–5942. “Terpenoids. III. The Isolation of Erythrodiol, Oleanolic Acid and a New Triterpene Triol, Longispinogenin, from the Cactus Lemaireocereus longispinus.” (Carl Djerassi, R.M. McDonald & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)a Chemistry and Industry, 161–162. “Terpenoids. IV. “The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Gummosinogenin and Longispinogenin.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 2969–2973. “Terpenoids. VI. Dumortierigenin, a New Triterpene Lactone from the Cactus Lemaireocereus dumortieri.” (Carl Djerassi, Eugene Farkas, A.J. Lemin, J.C. Collins & F. Walls)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76 (12): 3215–3217. “Alkaloid studies. III. Isolation of Pilocereine and Anhalonidine from four cactus species.” (Carl Djerassi, C.R. Smith, S.P. Marfey, R.N. McDonald. A.J. Lemin, S.K. Figdor & H. Estrada)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)d Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 4089–4091. “Terpenoids. VIII. The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Gummosogenin and Longispinogenin.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77 : 484. “Alkaloid Studies V. Synthesis of 1-Isopropyl and 1-Isobutyl-2-methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.” (C. Djerassi, J. J. Beereboom, S. P. Marfey & S. K. Figdor)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)a Chemistry and Industry, 1520–1521. “The Constitution of the Cactus Terpene Queretaroic Acid.” (Carl Djerassi, J.A. Henry, A.J. Lemin & T. Rios) [Terpenoid paper XXI]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77 (5): 1200–1203. “Terpenoids. XI. Investigation of Nine Cactus Species. Isolation of Two New Triterpenes, Stellatogenin and Machaeric Acid” (Carl Djerassi, L.H. Liu, E. Farkas, A.E. Lippman, A.J. Lemin, L.E. Geller, R.N. McDonald & B.J. Taylor)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77: 3579–3582. “Terpenoids. XVI. The Constitution of the Cactus Triterpene Cochalic Acid. Partial Reductions of Methyl Diketoechinocystate.” (Carl Djerassi, G.H. Thomas & H. Monsimer)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78 (10): 2312–2315. “Terpenoids. XXII. Triterpenoids from Some Mexican and South American Plants.” (Carl Djerassi, S. Burnstein, H. Estrada, J. Grossman, J. Herrán, A. Manjarrez & S.C. Pakrashi) [Did not report on any alkaloids but did find several species to be alkaloid devoid]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78: 3783–3787. “Terpenoids. XXIV. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Queretaroic Acid.” (C. Djerassi, J.A. Henry, A.J. Lemin, T. Rios & G.H. Thomas)

Djerassi et al. (1956)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78: 3861–3862. “Alkaloid Studies. XIV.

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)d Journal of Organic Chemistry, 21: 975–978. “Alkaloid Studies. XII. Synthesis of Substituted 1-Isobutyl-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (C. Djerassi, F.X. Markley & R. Ehrlich)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1957)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79: 2203–2210. “Alkaloid Studies. XVII. The Structure of the Cactus Alkaloid Pilocereine.” (Carl Djerassi, S.K. Figdore, J.M. Bobbitt & F.X. Markley)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1957)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79: 3525–3528. “Terpenoids. XXVIII. The Triterpene Composition of the Genus Myrtillocactus.” (Carl Djerassi, S. Burstein, H. Estrada, A.J. Lemin, A.E. Lippman, A. Manjarrez & H.G. Monsimer)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 1005–1006. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol Lophenol. A Link in Sterol Biosynthesis.” (Carl Djerassi, J.S. Mills & Richardo Villottii)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 6284–6292. “The Neutral Constituents of the Cactus Lophocereus schotti. The Structure of Lophenol – 4α-Methyl-Δ7-cholesten-3β-ol – A Link in Sterol Biosynthesis.” (C. Djerassi, G.W. Krakower, A.J. Lemin, Liang H. Liu, J.S. Mills & R. Villottii)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)c Tetrahedron, 2 (1-2): 58-63. “Alkaloid studies. XX. Isolation and structure of two new cactus alkaloids Piloceredine and Lophocereine” [From Lophocereus schotti.]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1961) Chemical Society (London) Proceedings, 450. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol, Peniocerol (Cholest-8-en-3β,6α-diol.” (Carl Djerassi, R.D.H. Murray & R. Villotti)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1962) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 84: 3210–3212. “Alkaloid Studies XXXVIII. Pilocereine – A Trimeric Cactus Alkaloid.” (Carl Djerassi, H.W. Brewer, C. Clark & L.J. Durham)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1963) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 85 (6): 835. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol Macdougallin (14α-Methyl-Δ8-cholestene-3β,6α-diol) – A Novel Link in Sterol Biogenesis.” (Carl Djerassi, J.C. Knight & D. I. Wilkinson)

Dobbie, J.J. & C.K. Tinkler (1904) J. Chem. Soc. 85: 1007.

Dobkin de Rios 1984 was the first edition of Dobkin de Rios 1990

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1969) Mesa Redonda de Ciencias Prehistoricas y Anthropologias. Lima 1: 139–149. “Curandismo psicodélico en el Perú: continuidad y cambio.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1973) Psychiatry: Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Psychiatry. Vol. 2. (Ramon de la Fuente & Maxwell N. Weisman (eds.) (Mexico City) pp. 1187–1198. “Peruvian Hallucinogenic Folk Healing: An Overview.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1977) Economic Botany, 31 (2): 189–203. “Plant Hallucinogens and the Religion of the Mochica – An Ancient Peruvian People.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1982) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 14 (1-2): 81–90. “Plant Hallucinogens, Sexuality and Shamanism in the Ceramic Art of Ancient Peru.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1986) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15 (3): 297–304. “Enigma of Drug-Induced Altered States of Consciousness Among the !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1990) Hallucinogens: Cross Cultural Perspectives. Prism Press. ISBN 1-85327-061-X. (First published 1984 University of New Mexico Press)

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene & Mercedes Cárdenas (1980) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2 (3): 233–246. “Plant hallucinogens, shamanism and Nazca ceramics.”

Dobkin, Marlene (1968)a International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 15: 23–32. “Folk Curing with a Psychedelic Cactus in Northern Peru.”

Dobkin, Marlene (1968)b Economic Botany, 22 (2): 194–199. “Trichocereus pachanoi— A Mescaline Cactus Used in Folk Healing in Peru.”

Doetsch, P.W. et al. (1980) Journal of Chromatography, 189: 79–85. “Cactus Alkaloids XL. Identification of Mescaline and Other β-Phenethylamines in Pereskia, Pereskiopsis and Islaya by Use of Fluorescamine Conjugates.” (Paul W. Doetsch, John M. Cassady & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Dogin (1976) Federal Register, 41: 4015 “Peyote”

Doig, Federico Kauffmann (1979) Sexual Behavior in Ancient Peru. [Kompaktos S.C.R.L. Lima] (from Cané 1988)

Dok-Go, H. et al. (2003) Brain Research, 965 (1-2): 130–136. “Neuroprotective effects of antioxidative flavonoids, quercetin, (+)-dihydroquercetin and quercetin 3-methyl ether, isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.” (Hyang Dok-Go , Kwang Heun Lee, Hyoung Ja Kim, Eun Ha Lee, Jiyong Lee, Yun Seon Song, Yong-Ha Lee, Changbae Jin, Yong Sup Lee & Jungsook Cho)

Domínguez, X.A. & O. Pugliese C. (1967) Planta Medica, 15 (4): 401–403. “A Chemical Study of Mammillaria Runyoni. The isolation of acetovanillone and a new triterpenoid, mamillarol.”

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1968) Planta Medica, 16 (2): 182–183. “Chemical study of the cactus Ariocarpus retusus.” (Xorge Alejandro Domínguez, Rafael H. Ramírez, Olga Lock Ugaz, Jesús García D. & Roger Ketcham)

Dominguez, X.A. et al. (1968)b Planta Medica, 16: 458–461. “The Constituents of Thelocactus bicolor. Part I. The isolation of itesmol, a new steroid and eisacol, a new pentacyclic triterpenoid.” (Xorge Alejandro Domínguez, Víctor A. Barragán, Joaquín O. León V., Lothar Krause S., Gloria A. Bravo & Josefina Morales G.)

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1969) Rev. Soc. Quim. Mex. 13 (1): 8A-12A. “Estudio químico preliminar de 31 cactáceas.” (X.A. Domínguez, P. Rojas, M. Gutiérrez, N, Armenta & G. de Lara)

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1970) Planta Medica, 18 (4)): 315–317. “Chemical Studies of Cacti. V. Constituents of the Coryphantha palmeri Britton-Rose and Echinocereus grandis Rose” (Xorge A. Domínguez, Saúl Escarria and Carlos Pérez E.)

Don, N.S. et al. (1998) Phytomedicine, 5 (2): 87–96. “Effects of Ayahuasca on the human EEG.” (Norm S. Don, B.E. McDonough, G. Moura, C.A. Warren, K. Kawanishi, H. Tomita, Y. Tachibana, M. Böhlke & N.R. Farnsworth)

Donike, M. 1974 Chromatographie 7: 651

Donnan, Christopher B. (1976) Moche Art and Iconography. UCLA Latin American Center. 146 pp.

Donnan, Christopher B. & Carol J. Mackey (1978) Ancient Burial Patterns of the Moche Valley, Peru. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70329-5.

Dornan, S.S. (1927–1930) Bantu Studies, 3: 185 (From Watt 1967)

Dornow, Alfred & Günther Petsch (1951) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 284 (56) 4: 160–163. “Notiz Darstellung des β-oxy β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Oxymescalin”), de Bis-[β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Dimezcalin”) und des β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Mezcalin”).”

Dornow, Alfred & Günther Petsch (1952) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 285: 323–326. “Über die Darstellung des Oxymezcalins und Mezcalins. 2. Mitteilung.”

Dorrance, D.L. et al. (1975) Journal of the American Medical Association, 234 (3): 299–302. “Effect of peyote on human chromosomes. Cytogenetic study of the Huichol Indians of Northern Mexico” (David L. Dorrance, Oscar Janiger & Raymond L. Teplitz)

Dowson, Thomas A. (1992) Rock Engravings of Southern Africa. Witwaterstrand University Press: Johannesburg.

DPFT News (Drug Policy Forum of Texas), 888 W. Sam Houston Pkwy. S., Suite 2248, Houston, TX 77042–1909 (Monthly newsletter) Membership $25, students $7 & newsletter subscription only is $5.

Dragendorff, George (1898) Die Heilpflanzen der Verschiedenen Völker und Zeiten. Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart. [Reprinted in 1967 by Werner Fritsch: München (Munich).]

Dreiding, André S. (1961) “The Betacyanins, A Class of Red Pigments in the Centrospermae.” p. 194[-?] in W.D. Ollis (ed) Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Natural Phenolic Compounds. [From Miller et al. 1968 & Wohlpart & Mabry 1968]

Drill, V.A. (1954) Pharmacology in Medicine. Chapter 19; page 14. McGraw-Hill Book Co. [Said to quote unpublished observations of Woods et al. [From Fischer 1958 and Kapadia & Fayez 1970]

Dronfield, Jeremy (1995)a Oxford Journal of Archaeology ,14 (3): 261-275. “Migraine, Light and Hallucinogens: The Neurocognitive Basis of Irish Megalithic Art.”

Drost (1961) Diss. Pharm (Poland) 13: 167; 1962 BA 37: 7361

Drost-Karbowska (1977) Acta Pol. Pharm. 34: 421 [CA 88: 117814b]

Drujan, B.D. et al. (1959) Canadian Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology, 37: 1153–1159. “The differential determination of catecholamines in urine.” (B.D. Drujan, T.L. Sourkes & )

Duc, C. (1936) Bolletino di oculistica, 15: 745–760. “Sintomi visivi nell’ intossicazione mescalina.”

Duke, James A. (1972) Isthmian ethnobotanical dictionary. Self-published.

Duke (no date) came from the online reference site below.

Duke, James A. (1985) CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. ISBN 0-8493-3630-9. [For folk uses of San Pedros: Duke cited J. A. Duke & K.K. Wain (1981) Medicinal Plants of the World (Computer Index with over 85,000 entries. 3
volumes; 1,654 pages) This one of Duke’s primary references for his published claims but it is very poorly to awkwardly referenced. Duke often cites himself as a primary reference even when it is clear that the material was actually derived from elsewhere in the published literature.

See in “Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical
Databases
.” at www.ars-grin.gov/duke. Duke’s comment on that site’s reference page might be found illuminating: “Please note that this is far from a complete list of references used by the database, and many more will be documented as time is allotted for such weighty matters.

Duncan, C. & R.A. Deitrich (1978) Fed. Proc. 37: 420 (Abstract) “Role of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in alcohol preference.”

Durand, E. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 14: 562–566. “Simple hypotensive and hypertensive principles from some West Indian medicinal plants.” (E. Durand, E.V. Ellington, P.C. Feng, L.J. Haynes, K.E. Magnus & N. Philip)

Durant, G.J. et al. (1976) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 19: 923–928. “Potential histamine H2-receptor agonists. 3. Methylhistamines.” (G.J. Durant, J.C. Emmett, C.R. Ganellin, A.M. Roe & R.A. Slater)

Durden, D.A. et al. (1976) Adv. Mass Spec. Biochem. Med. 2: 597–606. “The analysis of tetrahydroisoquinoline and tetrahydro-(beta)-carboline alkaloids as their dansyl derivatives.” (D.A. Durden, T.J. Danielson and A.A. Boulton)

Durrum, L. (1950) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72: 2943

Dustin, C. Burton (1962) Peyotism and New Mexico. Eigenverlag: Albuquerque.

Dyumaev, K.M. & I.S. Belostotskaya (1962) Zhurnal Obschei Khimii 32 (3): 2661-2663. [Also in (1962) Journal of General Chemistry of USSR (English translation) 32 (3): 2620–2622.] “Synthesis of trisubstituted phenethylamines by catalytic reduction of w-nitrostyrenes.”

References: E through J

References E-J used for Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.

[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

As a single listing

A through D

K through O

P through S

T through Z

 

 

 

EAMP See Under the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit.

Earle, W. Hubert (1980) Cacti of the Southwest. Revised.

Easterlin, Malcolm (1941) Scribner’s Commentator 11: 77–82. “Peyote – Indian Problem #1.”

Echeverría, Javier & Hermann M. Niemeyer (2012) Boletin Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas, 11 (4): 341–344. “Phenylethylamines from Browningia candelaris (Cactaceae).”

Eger, Susan (with Peter R. Collings) (1978) “Huichol Women’s Art.” in Kathleen Berrin (ed.) Art of the Huichol Indians. Harry N. Abrams: New York.

Eggli, Urs (1985) Bradleya, 3 “A Bibliography of Succulent Plant Periodicals.” Also; supplementary material is at Eggli et al. 1987 Bradleya, 5: & 1989 Bradleya, 7: [from http://www.cactus-mall.com/bcss/period.html]

Eggli, Urs & Leonard E. Newton (2004) Etymological Dictionary of Succulent Plant Names. Springer, 266 pages

Ehrlich, Felix & P. Pietschimuka (1912) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 45 (2): 2428–2437. “Synthesen des Tyrosols und seine Umwandlung in Hordenin.”

El Finti, A. et al. (2013) Journal of Medicinal Plants Research, 7 (35): 2574–2583. “Assessment of some agro-technological parameters of cactus pear fruit (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.) in Morocco cultivars.” (Aissam El Finti, Rachida El Bouillani, Mohamed Fallah, Fouad Msanda & Abdelhamid El Mousadik)

El-Kossori, R.L. et al. (1998) Plant Foods & Human Nutrition, 52 (3): 263–270. “Composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pears fruit (Opuntia ficus indica sp.).” (El Kossori RL, Villaume C, El Boustani E, Sauvaire Y, Méjean L.)

El-Moghazy, A.M. et al. (1982) Egyptian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science, 23: 247–254. “A Phytochemical Study of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. Cultivated in Egypt.” (A.M. El-Moghazy, S.M El-Sayyad, A.M, Abdel-Baky, & E.Y. Bechait)

El-Seedi, H.R. et al. (2005) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 101: 238–242. “Prehistoric peyote use: Alkaloid analysis and radiocarbon dating of archaeological specimens of Lophophora from Texas.” (Hesham R. El-Seedi, Peter A.G.M. De Smet, Olof Beck, Göran Possnert & Jan G. Bruhn)

El-Shazly, Assem & Michael Wink (2008) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, C 58 (7–8): 477–480. “Tetrahydroisoquinoline and β-carboline alkaloids from Haloxylon articulatum (Cav.) Bunge (Chenopodiaceae).”

Eleusis: Piante e Composti Psicoattivi/ Journal of Psychedelic Plants and Compounds. New Series 1998 onward (Giorgio Samorini; editor) subscriptions: eleusis@telestrion.it

Elgar, Frank (1963) The Rock Paintings of Tassili. World Publishing: Cleveland.

Ellis, C.H. (1965) Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. Ther. 154: 26.

Ellis, Havelock (1897) The Lancet, 75 (1): 1540–1542. “A Note on the Phenomeon of Mescal Intoxication.”

Ellis, Havelock (1898) Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1898: 537–548. “Mescal a New Artificial Paradise.”

Ellis, Havelock (1898) Contemporary Review, 73 (1-6): 130–141. “Mescal: A new artificial paradise.”

Ellis, Havelock (1902) Popular Science Monthly, 61: 52–71. “Mescal: A Study of a Divine Plant.”

Ellis, Havelock (1971) Dynamische Psychiatrie, 17–22. “Zum Phänomen der Meskalin-Intoxikation.”

Emboden, William (1972) Narcotic Plants. The Macmillan Company, New York.

Encyclopedia Brittanica; pp. 228–232: “Pharmacological cults.”

Endo, K. (1952) Folio psychiatrica neurotica japonica, 6: 104–113. “Experimental Study of mescaline intoxication on relation between clinical picture and EEG in man.”

Engelbrecht, J.A. (1936) The Korana. Cape Town. [From Hargreaves 1998]

Engelmann, George (1852) American Journal of Science and Arts, 2nd series., 14: 1–5. “Notes on the Cereus Giganteus of South Eastern California and some other Californian Cactaceae.”

Engelmann, George (1852–1857) Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 3: 259–314, 345–346. “Synopsis of the Cactaceae of the Territory of the United States and Adjacent Regions.”

Engelmann, George (1859) Report of the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey, 2: 1–78 “Cactaceae of the Boundary.”

Engstad, J.E. (1890) Therapeutic Gazette, 3 (6): 606–607. “Cactus grandiflorus in Heart-disease.” (from Hobschette 1929)

Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) (1998) 7 (3): 70–71 & 7 (4): 99–100. [David Aardvark: editor; K. Trout: technical editor; beginning with Volume 7 (1998)] ISSN 1066-1913. $25/yr (quarterly) The Entheogen Review, POB 19820, Box 808, Sacramento, CA 95819

Epstein, D. et al. (1932) Journal of Physiology, 76 (2): 224–246. “The action of some amines related to adrenaline: I. Methoxy- phenylethylamines.” (D. Epstein, J. A Gunn & C.J. Virden)

Er, H.M. et al. (2007) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 113 (3): 448–456. “Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).” (Er Hui Meng, En-Hsiang Cheng & Ammu Kutty Radhakrishnan)

Erdoes, Richard (1971) Crow Dog’s Paradise. Songs of the Sioux. [Album EKS-74091; includes album notes and photos] Elektra: New York.

Erhardt, P.A. & T.O. Soine (1975) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 64 (1): 53–62. “Stereochemical preferences for curarimimetic neuromuscular junction blockade I: enantiomeric monoquaternary amines as probes.” (Carnegine)

Erne, M. & F. Ramirez (1950) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 33: 912–916. “Über die Reduktion von β-Nitrostyrolen mit Lithiumaluminumhydrid.”

Ernst, E. (2000) Perfusion, 13: 4–15 [i.e. 4–6, 8–15]. “Possible interactions between synthetic and herbal medicinal products. Part 1: a systematic review of the indirect evidence.”

Ernst, E. (2003) Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 19: 818–27. “Cardiovascular adverse effect of herbal medicines: a systematic review of the recent literature.”

Erowid website [www.erowid.com] Excellent information resource.

Erspamer, V. (1959) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 82 (2): 431–438. “Isolation of leptodactyline (m-hydroxyphenylethyltrimethyl-ammonium) from extracts of Leptodactylus skin.”

Erspamer V. (1984) Comp Biochem Physiol C. 79 (1): 1–7. “Half a century of comparative research on biogenic amines and active peptides in amphibian skin and molluscan tissues.”

Erspamer, V. & G. Boretti (1951) Experientia, 7 (7): 271-273. “Substances of a phenolic and indolic nature present in acetone extracts of the posterior salivary glands of octopoda (Octopus vulgaris, Octopus macropus and Eledone moschata.)”

Erspamer. V & G. Falconieri (1952) Naturwissenschaften, 39 (18): 431–432. “Papierchromatographische Untersuchungen über die Hydroxyphenylalkylamine der Gerstenkeimlinge.”

Erspamer, V. & A. Glässer (1960) British Journal of Pharmacology, 15: 14–22. “The Pharmacological Actions of (m-Hydroxyphenethyl)-trimethylammonium
(Leptodactyline).”

Erspamer, V. & M. Vialli (1952) Ric.sci., 22: 1420. [From Erspamer & Glässer 1960]

Erspamer, V. et al. (1963a) Experientia, 19: 346–347. “Occurrences
of new imidazolealkylamines (spinaceamin and 6-methylspinaceamine) in skin extracts of Leptodactylus pentadactylus labyrinthicus.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & I.M. Cei) [This reference is cited in the literature but I believe that Erspamer et al 1963b is what was actually intended.]

Erspamer, V. et al. (1963b) Life Sciences, 2 (11): 825–827. “Occurrence of candicine (p-hydroxyphenylethyltrimethylammonium) in extracts of the skin of Leptodactylus pentadactylus pentadactylus.” (V. Erspamer, J.M. Cei & M. Roseghini)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1964) Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 105: 620–629. “The identification of New Histamine Derivatives in the Skin of Leptodactylus.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1964) Biochemical Pharmacology, 13 (7): 1083–1093. “Indole-, imidazole-, and phenyl-alkylamines in the skin of thirteen Leptodactylus species.” (V. Erspamer, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1965) Experientia, 21: 504. “5-Methoxy- and 5-Hydroxy-Indolealkylamines in the Skin of Bufo alvarius.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Erspamer, V. et al. (1967) Biochemical Pharmacology, 16 (7): 1149–1164. “5-Methoxy- and 5-Hydroxyindoles in the Skin of Bufo alvarius.” (V. Erspamer, T. Vitali, M. Roseghini & J.M. Cei)

Esquivel, P. et al. (2007) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, [C]. 62 (9-10): 636–644. “Phenolic compound profiles and their corresponding antioxidant capacity of purple pitaya (Hylocereus sp.) genotypes.” (Patricia Esquivel, Florian C. Stintzing & Reinhold Carle)

European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products. Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit. (EAMP) (1999) “Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products. Selenicereus grandiflorus. Summary Report.” [http://www.emea.eu.int/pdfs/vet/mrls/060199en.pdf]

Evans, A. Don (1989) “The Purpose and Meaning of Peyote as a Sacred Material for Native Americans.” pp. 20–35 in George P. Horse Capture (ed.) The Concept of Sacred Materials and Their Place in the World. The Plains Indians Museum: Cody, Wyoming

Evans, C.S. et al.(1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 565–570. “Free Amino Acids in the Seeds of Acacia Species.” (Christine S. Evans, M. Yasin Qureshi & E. Arthur Bell)

Evans, Philip (1979) National Cactus & Succulent Journal, 34 (1): 14–16. “Hallucinogenic Cacti.”

Ewell, Ervin E. (1896) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 18 (7): 624–638. “The Chemistry of the Cactaceae.”

Excerpta Medica, VIII, Subsection 58, New York: Excerpta Medica Foundation [Unable to locate in the work with this name; from Usdin & Efron]

Ey, H. & M. Rancoulle (1938) Encéphale, 33 ( pt. II): 1-25. “Hallucinations mescaliniques et troubles psychosensoriels de l’encéphalite épidémique chronique.”

Fabing, Howard D. (1955) Science, 121 (3137): 208–210. “New Blocking Agent against the Development of LSD-25 Psychosis.”

Fairbairn, J.W. & G. Wassel (1964) Phytochemistry, 3: 253–258. “The alkaloids of Papaver somniferum L. — I. Evidence for a rapid turnover of the major alkaloids.”

Faiveley, J. (1920) PhD thesis, Paris. “Contribution à l’étude des Cactées Opuntiées.” (from Hobschette 1929)

Falco, Federico & Sebastian Hilburg (1946/1947) Revista. Facultad de Química Industrial y Agricola. Universidad Nacional del Litoral (Santa Fé, Argentina) 15/16 (26): 71–73 “Investigation of alkaloids in Opuntia cacti.” [CA (1949) 43: 1530i-1531a.]

Fales, H.M. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 91 (13): 3682–3685. “Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Complex Molecules” (H.M. Fales, G.W.A. Milne and Marvin L. Vestal)

Farbsystem DIN 6164 (source of Ritter’s color specifications) http://www.uni-mannheim.de/fakul/psycho/irtel/colsys/DIN6164_A0.pdf

Farmilo, Charles G. & Klaus Genest (1961) “Alkaloids and Related Bases: Identification.” pp. 209–595 , (Chapter 7) in: C.P. Stewart & A. Stolman (eds.) Toxicology. Mechanisms and Analytical Methods. Volume II. Academic Press: New York and London. (Includes many drawings of microcrystalline forms for comparison.)

Farwell, Oliver Atkins (1924) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 13 (3): p 211-?. (from Hobschette 1929)

Faurbye, A. & K. Pind (1964) Acta Psychiatr. Scand., 40: 240.

Favilli, M. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici, 26: 191-212. “Sull’alcune modificazioni psichiche da intossicazione mescalinica.”

Favilli, M. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici, 26: 191-212. “Sull’alcune modificazioni psichiche da intossicazione mescalinica.”

Feeney, Kevin (undated) Peyote, Conservation, & Indian Rights, 12 page manuscript

Feigen, George A. & Gordon A. Alles (1955) Journal of Clinical and Experimental Psychopathology and Quarterly Review of Psychiatry and Neurology, 16 (3): 167–178. “Physiological Concomitants of mescaline intoxication. A study of the effects upon normal subjects tested with submaximal doses.”

Felger, Richard Stephen & Mary Beck Moser (1991) People of the Desert and Sea: Ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. University of Arizona Press. ISBN-10: 0816512671; ISBN-13: 978-0816512676. 435 pages.

Feller, D.R. et al. (1975) Biochemical Pharmacology, 24: 1357–1359. “Comparative actions of the trimetoquinol, tetrahydropapaveroline and salsolinol isomers in β-adrenoceptor systems.” (D.F. Feller, R. Venkataraman & D.D. Miller) [from Deitrich & Erwin 1980] 

Feng, P.C. et al. (1961) Nature, 191: 1108. “High Concentration of (-)-Noradrenaline in Portulaca oleracea.” (P.C. Feng, L.J. Haynes & K.E. Magnus)

Feng, Z. et al. (1993) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 76: 2547–2552. “Biosynthesis of the irregular C12-terpenoid dehydrogeosmin in flower heads of Rebutia marsoneri Werd. (Cactaceae).” (Z. Feng, U. Huber & W. Boland ) [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Ferguson, George G. & William J. Keller (1975) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 64 (8): 1431–1432. “Monoamine oxidase inhibiting activity of a series of (±)-4-Methoxy-b-hydroxyphenethylamines”

Fernandez Distel, A. (1980) Estudios Arqueologicos. (Universidad de Chile, Antofagasta) 5: 55–79. “Hallazgo de pipas en complejos preceramicos del borde de la Puna Jujena (Republica Argentina) y el empleo de alucinógenos por parte de las mismas culturas.”

Fernandez Distel, Alicia (1984) Proceedings 44 International Congress of Americanists, BAR International Series 194. “Contemporary and Archaeological Evidence of Llipta Elaboration from the cactus Trichocereus pasacana in Northwest Argentina.”

Fernández-López JA, & L. Almela (2001) Journal of Chromatography A. 913 (1-2): 415–420. “Application of high-performance liquid chromatography to the characterization of the betalain pigments in prickly pear fruits.”

Fernandez, V. (1890) Monografías mexicanas de matéria médica, 173–190. “Análysis qualitiva y cuantitativa del mezcal.”

Fernberger, Samuel W. (1923) American Journal of Psychology, 34: 267–270, 616. “Observations on Taking Peyote. (Anhalonium Lewinii).”

Fernberger, Samuel W. (1932) Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 26 (4): 367–378. “Further Observations on Peyote Intoxication.”

Ferrigni & McLaughlin 1981; Unpublished results cited in Mata & McLaughlin 1982. See as Ferrigni et al. 1982

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1982) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 5: 359–364. “Cactus Alkaloids XLVIII. Nα,Nα-Dimethylhistamine, A Hypotensive Component of Echinocereus triglochidiatus.” (Nelson R. Ferrigni, David E. Nichols, Jerry L. McLaughlin & Robert A. Bye, Jr.)

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1984) Journal of Natural Products, 47 (5): 839–845. “Identification of New Cactus Alkaloids in Backebergia militaris by Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” (N.R. Ferrigni, S.A. Sweetana, J.L. McLaughlin, K.E. Singleton & R.G. Cooks.)

Ferrigni, N.R. et al. (1984) Revista Latinoamericana Quimica, l4: 131–133. “Cactus Alkaloids. LVI. l3C and lH NMR of the Imidazoles, Na,Na-Dimethylhistamine and Dolichotheline.” [Chemical Abstracts 101: 23790a] (N.R. Ferrigni, B.N. Meyer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Fester, Uncle (1991) Secrets of Methamphetamine Manufacture, Second edition (3rd edition is said to be out but I have not seen it) Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-070-0.

Fester, Uncle (1997) Practical LSD Manufacture Revised and Expanded Second Edition. Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-161-8.

Fester, Uncle (1998) Advanced Techniques of Clandestine Psychedelic & Amphetamine Maanufacture. Loompanics; Port Townsend, WA. ISBN #1-55950-174-X.

Festi, Francesco & Giorgio Samorini (1994) (1996) Actas. II Congreso Internacional para el Estudio de los Estados Modificados de la Consciencia: celebrado en Lleida (España), el mes de octubre de 1994. (Etnobotanica, farmacologia y Quimica). [Lectures. II International Congress for the Study of the Modified States of Consciousness held in Lleida (Spain), october 1994. (Ethnobotany, pharmacology and chemistry].” pp. 62–71. “Ayahuasca-like” effects obtained with Italian Plants.” Also available as reprint through Rosetta with an additional 1 page charted representation of Fabio Calligris’ HPLC analysis of some European Phalaris species.

Festi, Francesco & Giorgio Samorini (1995) Eleusis, 2: 28–34. “Carpobrotus edulis (L.) N.E.Brown in Phillips (Fico degli Ottentotto / Hottentots Fig).”

Fetrow, Charles W. & Juan R. Avila (1999) Professional’s handbook of complementary & alternative medicines.

Fikes, Jay Courtney (1993) Carlos Castaneda, Academic Opportunism, and the Psychedelic Sixties. Millenia Press (Bookworld Series.) ISBN 0-9696960-0-0. 313 pages.

Fimbres P.Y. & R. García (1998) XXX Congreso Nacional de Microbiología. México. Abril 2-4. “Evaluación del efecto fungicida y bactericida de la mezcla de cactáceas Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum (cardón) y Lophocereus schottii (músaro).“ [From Garza Padrón 2010]

Fischer, Nikolaus & André S. Dreiding (1972) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 55 (2): 649–658. “Biosynthesis of Betalaines. On the Cleavage of the Aromatic Ring durng the Enzymatic Transformation of Dopa in Betalamic Acid.”

Fischer, P. & J. Lecomte (1950) Arch. Intern. Physiol. 57: 277. [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Fischer, Roland (1946) Schweitzerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie,  5: 308–313. “Selbst-beobachtungen im Mezkalinrausch.”

Fischer, Roland (1953) Mschr. Psychiatr. Neurol. 126: 315. [from Fischer 1958]

Fischer, Roland (1954) Journal of Mental Science, 100 (420): 623–631. “Factors Involved in Drug-Produced Model Psychoses.” [for pKb: citing private communication from E. Rothlin]

Fischer, Roland (1955) Experientia, 11(4): 162–163. “Possible Biosynthesis of D-lysergic Acid Diethylamide-like Compounds from Mescaline.” ]

Fischer, Roland (1958) Revue Canadienne de Biologie, 17 (3): 389–409. “Pharmacology and Metabolism of Mescaline.”

Fischer, Roland & Neil Agnew (1954) Naturwissenschaften, 41 (18): 431–432. “On Drug-produced Experimental Psychoses.”

Fischer, Roland et al. (1951) Schweitzerische medizinische Wochenschrift, 81: 817–819, 837–840. “Psychophysische Korrelationen, VIII. Modellversuchen zum Schizophrenieproblem, Lysergsäurediäthylamid und Mezcalin.” (Roland Fischer, F. Georgi & R. Weber)

Fischer, R. et al. (1958) (in the literature) meant Pellerin et al. 1958

Fish, F. & P.G. Waterman (1971) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 23 (Suppl.): 132S-135S. “Alkaloids from two Nigerian species of Fagara.”

Fish, F. & P.G. Waterman (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 3007–3014. “Methanol-soluble quaternary alkaloids from African Fagara species.

Fish, F. et al. (1975a) Lloydia, 38 (3): 268–270. “Alkaloids and coumarins from North American Zanthoxylum species.” (F. Fish, A.I. Gray & P.G. Waterman)

Fish, F. et al. (1975b) Phytochemistry, 14 (3): 841–842. “Coumarin, alkaloid and flavonoid constituents from the root and stem barks of Zanthoxylum avicennae.” (F. Fish, A.I. Gray & P.G. Waterman)

Fitzgerald, J.S. (1964a) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 17: 160–162. “Alkaloids of the Australian Leguminosae. III. The Occurrence of Phenylethylamine Derivatives in Acacia Species.”

Flath, Robert A. & Juan M. Takahashi (1978) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 26 (4): 835–837. “Volatile Constituents of Prickly Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. de Castilla Variety).”

Flattery, David & J. Pierce (1965) Peyote. Berkeley Press, Berkeley

Flores G., José (2000) “Estudio Químico del cactus San Pedro (Echinopsis pachanoi Britton & Rose).” Thesis para optar el título profesional de Licenciado en Ciencias con Mencion en Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Ingeniería, Facultad de Ciencias, December 2000. 103 pages. [from Reyna & Flores 2001]

Flores Ortiz, C.M. et al. (2003) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 31 (6): 581–585. “Alkaloids from Neobuxbaumia species (Cactaceae).” (C.M. Flores Ortiz, P. Dávila & L. B. H. Portilla)

Fobe, Friedrich (1907) Monatsschrifte für Kakteenkunde, 17: 53–55. “Zur Praxis der Pfropfungen.” [Briefly mentions Cereus hempelianus Bauer on page 55.]

Fodor et al. (1951) Acta Chim. Acad. Sci. Hung. 1: 395. [CA (1958) 49: 897.]

Foerster, E. (1930) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 127 (1-2): 1–14. “Selbst-experiment im Mescalinrausch.” [elsewhere given as “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin”]

Fogleman, James C. & Phillip B. Danielson (2001) Integrative and Comparative Biology, 41 (4): 877–889. “Chemical Interactions in the Cactus-Microorganism-Drosophila Model System of the Sonoran Desert.”

Folkers, Karl & Frank Koniuszy (1939) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 61: 1232–1235. “Erythrina Alkaloids. III. Isolation and Characterization of a New Alkaloid Erythramine.”

Follas, W.D. et al. (1977) Phytochemistry, 16 (9): 1459–1460. “Phenethylamines from the cactus genus Lobivia” (W.D. Follas, J.M. Cassady & J.L. McLaughlin)

Fong, H.H.S. et al. (1972) Lloydia, 35 (2): 117–149. “Alkaloid Screening. II” (H.H.S. Fong, M. Trojánkova, J. Trojánek & N.R. Farnsworth)

Font Query, P. (1979) Plantas Medicinales el Dioscorides Renovado. 5th Ed. Editorial Labor, S.A. Barcelona.

Forbes, T.D.A. et al. (1993) S. African J. Anim. Sci., 23: 196–200. “Effects of exogenous amines on reproduction in female angora goats.” (T.David A. Forbes, D.R. Tolleson, C.M. Hensarling & R.D. Randel) [from Clement et al. 1998]

Forbes, T.D.A et al. (1995) Journal of Arid Environments, 30: 403–415. “Seasonal variation in two phenolic amines in Acacia berlandieri.” (T. David A. Forbes, I.J. Pemberton, G.R. Smith & C.M. Hensarling.)

Förster, C.F. (1846) Handbuch der Cacteenkunde, 285: 519. [Second edition was in 1885]

Förster, C.F. (1861) Hamburger Garten- und Blumenzeitung, 164–165. “15. Cereus Lagenaeformis Förster”

Förster, C.F. & T. Rümpler (1885) See Rümpler 1886

Forster, E. (1919) Zeitschrifte für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 46 “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin.”

Förster, E. (1930) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 127 (1-2): 1–14. “Selbst-experiment im Mescalinrausch.” [elsewhere given as “Selbstversuch mit Meskalin”]

Forte, Robert (1997) Entheogens and the Future of Religion. Council on Spiritual Practices. ISBN 1-889725-01-3

Foster, Frank Pierce (ed.) (1897) Reference-book of Practical Therapeutics, Volume 2. D. Appleton & Co New York.

Fournier, Paul-Victor (1954) Les Cactées et las plantes grasses. Paul Lechevalier, Paris.

Foy, J.M. & J.R. Parratt (1960) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 12 (6): 360–364. “A Note on the Presence of Noradrenaline and 5-Hydroxytryptamine in Plantain (Musa sapientum, var. paradisiaca).”

Franck, B. et al. (1965) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 685: 207–217. “Synthese von Isopilocerein und Pilocerein.” (Burchard Franck, Gottfried Blaschke and Klaus Lewejohann)

Frank, Gerhardt (1960) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 11(11): 168–170. [as Toumeya krainzianus]

Frank, Gerhardt & Alfred Lau (1979) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 30 (1): 6–7. [Turbinicarpus schmiedickeanus ssp. flaviflorus]

Franke, G. (1934) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 150: 427–433. “Variierte Serienversuche mit Meskalin.”

Frank, M. et al. (1990) Equine Vet. J. 22 437–441. “Hordenine: pharmacology, pharmacokinetics and behavioral effects in the horse.”

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica (Mexico),. 20 (4): 321–325. [Hypoglycemic action of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire: study using raw extracts.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, R. Altamirano-Bustamante, N. Rodríguez-Bárcenas, R. Ariza-Andraca & R. López-Ledesma)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1988) Diabetes Care, 11 (1): 63–66. “Hypoglycemic effect of Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire in NIDDM.” (A.C. Frati-Munari, B.E. Gordillo, P. Altamirano & C.R. Ariza)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 20 (2): 197–201. [Hypoglycemic action of different doses of nopal (Opuntia streptacantha Lemaire) in patients with type II diabetes mellitus.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, L.M. Del Valle-Martínez, C.R. Ariza-Andraca, S. Islas-Andrade & A. Chávez-Negrete)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1989) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 20 (4): 297–300. [Duration of the hypoglycemic action of Opuntia streptacantha Lem.] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, U. Ríos Gil, C.R. Ariza-Andraca, S. Islas Andrade & R. López Ledesma)

Frati-Munari, AC et al. (1990) Archivos de Investigacion Medica, (Mex). 21 (2): 99–102. [Activity of Opuntia streptacantha in healthy individuals with induced hyperglycemia] [Article in Spanish] (A.C. Frati-Munari, R. Licona-Quesada, C.R. Araiza-Andraca, R. López-Ledesma & A. Chávez-Negrete)

Frederic, A.C. (1902) Monatsschr. Kakteenk. 12: 21 [Cereus bolivianus] [From Britton & Rose] This is actually a reference to Schumann 1902 and is a mere mention of the name.

“Fredericus, C. & P. De Martius (1967 reprint)”
See as Schumann 1896.

Frederking, Walter (1953) Psyche (Stuttgart), 7: 342–364. “Ueber die Verwendung von Rauschdrogen (Meskalin and Lysergsäurediäthylamid) in der Psychotherapie.”

Frederking, Walter (1954) Monatsspiegel, 3: 5–57. “Meskalin in der Psychotherapie.”

Frederking, Walter (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 121 (3): 262–266. “Intoxicant Drugs (Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) in Psychotherapy.”

Freedman, Daniel X. & George K. Aghajanian (1959) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 18: 390.

Freedman, Daniel X. et al. (1958) Science, 127: 1173–1174. “Patterns of Tolerance to Lysergic Acid Diethylamide and Mescaline in Rats.” (Daniel X. Freedman, George K. Aghajanian, Edward M. Ornitz and B.S. Rosner)

Freedman, Daniel X. et al. (1970) Biochemical Pharmacology, 19: 1181–1188. “Psychotomimetic Drugs and Brain 5-Hydroxytryptamine Metabolism.” (Daniel X. Freedman, Richard Gottlieb & Richard A. Lovell)

Freire, S.M.deF. et al. (1996) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 48: 624–628. “Sympathomimetic Effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and Catecholamines Isolated from Plant Extracts.” (Sonia Maria De Farias Freire, Luce Maria Brandão Torres, Caden Souccar and Antonio José Lapa)

Freise, F.W. (1935) Pharmazeutische Zentralblatte, 76: 704. “Das Vorkommen von Koffein in brasilianischen Heilpflanzen”

Freise, F.W. (1935) Pharmazeutische Zentralhalle Deutschlands, 76: 704. “Vorkommen von Koffein in brasilianischen Heilpflanzen.”

Frič, Alberto Vojtěch (1925) Kaktusová příloha, Život v přírodě, 8: 25–28. “Rod Anhalonium Lem.” [Grym gives as pp 23–28]

Fridericus, C. & P. De Martius (1967 reprint) refers to Carolus Fridericus Philippus De Martius’ Flora Brasiliensis. See under Martius.

Friedberg, Claudine (1959) Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquées, 6 (8-9): 439–450. “Rapport sommaire sur une mission au Pérou. (effectuée de novembre 1958 à juillet 1959)” Some list this as 6 (8-9):1

Friedberg, Claudine (1960) Comptes Rendus de la Société de Biogéographie, 324: 46–56. “Ethnobotanique péruvienne : répartition des espèces utilisées par l’homme dans la médecine et la magie, et ses rapports avec les zones floristiques.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1963) Journal d’Agriculture Tropicale et de Botanique Appliquées, 10 (1-9): 33–52, 245–258 & 344–386 : illustr. with 8 plates. “Mission au Pérou, mai 1961 – mars 1962.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1964) Sixth International Congress of Anthropology and Ethnological Sciences [Actes du VIème Congrès International des Sciences Anthropologiques et Ethnologiques, Paris, 1960] (Paris: Musée de l’Homme, Palais de Chaillot) 2 (2): 21-26. “Utilisation d’un cactus à mescaline au nord du Pérou. (Trichocereus pachanoï Brit. et Rose)” [also given as 1960] Also reprinted in 1979 Succulentes 2nd series, 1: 11–15

Friedberg, Claudine (1965) Travaux de l’Institut Français d’Etudes Andines, 7: 65–94. “Rapport sur une mission au Perou. Description du matériel recueilli, exposé sommaire des recherches entreprises.”

Friedberg, Claudine (1979) Actes du XLIIème Congrès International des Américanistes. Paris, 2–9 sept. 1976 [Paris: Fondation Singer-Polignac] p. 427–443. “L’Imaginaire dans les thérapeutiques populaires: proposition de quelques thèmes de réflexion à travers l’exemple du complexe thérapeutique huancabambin (sierra de Piura au nord du Pérou).” Republished in Spanish as Friedberg 1980.

Friedberg, Claudine (1980) Medicina Traditional, 3 (9): 29–44. “Lo imaginario en las terapias populares.”

Friedhoff, Arnold J. & Menek Goldstein (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 5–13. “New Developments in metabolism of mescaline and related amines.”

Friedhoff, Arnold J. & Leo H. Hollister (1966) Biochemical Pharmacology, 15 (3): 269–273. “Comparison of the Metabolism of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine and Mescaline in Humans.”

Friedhoff, A.J. & E. Van Winkle (1962) Nature, 194: 897. “Isolation and characterization of a compound from the urine of schizophrenics”

Friedhoff, A.J. et al. (1972) Nature, 237: 454–455. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and N-Acetylmescaline by Mammalian Liver.” (Arnold J. Friedhoff, Jack W. Schweitzer & Jeanette Miller)

Friedhoff, A.J. et al. (1977) Biol. Psychiatry, 12: 643

Friedman et al. (1963) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 6: 227–229. CHECK. DELETE if not including synth of β-OH

Friedman, Milton & Thomas Szasz (1992) On Liberty and Drugs.

Friedrich, Heimo (1974) IOS Bulletin, 3(3): 79–93. “Zur Taxonomie und Phylogenie der Echinopsidinae (Trichocereinae)”

Friedrich, Heimo (1974)b Kakteen und andere Sukk. 25: 50, 80

Friedrich, H. & W. Glaetzle (1983) Bradleya, 1: 91–104 “Seed morphology as an aid to classifying the genus Echinopsis Zucc.”

Friedrich, Heimo & Gordon Douglas Rowley (1974) I.O.S. Bull. 3: 97. [From Madsen 1989] This should be referenced as Rowley 1974. It is a simple name reassignment list]

Frigerio, Bianca Maria (1974–1975) PhD Thesis, Università degli Studi di Bologna. “Il peyote: sua importanza nel mondo indigeno precolombiano e postcolombiano.”

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1930), German Patent. 545,853 July 3, 1930; [CA (1932) 26: 3521.] [Patent for “α-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-β-aminoethane”.]

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1931) Austrian Patent 125,694, July 15, 1931. [CA (1932) 26: 1302] [Patent for “mescaline”]

Frisch, Hans & Edmund Waldman (1932) Chemisches Zentralblatt, 1-2: 2867. “Darstellung von β-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-β-aminoethan.”

Frohne, D. (1977) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 102 (22): 849. “Pharmacologisch wirksame Substanzen aus Cactaceen.”

Fugh-Berman, Adriane (2000) Lancet 355: 134–38. “Herb-drug interactions”.

Fujita, M. et al. (1972) Yakugaku Zasshi, [J. Pharm. Soc. Japan ] 92 (4): 482–489. “On the Cactus-Alkaloids of Lophophora Williamsii var. caespitosa (Kobuki-ubadama).” (Mitiiti Fujita, Hideji Itokawa, Junko Inouse (née Oka), Yoshimasa Nozu, Natsue Goto & Kazuko Hasegawa)

Fung Pineda, Rose (1969) Dédalo, 5 (9-10): 5–207. “Las Aldas: su ibicación dentro del proceso historico del Perú antiguo.”

Furst, Peter T. (1965) Antropológica, 15: 29–80. “West Mexican Tomb Art as Evidence for Shamanism in Prehispanic Mesoamerica.”

Furst, Peter T. (1969) Verhandlungen des XXXVIII. Internationalen Amerikanistenkongresses, 2: 385–399. “A Possible Symbolic Manifestation of Funerary Endo-Cannibalism in Mexico.”

Furst, Peter T. (1971) Economic Botany, 25: 182–187. “Ariocarpus retusus, the “False Peyote” of Huichol tradition.”

Furst, Peter T. (ed.) (1972) Flesh of the Gods. The Ritual Use of Hallucinogens. Praeger, New York. [Revised 1990 Waveland Press. ISBN 0-88133-477-4.]

Furst, Peter T. (1972) “Symbolism and psychopharmacology: The toad as earth mother in Indian America.” pp. 61–68 in: XII Mesa RedondaReligión en Mesoamérica” Sociedad Mexicana de Antropología: Mexico

Furst, Peter T. (1974) “Hallucinogens in Precolumbian Art”, pages 55–101 in: King & Traylor 1974

Furst, Peter T. (1981) “Peyote und die Huichol-Indianer in Mexico” pp. 468–475 in G. Völger (ed.) Rausch und Realität Volume 2. Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum: Köln.

Furst, Peter (1989) American Ethnologist, 16: 386–387. “Book Review of Peyote Religion: A History, by Omer C. Stewart.”

Furst, Peter T. (1994) “Introduction: An Overview of Shamanism” in Gary Seaman & Jane S. Day (eds.) Ancient Traditions: Shamanism in Central Asia and the Americas. University of Colorado Press: Niwot, Colorado.

Furst, Peter T. & M. Anguino (1977) “To Fly as Birds: Myth and Ritual as Agents of Enculturation Among Huichol Indians of Mexico.” pp 95–181 in Wilbert (ed.) Enculturation in Latin America: An Anthology. UCLA Latin American Center Publications: Los Angeles.

Furst, Peter T. & Salomón Nahmed (1972) Mitos y arte huicholes. SepSetentas: Mexico.

Gabermann = Habermann

Gaebel, G. Otto (1906) Archiv der Pharmazie, 244 (6-7): 435–441. “Über das Hordenin. Vorläufige Mitteilung.”.

Gairaud, Catherine B. & Gerald R. Lappin (1953) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 18: 1–3. “The Synthesis of ω-Nitrostyrenes.”

Galati, E.M. et al. (2001) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 76: 1–9. “Antiulcer activity of Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. (Cactaceae): ultrastructural study.” (E.M. Galati, M.T. Monforte, M.M. Tripodo, A. d’Aquino & M.R. Mondello)

Galati, E.M. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (17): 4903–4908. “Chemical Characterization and Biological effects of Sicilian Opuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill. Fruit Juice: Antioxidant and Antiulcerogenic activity.” (Enza Maria Galati, Maria Rita Mondello, Daniele Giuffrida, Giacomo Dugo, Natalizia Miceli, Simona Pergolizzi & Maria Fernanda Taviano)

Gambelunghe, C. et al. (2013) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 58 (1):270–278. “GC-MS and GC-MSMS in PCI Mode Determination of Mescaline in Peyote Tea and in Biological Matrices.” (Cristiana Gambelunghe, Remo Marsili, Kyriaki Aroni, Mauro Bacci & Riccardo Rossi)

Ganders, Fred R. (1975) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 47: 155–156. “The Identity of Echinocactus rapa.”

Ganguly, A.K. et al. (1965) Tetrahedron 21: 93–99. “Structure of Opuntiol, a Constituent of Opuntia elatior.” (A.K. Ganguly, T.R. Govindachari & P.A. Mohamed)

Garattini, S. & V. Ghetti (eds.) (1957) Psychotropic Drugs. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Psychotropic Drugs, Milan, 1957.

García, Jorge (1760) Manual para administrar los santos: Sacramentos, etc. Mexico City.

García, Jorge Meyrán (1973) Guia Botanica de Cactaceas y otras Suculentas del Valle de Tehuacán. (Sociedad Mexicana de Cactología.) An amazing book with a wealth of color photos. Excellent seed and propagation tips.

García Pantaleón, D.M. et al. (2009) J. PACD, 11: 45–52. “Chemical, biochemical, and fatty acids composition of seeds of Opuntia boldinghii Britton et Rose.”

Gardenerville Record-Courier (Nevada) (1938) 21 October. “Washoe Indians Are Still Using a Drug Known as Peodi.”

Gardner, R.L. et al. (1967) Phytochemistry, 6: 417.

Garforth, B. et al. (1935) J. Chem. Soc. 489 (synth)

Gartz, Jochen (1995) Integration, 6: 45. “Ein früher Versuch der Kommerzialisierung von Peyotl in Deutschland.”

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Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia (2005) Tesis de Licenciatura. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. “Respuesta in vitro y determinación de compuestos químicos de Acanthocereus occidentalis (Britton and Rose) y Stenocereus gummosus (Engelm.) Gibson y Horak.” [from Garza Padrón 2010]

Garza Padrón, Ruth Amelia (2010) PhD Thesis, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo León. “Análisis Fitoquímico y Actividad Biológica de los Extractos de Tallos y Tejido in vitro de Astrophytum myriostigma (Lemaire, 1839) y Astrophytum capricorne (Dietrich, 1922) Fam. Cactaceae.”

Gasparic, Jiri & Jaroslav Churacek (1978) Laboratory Handbook of Paper and Thin-Layer Chromatography.

Gbahou, F. et al. (2006) British Journal of Pharmacology, 147 (7): 744–754. “Compared pharmacology of human histamine H3 and H4 receptors: structure-activity relationships of histamine derivatives.” (F. Gbahou, L. Vincent, M. Humbert-Claude, J. Tardivel-Lacombe, C. Chabret & J.M. Arrang)

Geber, William F. (1967) Science, 158: 265–266. “Congenital Malformations Induced by Mescaline, Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, and Bromolysergic Acid in the Hamster.”

Geber, William F. (1969) Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 130 (4): 1168–1170. “Comparative Teratogenicity of Isoproteronol and Trypan Blue in the Fetal Hamster.”

Geesink, A. & W.A. den Hartog Jager (1939) Archives néerlandaises de physiologie, 24: 79–82. “Influence de la mescaline (triméthoxy-b-phényl-éthylamine) et de a diméthoxy-b-phényl-éthylamine sur la tension artérielle.” [CA (1939) 33: 79012.]

Gelfand, M. et al. (1985) The Traditional medical practitioner in Zimbabwe. His principles of practice and pharmacopoeia. (page 108) Mambo Press: Gweru. [M. Gelfand, S. Mavi, R.B. Drummond & B. Ndemera] [From DeSmet 1996]

Gellhorn, E. (1953) Physiological Foundations of Neurology and Psychiatry. University of Minnesota Press 1953

Genest, Klaus & D.W. Hughes (1968) Analyst, 93 (1109): 485–489. “Chromatographic Methods for the Identification of the New Hallucinogen, 4-Methyl-2,5-dimethoxy-a-methylphenethylamine, and Related Drugs.”

Gennaro, M.C. et al. (1996) Analytical Letters, 29(13): 2399–2409. “Determination of Mescaline in Hallucinogenic Cactaceae by Ion-Interaction HPLC.” (M.C. Gennaro, E. Gioannini, D. Giacosa & D. Siccardi)

Georgi, F. et al. (1949)a Schweitzerische medizinische Wochenschrift, 79: 121–123. “Psychophysische Korrelationen, 6. Modellversuche zum Schizophrenieproblem, Mescalinintoxikose und Leberfunktion.” (F. Georgi, R. Fischer and R. Weber) [see also (1949)b Excerpta Medica, sect. 8, 2: 951.]

Gerber, Peter (1980) Die Peyote-Religion. Völkerkundemuseum der Universität: Zurich.

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Gewitz, H.-S. & W. Völker (1961) Z. Naturforsch. 16b: 559.

Geyer, M.A. et al. (1978) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 207: 837–847. “The effects of lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline derived hallucinogens on sensory-integrative function: tactile startle.” (M.A. Geyer, L.R. Peterson, G.L. Rose, D.D. Horwitt, R.K. Light, L.M. Adams, J.A. Zook, R.L. Hawkins & A.J. Mandell)

Ghansah, E. et al. (1993) Neuropharmacology 32 (2): 169–174. “Effects of mescaline and some of its analogs on cholinergic neuromuscular transmission.” (E. Ghansah, P. Kopsombut, M.A, Malleque & A. Brossi)

Ghosal, S. & P.K. Banerjee (1969) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 22: 2029–2031. “Alkaloids of the Roots of Desmodium gangeticum.”

Ghosal, Shibnath & S.K. Bhattacharya (1972) Planta Medica, 22 (4): 434–440. “Desmodium alkaloids part II. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluations of D. gangeticum.”

Ghosal, Shibnath & Rakesh Mehta (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 1628–1629. “β-Phenethylamine and tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids of Desmodium cephalotes.”

Ghosal, S. & R.S. Srivastava (1973)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 62 (9): 1555–1558. “Chemical Investigation of Alhagi pseudalhagi (Bieb.) Desv.: β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids”

Ghosal, S. & R.S. Srivastava (1973)b Phytochemistry, 12: 193–197. “β-Phenethylamine, Tetrahydroisoquinoline and Indole Alkaloids of Desmodium tiliaefolium.”

Ghosal, S. et al. (1970)b Phytochemistry, 9: 429–433. “A General Method for the Isolation of Naturally Occurring Water Soluble Bases.” (S. Ghosal, P.K. Banerjee & S.K. Banerjee)

Ghosal, S. et al. (1972)d Planta Medica, 23 (4): 321–329. “Desmodium Alkaloids. IV. Chemical and Pharmacological Evaluation of D. triflorum.” (S. Ghosal, R.S. Srivastava, S.K. Bhattacharya, and P.K. Debnath)

Ghosal et al* (1972)e “Alkaloids of Desmodium gangeticum DC.: Chemistry and Pharmacology.” pp. 107–111 in: Mothes et al. (eds.) (1972) “4. Internationales Symposium. Biochemie und Physiologie der Alkaloide. Halle (Saale), 25. bis 28. Juni 1969” Akademie-Verlag. Berlin 1972 (Kurt Mothes, Klaus Schreiber & Horst Robert Schütter (eds.) [* S.Ghosal, P.K.Banerjee, R.S.Rathore & S.K.Bhattacharya)

Ghosal, S. et al. (1974) Planta Medica, 26 (4): 318–326. “The active principles of Alhagi pseudalhagi: β-phenethylamine and tetrahydroisoquinoline bases” (S. Ghosal, R.S. Srivastava, S.K. Bhattacharya and P.K. Debnath)

Giacomelli, S. et al. (1998) Life Sciences 63 (3): 215–222. “Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a partial agonist of D2 dopaminergic receptors and it potentiates dopamine-mediated prolactin secretion in lactotrophs in vitro.” (S. Giacomelli, M. Palmery, L. Romanelli, C.Y. Cheng & B. Silvestrini)

Giarman, Nicholas J. & Daniel X. Freedman (1965) Pharmacological Reviews, 17 (1): 1-25. “Biochemical Aspects of the actions of psychotomimetic drugs.”

Gibson, Arthur C. & Karl E. Horak (1978) Annals of the Missouri Botanical Gardens. 65 (4): 999–1057. “Systematic Anatomy and Phylogeny of Mexican Columnar Cacti.” [K.G. Horak is a typo]

Gibson, Arthur C. & Park S. Nobel (1986) The Cactus Primer. Harvard University Press. 286 pages. ISBN# 0-674-08990-1.

Giese, Claudius Cristobal (1989)a Curare 12 (2): 81–87. “Die Diagnosemethode eines nordperuanischen Heilers” [From Rätsch 1998]

Giese, Claudius Cristobal (1989)b ‘Curanderos’: Traditionelle Heiler in Nord-Peru (Küste und Hochland) Hohenschäftlarn: Klaus Renner Verlag (Münchner Beiträge zur Amerikanistik, Bd. 20) [From Rätsch 1998 we have been unable to locate a copy of this book via interlibrary loan, or book search services or when directly contacting the publisher that Ratsch cited.]

Giesecke, J. (1976) Acta Crystallogr. Sect. B., 32: 2337

Gillespie, Allesia M. (1969) Analytical Letters, 2 (11): 609–622. “A Spectrofluorometric Study of Selected Hallucinogens.”

Gillin, John P. (1945) Moche: A Peruvian Coastal Community. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Institute of Social Anthropology Pub #3. 26 photo plates. 166p. ISBN-13: 9780020778851; ISBN: 0020778856.

Giral, F. & C.S. Alvarez (1943) Ciencia (Mexico), 4: 66. “Vitamin C content of Mexican legumes and other vegetables.” [From Meyer & McLaughlin 1982]

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of dl-β-H3[sic]-norepinephrine in the human subject.” (Stanley E. Gitlow, Milton Mendlowitz, E. Gall, R.L. Wolf & N.E. Naftchi)

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1961) “The dynamics of norepinephrine metabolism.” In A.N. Brest & J.H. Moyer (eds) The Second Hahnemann Symposium on Hypertensive Disease. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, Pa. 335–342. (S.E. Gitlow, M.
Mendlowitz, A. Smith, E. Gall, R.L. Wolf & N.E. Naftchi)

Gitlow, S.E. et al. (1971) Journal of Clinical Investigation, 50 (4): 859–865. “Human Norepinephrine Metabolism. Its Evaluation by Administration of Tritiated Norepinephrine.” (Stanley E. Gitlow, Milton Mendlowitz, Laura M. Bertani, Sherwin Wilk & Elizabeth K. Wilk)

Glaetzle. See Friedrich & Glaetzle

Glass-Coffin, Bonnie (1998) The Gift of Life. Female Spirituality and Healing in Northern Peru. University of New Mexico: Albuquerque. 246 page. ISBN 0-8263-1892-4 (hard.); 0-8263-1893-2 (paper)

Glass, Charles & Robert Foster (1977) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 49 (4): 161–176. “A Revision of the Genus Turbinicarpus (Backbg.) Buxb. & Backbg.”

Glennon, Richard A. (1987) “Psychoactive Phenylisopropylamines” pp. 1627–1634 (Chapter 175), in: Herbert Y. Meltzer (ed.) Psychopharmacology: The Third Generation of Progress. Raven Press, New York.

Glennon, Richard A. et al. (1978) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 21: 822–825. “Serotonin Receptor Binding Affinities of Several Hallucinogenic Phenylalkylamine and N,N-Dimethyltryptamine Analogues.”

Glennon, Richard A. et al. (1980) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 23: 294–299 “Serotonin Receptor Affinities of Psychoactive Phenalkylamine Analogues.”

Glennon, R.A. et al. (1982) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 25: 1163–1168. “Behavioral and Serotonin Receptor Properties of 4-Substituted Derivatives of the Hallucinogen 1-(2,5-Dimethoxyphenyl)-2-aminopropane.”

Glennon, R.A. et al. (1988) Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior, 29 (3): 443–449. “Stimulus Properties of 1-(3,4-Methylenedioxyphenyl)-2-Aminopropane (MDA) Analogs” (Richard A. Glennon, Mamoun Yousif & Graham Patrick)

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Washington, US Government Printing Office.

Goldstein, M. & J.F. Contrera (1962) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 237 (6): 1898–1902. “The Substrate Specificity of Phenylamine-β-hydroxylase.”

Goldstein, M. et al. (1961) Journal of Neurochemistry, 6: 253–254. “Formation of 3:4:5-trimethoxyphenylethanol from mescaline.” (M. Goldstein, A.J. Friedhoff, S. Pomerantz, C. Simmons & J.F. Contrera)

Gomm, A.S. & M. Nierenstein (1931) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 53 (12): 4408–441. “The exhaustive O-methylation of quercetin.” (from Dominguez et al. 1969)

Gonzales Huerta, Ines (1960) Revista del Viernes Médico [Lima], 11 (1): 133–137. “Identificación de la Mescalina Contenida en el Trichocereus pachanoi (San Pedro).”

Goodall, McC. (1950) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 4: 550. “Dihydroxyphenylalamine and hydroxytyramine in mammalian suprarenals.”

Goodall, McC. (1950) Nature, 166 (4226): 738. “Hydroxytyramine in mammalian heart.”

Goodall, McC. & Harold Alton (1968) Biochemical Pharmacology, 17 (6): 905–908. “Metabolism of 3-hydroxytyramine (dopamine) in human subjects.”

Goodall, McC. & Norman Kirschner (1957) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226: 213–221. “Biosynthesis of adrenaline and noradrenaline in vitro.”

Goodall, McC. & Norman Kirschner (1958) Circulation, 17: 366–371. “Biosynthesis of epinephrine and norepinephrine by sympathetic nerves and ganglia.”

Goodall, McC. & L. Rosen (1963) Journal of Clinical Investigation, 42: 1578–1588. “Urinary excretion of noradrenaline and its metabolites at ten-minute intervals after intravenous injection of dl-noradrenaline-2-C14 [sic].”

Goodwin, F.K. & W.Z. Potter (1979) p. 1863, in: Barchas, J. et al. (eds.) Catecholamines: Basic and Clinical Frontiers. Pergamon Press, New York.

Gordon, M. (1960) , page 397 in A. Burger (ed.) Medicinal Chemistry. Interscience Publishers, Inc. NY.

Gorman, Peter (1995) The Best of High Times. (Best of #17) The Psychedelics Issue. 74–78. “Divine Smoke and God’s Flesh. Psychedelics and religion.” (Originally ran in the January 1990 issue of High Times)

Gottlieb, Adam (1997) Peyote and Other Psychoactive Cacti Twentieth Century Alchemist. ISBN 0-914171095-X. 85 pages.

Gottlieb, A. (1998) Peyotlevye Kaktusy

Grace, G.S. (1934) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 50: 359–372. “The Action of Mescaline and Some Related Compounds.”

Gracie & Zarkov (1984; rev. 1985) Notes from the underground. A series of groundbreaking papers which can be found many places including: http://www.hyperreal.org/psychedelics/gracie.n.zarkov.html & http://www.deoxy.org/gz.html

Grant, Campbell (1965) The Rock Paintings of the Chumash. A Study of a California Indian Culture. University of California Press: Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Grant, Mary Lee (2000) Ft. Worth Star Telegram, 23 January “Peyote thrives in South Texas.”

Greenblatt, E.N. & A.C. Osterberg (1961) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 131: 115–130. “Correlations of Activating and Lethal Effects of Excitatory Drugs in Grouped and Isolated Mice.”

Greig, Margaret E. & Anna J. Gibbons (1959) American Journal of Physiology, 196: 803–806. “Effect of various psychotomimetic drugs on rate of appearance of carbon-14 in the brains of mice after administration of C14 glucose.” [should be written 14C.]

Grieve, Maud (1931) A Modern Herbal: the medicinal, culinary, cosmetic and economic properties, cultivation and folk-lore of herbs, grasses, fungi, shrubs & trees with all their modern scientific uses. J. Cape.

Gribel, N.V. & V.G. Pashinski (1986) Vopr Onkol, 32 (12): 38–40. “Antimetastatic properties of Aloe juice.”

Grinspoon, Lester & James Bakalar (eds.) (1997) Psychedelic Drugs Reconsidered. [First published in 1979] Lindesmith Center. ISBN 0-9641568-5-7.

Grym, Rudolph (1997) Rod/ Die Gattung Lophophora. Vydavatelstvo Roman Štaník, Bratislava. (In German & Czech.) [125 pages; packed with B&W and color photos] ISBN 80-900033-9-6 (This ISBN, as printed in the book, is a typo according to Books-In-Print). [Features a nice chemical summary by Roman Štarha pp. 85–90.]

Guerra, Francisco (1967) British Journal of Addictions, 62: 171–187. “Mexican Phantastica – A Study of the Early Ethnobotanical Sources on Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Guerra, F. & H. Olivera (1954) Las Plantas fantasticas de Mexico. Imprenta del Diario Español

Guillarmot, J. (1897) Thèse Doct. Méd., Lausanne. “La Pellotine chez les aliénes.”

Guillaumin Cactees (1935) [pages 60 & 61: Cereus macrogonus.]

Gundidza, M. (1985) Central African Journal of Medicine, 31: 238–239. “Phytochemical screening of some Zimbabwean medicinal plants.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1986) Planta Medica, 558. “Insecticidal activity of Monadenium lugardae.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1990) Fitoterapia, 61: 442–444. “Action of Monadenium lugardiae latex on guinea-pig ileum.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gundidza, M. (1991) Central African Journal of Medicine, 37: 141–144. “Effect of methanol extract from Monadenium lugardiae on contractile activity of guinea-pig ileum.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Gupta, M.P. et al. (1996) International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 34: 18–27. “Screening of Panamanian medicinal plants for brine shrimp toxicity, crown gall tumor inhibition, cytotoxicity and DNA intercalation.” (M.P. Gupta, A. Monge, G.A. Karikas, A. Lopez de Cerain, P.N. Solis & E. De Leon) [from Sim et al. 2010]

Gupta, R.S. et al. (2002) Pharmaceutical Biology, 40 (6): 411–415. “Antispermatogenic Effect and Chemical Investigation of Opuntia dillenii.” (R.S. Gupta, Rakhi Sharma, Aruna Sharma, Rakesh Chaudhudery, A.K. Bhatnager, M.P. Dobhal, Y.C. Joshi & M.C. Sharma)

Gusinde, Martin (1939) Der Peyote-Kult: Entsehung und Verbreitung.

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos (1950) América Indígena, 10 (3): 215–220. “Área de mescalinismo en el Peru.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1947) Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 10 (4): 422–468. “Alteraciones mentales producidas por la ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1948)a Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 11 (2): 155–170. “Psicosis experimental producida por ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, Carlos & Guillermo Cruz Sánchez (1948)b Revista de Neuro-Psiquiatría, 11 (3): 390–401. “El test de Rorschach en la intoxicación producida por ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.”

Gutiérrez-Noriega, C. et al. (1951) Revista de Neuro-psiquiatria, 14(3): 427–441. “Estudio psicopatológico y experimental de un caso en que se ha aplicado el alcaloide de la Opuntia Cylindrica.” (C. Gutiérrez-Noriega, G. Cruz Sánchez & L.A. Guerro)

Guttman, Erich (1921) Berliner klinische Wochenschrift, 68: 235, 816. “Experimentelle Halluzination durch Anhalonium Lewinii.” [see also (1921) Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift, 47: 145.]

Guttman, Erich (1921) Journal of Mental Science, 82: 1–19. “Artificial psychoses produced by mescaline.”

Guttman, E. & W.S. Maclay (1936) Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, 16: 193–212. “Mescaline and depersonalization: therapeutic experiments.”

Guzmán-Maldonado, S.H. et al. (2010) Journal of Food Science, 75 (6): C485-C492. “Physicochemical, nutritional, and functional characterization of fruits xoconostle (Opuntia matudae) pears from Central-México Region.” (S.H. Guzmán-Maldonado, A.L. Morales-Montelongo, C. Mondragón-Jacobo, G. Herrera-Hernández, F. Guevara-Lara & R. Reynoso-Camacho)

Haagen-Smit, A.J. & M. Olivier, private communication with L. Reti.

Habermann, Vlastimil (1974)a Kaktusy, 10: 1, 2, 3, 4, 12–14, 28–33, 65–67, 81–83. “Alkaloidy kaktusů.” From Starha’s cactus alkaloid summary.

Habermann, Vlastimil (1974)b Kaktusy, 10: 123–127, 144. [“Lophophora fricii Habermann species nova.”] (From Anderson 1980 & Grym)

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)a Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 47: 157–160; “Two Red Flowering Species of Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)b Kaktusy, 11: 3–6, 24. “Lophophora jourdaniana Habermann species nova.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1975)c Kaktusy, 54–57, 80–82 “Rod Lophophora Coulter.” [From Grym 1997]

Habermann, Vlastimil (1977) Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník,  44: 17–21. “Přispěvek ke studiu halucinogenního účinku peyotlu.” [“A Contribution to the Study of the Hallucinogenic Effect of Peyote (Lophophora Coulter).”] [The reference to this as is listed in Anderson 1980 adds page 144; but I lack this article to check.]

Habermann, Vlastimil (1978)a БИОХИМИЯ [Biokhimiya / Biochimia (SSSR)], 43 (2): 246–251. “ОПРЕДЕЛЕНИЕ МЕСКАЛИНА И ПЕЛЛОТИНА В РАСТЕНИЯХ РОДА LOPIIOPHORA COULTER (СЕМ. САСТАСЕАЕ) ПРИ ПОМОЩИ ОСЦИЛЛОГРАФИЧЕСКОЙ ПОЛЯРОГРАФИИ” [“Estimation of Mescaline and Pellotine in Lophophora Coulter Plants (Cactaceae) by Oscillographic Polarography.”] Also appearing in the literature as “Stanoveni meskalinu pellotinu v r. rodu Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1978)b Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník, 46: 94–102. “Oscilografická polarografie meskalinu, pellotinu a některých strukturně blízkých alkaloidů rostlin rodu Lophophora.”

Habermann, Vlastimil (1979) Plzeňský Lékařský Sborník, 47: 61–63. “Oscilografická polarografie některých tetrahydroisochinolinových alkaloidů rostlin rodu Lophophora (Coulter).”

Habibi, Y. et al. (2002) Carbohydrate Research, 337 (17): 15938. “Isolation and structure of D-xylans from pericarp seeds of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, M. Mahrouz, & M.R. Vignon)

Habibi, Y. et al. (2004)a Carbohydrate Research, 339 (6): 1119–1127. “Structural features of pectic polysaccharides from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, A. Heyraud, M. Mahrouz & M.R. Vignon)

Habibi, Y. et al. (2004)b Carbohydrate Research, 339 (6):1201–1205. “An arabinogalactan from the skin of Opuntia ficus-indica prickly pear fruits.” (Y. Habibi, M. Mahrouz, M.F. Marais & M.R. Vignon)

Hadáček, J. et al. (1955) Chemicke Listy, 49: 271-272. “Přispěvek k syntéze meskalinu.” [“Synthesis of mescaline.”]

Haggendal, J. (1963) Acta Physiol. Scand. 59: 261-268. “The presence of 3-O-methylated noradrenaline (nor-metanephrine) in normal brain tissue.”

Hahn, George & Albert Hansel (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 71: 2183–2191. “Synthese von 1-Alkyl-isochinolen und 1.1’-Polymethylen-di-isochinolen.” 

Hahn, George (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 1210–1211. “Synthese des Mescalins. (Entgegnung auf die “Berichtigung” von K.H. Slotta u. G. Szyszka).”

Hahn, George & Fritz Rumpf (1938) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, B 71 (10): 2141-2153. “Über β-(Oxy-phenyl)-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. V. Mitteil.: Kondensation von Oxyphenyl-äthylaminen mit α-Ketosäuren.” [includes synthetic procedure for mescaline.]

Hahn, George & Otto Schales (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 1486–1493. “Über β-[Oxy-phenyl]-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. II. Mitteil.: Synthese weiterer Amina und der entsprechenden [Oxy-phenyl]essigsäuren aus natürlichen Allylverbindungen.”

Hahn & Stiehl (1936) Ber. 69: 2640. Something is wrong about this citation. LOCATE CORRECT PAPER.

Hahn, George & Heinrich Wassmuth (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67: 696–708. “Über β-(Oxyphenyl)-äthylamine und ihre Umwandlungen. I. Synthese des Mezcalins.”

Haigler, H.J. & George K. Aghajanian (1973) European Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 53–60, “Mescaline and LSD: direct and indirect effects on serotonin-containing neurons in brain.” 

Haigler, Henry J. & George K. Aghajanian (1980) European Journal of Pharmacology, 21: 53–60. “Mescaline and LSD: direct and indirect effects on serotonin-containing neurons in brain.” [from Aghajanian 1994]

Hajanarvis, L.S. (1964) Current Sci. (India) 33: 584. “Free organic acids in some xerophytes.” [From Meyer & McLaughlin 1982]

Halda (1997) Acta Mus. Richnov. Sect. Nat. 4(2): 71. [From 1998 Repertorium Plantarum Succulentarum XLIX] Lophophora viridescens (Halda) Halda

Haley, T.J. (1957) Acta Pharmacologica et Toxicologica, 13: 107.

Halstead, W.C. et al. (1942)a Journal of Neurophysiology, 5: 349–356. “Modification of cortical activity by means of intermittent photic stimulation in the monkey.” (W.C. Halstead, G.W. Knox & A.E. Walker)

Halstead, W.C. et al. (1942)b Journal of Neurophysiology, 5: 483–486. “Effects of intensity and wave length on driving cortical activity in monkeys.” (W.C. Halstead, G.W. Knox, J.I. Woolf & A.E. Walker)

Hamilton, M.G. & M. Hirst (1976) European Journal of Pharmacology, 39: 237–243. “Effects of salsolinol on smooth muscle responses to various biogenic amines.” 

Hamilton, M.G. & M. Hirst (1977) European Journal of Pharmacology, 44: 279–281. “Antagonism of smooth muscle responses to oxytocin and vasopressin by salsolinol.” 

Hamilton, M. G. et al. (1976) Pharmacologist, 18: 102–104. “Effect of salsolinol on the field-stimulated guinea-pig ileum.” (M.G. Hamilton, A.M. Marshall, K. Blum & M. Hirst)

Hamilton, M.G. et al. (1978) Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res., 2: 133–137. “Identification of an isoquinoline alkaloid after chronic exposure to ethanol.” (M.G. Hamilton, K. Blum and M. Hirst) 

Hammerschlag, Carl (1988) The Dancing Healers: A Doctor’s Journey of Healing with Native Americans. Harper Collins ISBN 0-06-250395-2. 170 pages.

Hanna, Jon (1996) (1998) Psychedelic Resource List 

Hansen, P. (1996) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 47: 263–271. “Erscheinungsformen der Gattung Lophophora.” [L. fricii var. decipiens Hansen & L. williamsii f. jourdaniana Hansen] [from Grym 1997]

Hansen, P. (1998) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 49 (8): 169–174. “Eine enorme Variationsbreite: Beobachtungen an Lophophora Williamsii (Lemaire ex Salm-Dyck) Coulter.” 

Hansen, P. (1999) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 50 (9): 213–218. “Die Formenvielfalt von Lophophora diffusa (Croizat) Bravo 

Hansen, P. (2000) Kakteen und andere Sukulenten, 51 (9): 225–232. “Lophophora fricii Habermann und die umstrittene Varietät Lophophora Williamsii var decipiens Croizat.”

Hapke, H.J. (1995) DTW – Deutsche Tierarztliche Wochenschrifte, 102: 228–232. “Pharmacological effects of hordenine.”

Hara, H. et al. (1982) Heterocycles, 17: 293–296. “A Biomimetic Synthesis of (±)-Tetrahydrotakatonine, (±)-O-Methylgigantine, and Tehuanine.” (Hirohi Hara, Akira Tsunashima, Hiroshi Shinoki, Osamu Hoshino & Bunsake Umezawa)

Hardman, H.F. et al. (1973) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 25: 299–300. “Relationship of the Structure of Mescaline and Seven Analogs to Toxicity and Behavior in Five Species of Laboratory Animals.”(Harold F. Hardman, Coryce O. Haavik and Maurice H. Seevers) [This study was performed on behalf of the US Army in the 1950’s and declassified in 1969.]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1991) The Ingens Bull. 4: 27–28. “Psychoactive Mesembs.” [From Hargreaves 1998]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1993) The Euphorbiaceae Study Group Bull. 6 (1): 14–18. “Euphorbia davyi and other khadi sources.” [From Hargreaves 1998]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1998) Plants Used to Make Khadi. [Paper presented at the Huntington’s Annual Succulent Symposium 1998. Copy kindly furnished by author.]

Hargreaves, Bruce J. (1999) Eleusis, 3: 100–104. “Piante impiegate nella preparazione del Khadi (Sud Africa). Plants used to make Khadi (South Africa)” [ [This was originally a paper presented at the Huntington’s Annual Succulent Symposium in 1998]

Harlay (1902) Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie 6 (16): 193–198. “Sur le mucilage du Cactus à raquettes.” [From Hobschette 1929]

Harley-Mason, J. et al. (1958) Confina Neurologica, 18: 152–155. “I. The Metabolism of mescalin in the human. II. Delayed reactions to mescalin.” (J. Harley-Mason, A.H. Laird & J.R. Smythies.)

Harley, K.L.S. & A.J. Thorsteinson (1967) Can. J. Zoo. 45: 305.

Harmon, James E. (1957) Journal of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America 29: 167–170. “The Persecuted Peyote.”

Harner, Michael (1980) Way of the Shaman: A guide to power and healing. Harper & Row; NY

Harner, Michael J. (Ed) (1973) Hallucinogens and Shamanism. New York/ Oxford University Press 1973. ISBN 0-19-501649-1.

Harrison, C.M.H., et al. (1976) Nature, 260: 138–139. “Mescaline as a mitotic spindle inhibitor.” (C.M.H. Harrison, B.M. Page & H.M. Keir)

Hart, Jeffrey A. (1979) Botanical Museum Leaflets Harvard University, 27 (10): 261– 307. “The ethnobotany of the Flathead Indians of Western Montana.”

Hartwell, J.L. (1968) Lloydia, 31 (2): 71–170. “Plants used against cancer. A survey.” (part of a larger series)

Hartwich, C. & E. Zwicky (1914) Apotheker-Zeitung 29: 925–926, 937–939, 949–950 & 961–962. “Über Channa, ein Genussmittel der Hottentotten.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Hatfield, G.M. et al. (1977) Lloydia, 40 (4): 374–383. “An investigation of Sophora secundiflora seeds (Mescal Beans.)”

Havard, Valery (1869) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 23 (2): 33–46. “Drink Plants of the North American Indians.”

Hayes, Alden (1940) New Mexico Anthropologist, 4 (2): 34–36. “Peyote Cult on the Goshiute Reservation at Deep Creek.”

Hazum, E. et al. (1981) Science, 213 (28): 1010–1012. “Morphine in Cow and Human Milk: Could Dietary Morphine Constitute a Ligand for Specific Morphine (m) Receptors?” (Eli Hazum, Julie J. Sabatka, Kwen-Jen Chang, David A. Brent, John W.A. Findlay & Pedro Cuatrecasas) 

Heacock, R.A. & Janet E. Forrest (1973) Journal of Chromatography, 78: 241-250. “The use of electron-acceptor reagents for the detection of some hallucinogens.”

Heacock & Hutzinger (1961) Chem. Ind. (London) 595.

Hebbard, Frederick W. & Roland Fischer (1966) Psychopharmacologia (Berlin) 9 (2): 145–156. “Effects of Psilocybin, LSD and Mescaline on small involuntary eye movements.” [Experienced users might find their graphic presentations intriguing.]

Hecker, R.J. et al. (1970) J. Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technol. 16: 52.

Hedendal, B.E. in Health Consciousness Vol 13 (1): 14–17.

Heffter, Arthur (1894)a Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Archiv für Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 34: 65–86. “Ueber Pellote. Ein Beitrag zur pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Cacteen.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1894)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 27: 2975–2979. “Ueber zwei Cacteenalkaloïde.” [Pellotine from A. williamsii (0.89%) and Hordenine (Anhaline) from A. fissuratum (0.2 gm from 1 kg)] 

Heffter, Arthur (1896) Ber. 29: 221-227; See in Heffter 1896a.

Heffter, Arthur (1896)a Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 29: 216–227. “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde II. Mitteilung” [Pellotine and Mescaline.] 

Heffter, Arthur (1896)b Therapeutische Monatshefte, 10: 327–328. “Ueber Pellotin” 

Heffter, Arthur (1896)c Apotheker Zeitung, 11: 746. “Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis der Cactaceen.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1898)a Naunyn-Schmeidebergs Archiv fur experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 40: 385–429. “Ueber Pellote. Beitrage zur chemischen und pharmakologischen Kenntnis der Cacteen. II. Mittheilung.” 

Heffter, Arthur (1898)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 31: 1193–1199. “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde. (III. Mittheilung.)” [Pellotine, Mescaline, Anhalonidine, Lophophorine, Anhalonine.] 

Heffter, Arthur (1901) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 34: 3004–3015 “Ueber Cacteenalkaloïde. (IV. Mittheilung.)” [Anhalamine, Mescaline, Anhalonidine.]

Heffter, Arthur (ed.) (1924) Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie. Volume Two Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Heffter, Arthur & R. Capellman (1905) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 38 (3): 3634–3640. “Versuch zur synthese des mezcalins.”

Hegnauer, R. (1964) “40. Cactaceae”, pp. 324–336: in Chemotaxonomie der Pflanzen [Vol. 3: Dicotyledonae: Acanthaceae–Cyrillaceae] Birkhauser Verlag: Basel & Stuttgart.

Heinrich, C. et al. (1999) Eleusis, 3: 27–68. “Giasone, L’Uomo-Droga/ Jason, The Drug Man” (Clark Heinrich, Carl A.P. Ruck & Daniel B. Staples)

Hell, Christina (1988) Hirsch, Mais, Peyote in der Konzeption der Huichol. Klaus Renner Verlag: Hohenschläftlarn.

Helmlin, Hans-Jörg & Rudolf Brenneisen (1992) Journal of Chromatography, 593: 87–94. “Determination of psychotropic phenylalkylamine derivatives in biological matrices by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection.” (Results were min/max from 6 samples purchased in Switzerland via retail outlets or obtained from private collections. No further details or any discussion of particulars was included.)

Hennings, Paul (1888) Gartenflora, 37: 410–412. (fig. 92–93) “Eine giftige Kaktee, Anhalonium Lewinii N. Sp.”

Henry, J.L. et al. (2003) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 27: 381–382. “The analysis and distribution of mescaline in postmortem tissues.“ (J.L. Henry, J. Epley & T.P. Rohrig)

Henry, Thomas Anderson (1949) The Plant Alkaloids. Fourth Edition (Second Edition was 1924)

Herbert, Richard B. & Abdullah E. Kattah (1990) Tetrahedron 46 (20): 7105–7118. “The Biosynthesis of Sceletium Alkaloids in Sceletium subvelutinum L. Bolus.”

Hermle, L. et al. (1981) Teratology. A Journal of Abnormal Development, 23 (3): 287–291. “Teratogenic effects of mescaline, epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in the hamster.” (L. Hermle, M. Funfgeld, G. Oepen, H. Botsch, E. Gouzoulis, E. Fehrenbach, K.S. Hirsch & H.I. Fritz)

Hermle, L. et al. (1992) Biological Psychiatry, 32: 976–991. “Mescaline-Induced Psychopathological, Neuropsychological, and Neurometabolic Effects in Normal Subjects: Experimental Psychosis as a Tool for Psychiatric Research.” (Leo Hermle, Matthias Ftinfgeld, Godehard Oepen, Hanno Botsch, Dieter Borchardt, Euphrosyne Gouzoulis, Rose A. Fehrenbach & Manfred Spitzer)

Hernández, Francisco (1900) Anales del Instituto Médico Nacional, 4 (11): 204. “De Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae.” Reprint of 1790 [from LaBarre]

Hernández, Francisco (1900) Historia, 1577. Abridgement: Rerum medicarum Novae Hispaniae thesaurus, seu(nova) plantarum, animalium, mineralium Mexicananorum historia. Mascardi: Rome [from Stewart — but I cannot locate the cited information in this book.]

Hernandez, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1615) Quatro libros De la naturaleza y viritudes.

Hernandez, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1650) Rerum medicarum Novae Hispani[ae] thesaurus, sev plantarum, animalium, mineralium Mexicananorum historia.

Hernández, Francisco (Francisci Hernandi) (1790) De Historia Plantarum Novae Hispaniae, 3: 70–71. “Peyotl Zacatecensis.” Madrid; Ibarrae. 572 pages

Hernández, Francisco died in 1578.

Herre, H. (1971) The Genera of the Mesembryanthemaceae.Tafelberg-Uitgewers Beperk Cape Town. ISBN 0 624 00002 8 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1930)a Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 6 (II): 43–49. “Datos quimicos sobre el Echinopsis eyriesii (Turpin) Zucc” [1930 CA 24: 4077]

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1930)b Revista de la Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 6: 75–85. “Datos quimicos sobre el Gymnocalycium gibbosum (Haw.) Pfeiff.” [1930 CA 24: 4077]

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1931) Revista Farmaceutica (Buenos Aires), 74: 87–99. “Nota sobre algunas reacciónes microquímicas de la mezcalina.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1932a) Revista Farmaceutica, (Buenos Aires) 74: 251-261. “Datos quimicos sobre el Gymnocalycium multiflorum (Hook.) Britton and Rose.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1932b) Revista Farmaceutica, (Buenos Aires) 74: 375–381. “Datos quimicos sobre Trichocereus sp. aff. T. Terschecki.” 

Herrero-Ducloux, Enrique (1943) Microchemical Notes on Doping’. Separate (Buenos Aires) 58 pages plus 100 pages of microphotographs. Preparation of reagents and microchemical reactions for a variety of compounds including mescaline. In Spanish. [From (1944) CA 38: 16077.] LaBarre lists a publication (undated) by this author titled; Notas Microquimicas sobre “Doping”, Buenos Aires, 267 pp.”

Hesse, O. (1871) Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft, 4 (2): 693-697. “Chemische Studien über die Alkaloide des Opiums.”

Hesse, O. (1872) Ann. Chem. Suppl. 8: 261 

Hewitt, Terry (1993)(1997) The Complete Book of Cactus & Succulents. 176 pages. Dorling Kindersley Ltd., London. ISBN 0-7894-1657-3. Beautifully illustrated book but hardly “complete”.

Heyl, George (1901) (E. Reichardt) Archiv der Pharmazie, [says Archiv der Pharmacie on the spine] 239: 451–473. “Über das Vorkommen von Alkaloiden und Saponinen in Cacteen.” 

Heyl, George (1928) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, [says Archiv der Pharmazie, on the spine] 266 (3): 668-673. “Über das Alkaloid von Carnegiea gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. und Rose. (Cereus giganteus Engelm.)”

Heym, J. et al. (1984) European Journal of Pharmacology, 101: 57–68. “Some behavioral effects of hallucinogens are mediated by a postsynaptic serotonergic action: evidence from single unit studies in freely moving cats.” (James Heym, Kurt Rasmussen & Barry l. Jacobs)

Hiller, K. et al. (1973) Die Pharmazie, 28: 409–410. “Erynginol A – Ein neues Triterpensapogenin.” (K. Hiller, M. Keipert, S. Pfeiffer, L. Tökés & J. Nelson)

Himwich, Harold E. (1956) in Cholden (ed.) Proceedings of the Round Table on lysergic acid diethylamide and mescaline in experimental psychiatry, held at the annual meetings of the American Psychiatric Association, Atlantic City, New Jersey, May 12, 1955. NewYork: Grune & Stratton.

Himwich, Harold E. (1958) Science, 127 (3289): 59–72. “Psychopharmacologic drugs.”

Hipólito L. et al. (2007) Current Drug Metabolism, 8 (7): 716–727. “Brain, metabolism of ethanol and alcoholism: an update.” (L. Hipólito, M.J. Sánchez, A. Polache & L. Granero)

Hipólito, L. et al. (2012) Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (1): 362–378. “Revisiting the controversial role of salsolinol in the neurobiological effects of ethanol: old and new vistas.” (L. Hipólito, M.J. Sánchez-Catalán, L. Martí-Prats, L Granero & A. Polache)

Hirao, Hiroshi (1979) Color Encylopaedia of Cacti. Seibundo Shinkosha Publ. Co. Ltd. An awesome assemblage of color photos on almost every page, many with flowers, numerous crested specimens and odd Astrophytums we have seen nowhere else. Despite the text being entirely in Japanese this incredible book belongs in the library of any cactophile.

Hirsch, K.S. & H. Ira Fritz (1974) Teratology. A Journal of Abnormal Development, 9 (3): A-19– A-20. “A comparison of mescaline with epinephrine and nor-epinephrine in the hamster.”

Hjort, A.M. (1934) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 52: 101-112. Said to describe the physiological and toxicological properties of some N-methylated phenethylamines. Our available copies of this jourrnal only go back to 1940.

Hjort, A.M. et al. (1942) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Experimental Therapeutics, 76: 263–269. “Relative Pharmacological Effects of 1-Methyl-3,4-Dihydro- and 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-Tetrahydro-Isoquinoline Derivatives.” (Axel M. Hjort, Edwin J. DeBeer, Johannes S. Buck & Lowell O. Randall)

Ho, B.T. et al. (1970) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 13 (1): 26–30. “Analogs of α-Methylphenethylamine (Amphetamine). I. Synthesis and Pharmacological Activity of Some Methoxy and/or Methyl Analogs.” (Beng T. Ho, William M. McIsaac, Rong An, L. Wayne Tansy, K.E. Walker, Leo F. Englert, Jr. & Michael B. Noel)

Hobschette, A. (1929) Les Cactacées Médicinales. Gaston Doin & Cie., Paris. 79 pages.

Hoch, Paul H. (1951) American Journal of Psychiatry, 107: 607–611. “Experimentally produced psychoses.” [Ibidem 108 (1952) 579.]

Hoch, Paul H. (1955) American Journal of Psychiatry, 111 (10): 787–790. “Experimental psychiatry.” 

Hoch, Paul H. et al. (1952)a American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 579–584. “Effects of mescaline and lysergic acid (d-LSD-25)” (Paul H. Hoch, James P. Cattell & Harry H. Pennes)

Hoch, Paul H. et al. (1952)b American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 585–589. “Effects of drugs: theoretical considerations from a psychological viewpoint.” (Paul H. Hoch, James P. Cattell & Harry H. Pennes) 

Hodgkins, J.E. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, 14: 1321–1324. “Two new alkaloids in cacti.” (J.E. Hodgkins, S.D. Brown and J.L. Massingill)

Hoebel, E. Adamson (1950) Western Humanities Review, 3: 126–130. “The Wonderful Herb: An Indian Cult Vision Experience.”

Hoffer, Abram & Humphrey Osmond (1967) The Hallucinogens. New York: Academic Press

Hoffer, Abram et al. (1954) Journal of Mental Science, 100 (418): 29–45. “Schizophrenia: A new approach, II. Result of a year’s research.” (Abram Hoffer, Humphrey Osmond & John Smythies)

Hoffmann, Inge (1984) Cactus & Succulent Journal (US), 56 (2): 57–59. “Argentina: Cactus Hunter’s Paradise, Part II.” 

Hofmann, Albert (1961) Journal of Experimental Medical Science, 5: 31. 

Hogshire, Jim (1994) Opium for the Masses: A Practical Guide to Growing Poppies and Making Opium. Loompanics Unlimited. 112 pages.

Hogshire, Jim (1999) Pills a Go Go: Fiendish Investigation into Pill Marketing, Art, History, and Consumption. Feral House. 320 pages.

Holden, W.C. (1937) Bulletin of the Texas Archeological and Paleontological Society, 9: 48–73. “Excavation of Murrah Cave.”

Holdstock, T.M. & H.M. Stevens (1975) Forensic Sciences, 6 (3): 187–195. “The recovery of alkaloids after their location on thin layer chromatograms.”

Holguín, D. Gonzalez (1989) Vocabulario de la lengua general de todo el Peru llamada lengua quichua o del Inca [first ed. 1608] Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos: Lima. 

Hollister, Leo E. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of the Sciences, 96: 80–88. “Drug-induced psychoses and schizophrenic reactions: a critical comparison.”

Hollister, Leo E. (1969) Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, (Jan.-Feb.): 24–29. “Steroids and Moods: Correlations in Schizophrenics and Subjects Treated With Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), Mescaline, Tetrahydrocannabinol, and Synhexyl.” 

Hollister, Leo E. & Arnold J. Friedhoff (1966) Nature, 210: 1377–1378. “Effects of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine in man” [Observed no effects. Used both mescaline and placebo for controls.]

Hollister, Leo E. & Alan M. Hartman (1962) Comprehensive Psychiatry,  3 (4): 235–241. “Mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin: comparison of clinical syndromes, effects on color perception and biochemical measures.”

Holmes, E.M. (1897) Pharm. Journ. 5: 165–167. “Cactus grandiflorus.” [From Hobschette 1929]

Holmes, E.M. (1921) Journal of the American Medical Association, 10 (2): 103–105, “Mexican Herbs and Drugs.”

Hooker, William Jackson (1847) Curtis’s Botanial Magazine, 73 [Volume III of the Third Series (or Volume LXXIII of the whole work)]: Pages 85–87: Entry 4296. “Tab. 4296. Echinocactus Williamsii.” (Published by Reeve, Benham & Reeve, London)

Hopf, A. and Eckert, H. (1969) Psychopharmacologia, 16: 201-222. “Autoradiographic Studies on the Distribution of Psychoactive Drugs in the Rat Brain. III. 14C-Psilocin.”

Horan, H. & D.G. O’Donovan (1971) J. Chem. Soc. (C) 2083–2085. “Biosynthesis of dolicotheline.”

Horan et al. 1971 in the literature referred to Horan & O’Donovan 1971

Hörhammer, L. et al. (1966) Chemische Berichte, 99 (4): 1384–1387. “Über die Synthese von Isorhamnetinglykosiden, I. Isolierung und Synthese zweier Flavonol-glykoside von Cereus grandiflorus Mill.“ (Ludwig Hörhammer, Hildebert Wagner, Hans-Günter Arndt & Loránd Farkas)

Hori, K. (1937) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 41: 13. “Ueber experimentelle Mescalinvergiftung: Versuch am Menschen.”

Hori, K. (1938) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 42: 4. “Versuch an Tieren.”

Hornemann, K.M. Kelley et al. (1972) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 61: 41–45. “Cactus Alkaloids XII. β-Phenethylamine Alkaloids of the Genus Coryphantha” (K.M. Kelley Horneman, J.M. Neal & J.L. McLaughlin)

Horning, E.C. (ed.) (1955) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III. John Wiley & Sons.

Hortus refers to Liberty Hyde Bailey & Ethel Zoe Bailey (1976) Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Revised and expanded by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. Macmillan Publishing Co. 1290 pages.

Hoshikawa 1964 is the Chemical Abstracts of Hoshikawa 1962.

Hoshikawa, Hideo (1962) Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi, 58: 241-260 [“Pharmacological studies of hallucinogens. I. Influences of mescaline on the central nervous system with special references to the psychic factors.”]; 58: 261-274 [“II. General pharmacological properties of mescaline.”]; 58: 275–288 [“III. Bibliographic considerations of mescaline.”] [Chemical Abstracts (1964) 60: 7338e-j]

Hosko, Michael J. Jr. & Richard Tislow (1956) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 15: 440. [Abstract; entry 1432] “Acute Tolerance to Mescaline in the Dog.”

Howard, James H. (1956) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 12: 432–436. “An Oto-Omaha Peyote Ritual.”

Howard, James H. (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 75–87. “The mescal bean cult of the Central and Southern Plains: an ancestor of the peyote cult?”

Howard, James H. (1962) Journal of American Folklore, 75 (296): 10–14. “Peyote jokes.” 

Howe, R.C. et al. (1977)a Phytochemistry, 16 (1): 151. “N-Methyltyramine and hordenine from Mammillaria microcarpa.” (Roberta C. Howe, Jerry L. McLaughlin & Duwayne Statz) 

Howe, R.C. et al. (1977)b Planta Medica, 31 (3): 294–296. “Cactus alkaloids. XXXIV. Hordenine HCl from Coryphantha
vivipara var. arizonica.” (Roberta C. Howe, Richard L. Ranieri, Duwayne Statz & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Hrdlička, Aleš (1908) Bulletin, Bureau of American Ethnology, No. 34. “Physiological and Medical Observations among the Indians of the Southwestern United States and Northern Mexico.” [from Schultes 1938)

Hsu, H.-Y. et al. (1986) Oriental Materia Medica, A concise guide.  Oriental Healing Arts Institute & Keats Publishing.  ISBN 0-87983-710-1. (Hong-yen Hsu, Yuh-pan Chen, Shuenn-jyi Shen, Chau-shin Hsu, Chien-chih Chen & Hsien-chang Chang)

Hubner, C.F. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4667–4669. “Studies of imidazole compounds. V. A new and improved synthesis of 4-(2-substituted aminoethyl)-imidazoles.”

Huebner, C.F. et al. (1949) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 71: 3942–3944. “Studies of imidazole compounds. IX. Derivatives of 4-ethylimidazole.” (C.F. Huebner, R.A. Turner & C. Scholz)

Huerta 1960 see as Gonzales Huerta 1960

Hughes et al. (1977) Can J. Chem. 55: 3304

Hulsey, D. et al. (2011) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 5 (2): 677–683. “Clinal geographic variation in mescaline concentration among Texas populations of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae).” (Diana Hulsey, M. Abul Kalam, Paul Daley, Norma Fowler & Martin Terry)

Humphreys, Ray M. (1916) Denver Times, 2 December. “Peyote Replaces Whiskey on Reservation: Indians Get ‘Jags’ With the Mescal Bean.” [An interview with Chief Special Officer Henry A. Larson of the BIA]

Hunt, David (1992) CITES Cactaceae Checklist.

Hunt, David (2000) CITES Cactaceae Checklist. Second Edition. RBG Kew & the IOS. ISBN 1 900347 45 8

Hunt, David et al. (2006) The New Cactus Lexicon. dh books. ISBN 0 9538134 4 4. 2 volumes- text & atlas.

Hunt, Linda (1991) Secret Agenda: The United States Government Nazi Scientists and Operation Paperclip. St. Martin’s Press.

Huson, Paul (2001) Mastering Herbalism: A Practical Guide. Madison Books. ISBN-10: 1568331819; ISBN-13: 978-1568331812. 372 pages

Huszti, Z. and Borsy, J. (1968) J. Neurochem. 15: 1407–1413.

Hutchings, R.H (1897) State Hospital Bulletin, Utica, 2: 45–48. “Report on the use of pellotine as a sedative and hypnotic”

Huxley, Aldous (1954) The Doors of Perception. Chatto and Windus, London, England [also Harper, New York]

Huxley, Aldous (1956) Heaven and Hell. Chatto and Windus, London.

Hyde, J. et al. (1949) J. Neurophysiol. 12: 17 [from Patel]

Hyde, Robert (1960) “Psychological and Social Determinants of Drug Action.” pp. 297–312 in G.J. Sarwer-Foner (ed.) The Dynamics of Psychiatric Drugs 

Icke, Roland N. & Burnett B. Wisegarver [with Gordon A. Alles) (1955) “β-Phenethyldimethylamine (Phenethylamine, N,N-dimethyl-).” pp. 723–725, in E.C. Horning (ed.) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III. 

Ih-Sheng et al. (in literature) see as Chen et al.

Iliff, Flora Gregg (date?) People of the Blue Water. My adventures among the Walapai and Havasupai Indians. Harper & Brothers: New York

Imai, T. et al. (2006) Journal of Natural Medicine, 60: 49–53. “Triterpenoid saponins from cultural plants of Stenocereus stellatus (Cactaceae).” (Takeo Imai, Sachie Okazaki, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Imaizumi, Reiji et al. (1958) Japanese Journal of Pharmacology, 8: 22–30. “Formation of Hydroxytyramine from tyramine in the Adrenal gland.”

Impellizzeri, G. & M. Piattelli (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 2499–2502. “Biosynthesis of Indicaxanthin in Opuntia ficus-indica fruits.”

Impellizzeri, G. et al. (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (9): 2295–2296. “Acylated Betacyanins from Drosanthemum floribundum.” (Guiseppe Impellizzeri, Mario Piatelli & Sebastiano Sciuto)

Imperato, Pascal James (1977) African Folk Medicine. York Press: Baltimore. 251 pages. ISBN 0-912752-08-4

Ingle, P.H. & H. Taylor (1963) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 15: 620–623. “Synthesis of some histamine derivatives having potential histamine-like or antihistamine activity.” 

Innes, Clive (1981) The Complete Handbook of Cacti and Succulents. Ward Lock Ltd., London. ISBN 0-442-24122-4

Innes, Clives & Charles Glass (1991) Cacti. Portland House; New York. ISBN 0-517-05650-X. L.w.var. williamsii (in flower) & L. w. var. diffusa & L.w. var caespitosa (all color) p. 150

Inubushi, Y. & K. Fujitani (1958) J. Pharm. Soc. Japan (Yakugaku Zasshi,) 78: 486-?. “An unexpected reaction in a Pomeranz-Fritsch isoquinoline synthesis.”

Ippen, H. (1968) Index Pharmacorum-Synonyma, Struktur und Wirkung der organisch-chemischen Arzneistoffe. Stuttgart: George Thieme Verlag. (From Usdin & Efron 1979)

Isbell, Harris (1959) Psychopharmacologia, 1(1): 29–38. “Comparison of the Reactions Induced by Psilocybin and LSD-25 in Man.”

Isbell, Harris et al. (1962) Psychopharmacologia, 2: 147–159. “Cross tolerance between LSD and psilocybin.” (Harris Isbell, A.B. Wolbach, A. Wikler & E.J. Miner)

Isibasi, T. (1937) Psychiatria et neurologia japonica, 41: 38-?. “Beitraege zur Kentniss der experimentellen Meskalinvergiftung an Normalen.”

Ito, Yoshio (1952) Cacti, 96 [Lophophora Williamsii var. caespitosa Y.Ito] from Anderson 1980 & Grym 1997]

Iversen, L.L. & J. Glowinski (1966) J. Neurochem. 13: 671.

Iversen, L.L. & B. Jarrott (1970) Biochem. Pharm. 19: 1841. 

Iversen, L.L et al. (1966) J. Pharm. Exp. Ther. 151: 273. (L.L. Iversen, J. Glowinski and J. Axelrod)

Iwamoto, H.K. (1942–1944) Thesis, Graduate School of the University of Maryland, 43 [Abstract] “The synthesis of analogs of mescaline.” [From LaBarre (1975)]

Iwasa, K. et al. (2001) Bioorganic Medicinal Chemistry, 9 (11): 2871-2884. “Simple isoquinoline and benzylisoquinoline alkaloids as potential antimicrobial, antimalarial, cytotoxic, and anti-HIV agents.” (K. Iwasa, M Moriyasu, Y Tachibana, HS Kim, Y Wataya, W Wiegrebe, KF Bastow, LM Cosentino, M Kozuka & KH Lee)

Izumi, Seiichi and Toshiko Sono (1960) Andes 2. Excavations at Kotosh, Peru 1960. 

Jacob, J. (1966) Proceedings of the European Society for the Study of Drug Toxicity, 8: 30–58

Jacob, J. & C. Lafille (1963) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 145: 528-?. 

Jacob, J. et al. (1962) Medicina Experimentalis 7: 296-?. 

Jacob, J. et al. (1964) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 148: 14-?.

Jacobsen, Erik (1963) Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 4: 480–503. “The Clinical Pharmacology of the Hallucinogens.”

Jacobsen, Hermann (1960) A Handbook of Succulent Plants: Descriptions, Synonyms and Cultural Details For Succulents Other Than Cactaceae. Volume 3. Mesembryanthemums (Ficoidaceae). Blandford Press, London. 

Jacquet, R. (1934) Recharches botaniques et chimiques sur quelques Cactaceées. Thèse franc. Pharm., Paris 176 pp. 

Jaensch, W. (1920) Zentralblatt für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 23: 119–120. “Pharmakologische Versuche über die Beziehungen optischer Konstitutionsstigmen zu den Halluzinationen.”

James, Jennifer (1996) Peyote and Mescaline. A brief Account of the History and Uses of theDivine Cactus.” Do It Now. 0-89230-210-0. Do It Now Foundation Box 27568, Tempe, AZ 85285 602 491-0393 D.I.N. Publications. A one page (double sided) informational brochure.

James, W. O. (1948) Nature, 161 (4100): 851–852. “Demonstration
and separation of noradrenaline, adrenaline, and
methyladrenaline.” 

Janiger, Oscar & Marlene Dobkin de Rios (1975) Economic Botany, 30: 149–151. “Nicotiana an Hallucinogen?”

Janniger, Otto & Gertrude Paltin (1971) A Bibliography of LSD, Mescaline, from the Earliest Researches to the Beginnings of Suppression. Fitz Hugh Memorial Library: San Francisco

Janot, M. & M. Bernier (1933) Bulletin des sciences pharmacologiques, 40: 145–153. “Essai de localisation des alcaloïdes dans le peyotl.” 

Jantz, H. (1940)a Klinische Wochenscrift, 19: 774. “Zur pathophysiologie des Meskalinrausches.” [also (1940)b Medizinische Klinik (Berlin) 36: 790.]

Jantz, H. (1941) Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 171: 28–56. “Veränderung des Stoffwechsels im Meskalinrausch beim Menschen und im Tierversuch.”

Jarrard, L.E. (1963) Psychopharmacology, 5: 39–46.

Jayasuriya, H. et al. (2005) Journal of Natural Products, 68 (8): 1247–1252. “Diterpenoid, steroid, and triterpenoid agonists of liver X receptors from diversified terrestrial plants and marine sources.” (H. Jayasuriya, K.B. Herath, J.G. Ondeyka, Z. Guan, R.P. Borris, S. Tiwari, W. de Jong, F. Chavez, J. Moss, D.W. Stevenson, H.T. Beck, M. Slattery, N. Zamora, M. Schulman, A. Ali, N. Sharma, K. MacNaul, N. Hayes, J.G. Menke & S.B. Singh)

Jeffcoate, W. J. et al. (1979) Lancet, 1: 1157–1159. “Prevention of effects of alcohol intoxication by naloxone.” (W.J. Jeffcoate, M.H. Cullen, M. Herbert, A.G. Hastings & C.P. Walder)

Jeffs, Peter W. (1981) Alkaloids (N.Y.) 19: 26. [From Southon & Buckingham]

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1969) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 91 (14): 3831–3839. “Structure of the Mesembranols and the Absolute Configuration of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids.” (P.W. Jeffs, Richard L. Hawks & D.S. Farrier)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1970) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 35 (10): 3512–3518. “Alkaloids of Sceletium Species. III. The Structures of Four New Alkaloids from S. strictum.” (P.W. Jeffs, G. Ahmann, H.F. Campbell, D.S. Farrier, G. Ganguli & Richard L. Hawks)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 93 (15): 3752–3758. “Biosynthesis of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids. The Amino Acid Precursors.” (Peter W. Jeffs, W.C. Archie, Richard L. Hawks & D.S. Farrier)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)b Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 228–230. “Biosynthesis of Mesembrine and Related Alkaloids, Mode of Incorporation of Phenylalanine, and Examination of Norbelladines as Precursors.” (Peter W. Jeffs, H.F. Campbell, D.S. Farrier & G. Molina)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1971)c Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1466–1467. “The Structure of Sceletium Alkaloid A4, a Pyridine Alkaloid from Sceletium namaquense: Direct Method X-Ray Determination.” (Peter W. Jeffs, P.A. Luhan, Andrew T. McPhail & N.H. Martin)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1974)a Journal of Organic Chemistry, 39 (18): 2703–2710. “Sceletium Alkaloids. VI. Minor Alkaloids of S. namaquense and S. strictum.” (Peter W. Jeffs, T. Capps, D.B. Johnson, J.M. Karle, N.H. Martin & B. Rauckman)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1974)b Phytochemistry, 13: 933–945. “Incorporation of Phenylalanine and Examination of Norbelladines as Precursors of the Mesembrine Alkaloids.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Henry F. Campbell, David S. Farrier, Gouranga Ganguli, Ned H. Martin & Gerado Molina)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1978) Phytochemistry, 17: 719–728. “Cinnamic Acid Intermediates as Precursors to Mesembrine and Some Observations on the Late Stages in the Biosynthesis of the Mesembrine Alkaloids.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Jean M. Karle & Ned H. Martin)

Jeffs, P.W. et al. (1982) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 47: 3611–3617. “Sceletium Alkaloids. Structures of Five New Bases from Sceletium namaquense.” (Peter W. Jeffs, Thomas M. Capps & Richard Redfearn)

Jensch, H. (1929) (1931) German Patent 526,172, April 7, 1929; CA (1931) 25: 4284. 

Jensch, H. (1936) Medizin und Chemie, 3: 408–411. “Zur Synthese der Mezcalins.”

Jensen, H. (1935) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 57 (10): 1765–1768. “Chemical studies on toad poisons. VII. Bufo arenarum, Bufo regularis, and Xenopus laevis.”

Jensen, H. & K.K. Chen (1929) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 82: 397–401. “A Chemical Study of Ch’an Su, The Dried Venom of the Chinese Toad, with Special Reference to the Isolation of Epinephrine.”

Jiang, J. et al. (2006) Steroids, 71: 1073–1077. “Two novel C29-5β-sterols from the stems of Opuntia dillenii.” (Jianqin Jiang, Yanfang Li, Zhen Chen, Zhida Min & Fengchang Lou)

Jiang, J.Q. et al. (2003) Yao Xue Xue Bao, 38 (9): 677–679. [A new alkaloid from Opuntia vulgaris.] Article is in Chinese.(J.Q. Jiang, W.C. Ye, Y.H. Liu, Z. Chen, Z.D. Min & F.C. Lou) [from PubMed]

Jiao, R.H. et al. (2006) Organic Letters, 8 (25): 5709–5712. “Chaetominine a cytotoxic alkaloid produced by endophytic Chaetomium sp. IFB-E015.”

Jilek, Kugler, Hofer & Lawder (1963) Confinia Neurologica, 23: 201-220 in the literature meant Knoll et al. 1963. 

Jimenez, A.C. See as Caycho Jimenez, A.

Joachimoglu, G. & E. Keeser (1924) “Kakteenalkaloide” pp. 1104–1113, in A. Heffter’s Handbuch der Experimentellen Pharmakologie, Bd. II. Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1924. 0

Johnson et al. (1970) Psychopharm. 17: 434. [G. Johnson, A.J. Friedhoff, M. Alpert and J. Marchitello)

Johnson, Harry (1958–1968) entries from the Johnson Cactus Gardens catalogs.

Johnson, Treat Baldwin & H.H. Guest (1909) American Chemical Journal, 42: 340–353. “Researches on Amines: Synthesis of Methylphenylethylamine.”

Johnson, Timothy (1999) CRC Ethnobotany Desk Reference. CRC Press, Boca Raton. ISBN 0-8493-1187-X. 1211 pages.

Johnson, William E. “Pussyfoot” (1912) Indian School Journal, 12 (7): 239–242; (8): 289–293. “History, Use and Effects of Peyote.”

Jolad, S.D. & Cornelius Steelink (1969) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 34 (5): 1367–1369. “Thurberin, a New Pentacyclic Triterpene from Organ Pipe Cactus.” 

Jolly, F. (1896)a Therapeut. Monatsh., 10: 328–329. “Ueber die schlafmachende Wirkung des Pellotinum muriaticum.” 

Jolly, F. (1896)b Deut. Med. Wochenschrift 22: 375–376. “Ueber Pellotin als Schlafmittel.”

Jones, A.M. (1954) Africa 24: 26–47. “African Rhythm.”

Jones, Orlando (1890) British Medical Journal, January 11: 70. [From Hobschette 1929] 

Jonsson, Gösta & Torbjörn Malmfors (1970) Histochemie. 24 (1): 1–6. “Determination of small amounts of noradrenaline using a fluorescence histochemical method.”

Joralemon, Donald & Douglas Sharon (1993) Sorcery and shamanism: curanderos and clients in northern Peru. University of Utah Press. [A book review appeared in (1996) Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 10 (1): 100–102.]

J PACD = Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development.

Julian, Percy L. (1943) Proceedings of Indiana Academy of Science, 34: 122–125. “On the Progenitors of Certain Plant Alkaloids and the Mechanisms of the Formation in the Plant Structure.”

Julien, R.M. (1998) A Primer of Drug Action. 8th edition. W.H. Freeman, NY

References: K through O

References K-O used for Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.

[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

As a single listing

A through D

E through J

P through S

T through Z

Kagan, et al. (1975) J. Organometallic Chem, 90 (3): 353–365. “Reduction asymetrique catalysee par des complexes de metaux de transition IV. synthese d’amines chirales au moyen d’un complexe de rhodium et d’isopropylidene dihydroxy-2,3 bis(diphenylphosphino)-1,4 butane (diop).” ()

Kaiser, R. & C. Nussbaumer (1990) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 73: 133–139. “1,2,3,4,4a,5,8,8a-octahydro-4β,8aα
dimethylnaphthalen- 4aβ-ol (=dehydrogeosmin), a novel compound occurring in the flower scent of various species of Cactaceae.” [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Kaiser, R. & L. Tollsten (1995) Flavour Fragrance Journal, 10: 153–164. “An introduction to the scent of cacti.” [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Kakuta, K. et al. (2012)a Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters, 22: 4793–4800. “New triterpenoid saponins from cacti and anti-type I allergy activity of saponins from cactus.” (Kazutaka Kakuta, Masaki Baba, Satoru Ito, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama & Kunio Takahashi)

Kakuta, K. et al. (2012)b Heterocycles, 85 (6): 1377. “New Triterpenoid Saponins from Stenocereus eruca.” (Kazutaka Kakuta, Takeshi Koike, Kaoru Kinoshita, Satoru Ito, Kiyotaka Koyama & Kunio Takahashi)

Kaláb, D. (1956) Die Pharmazie, 11 (4): 268–269. “Oscillopolarographisches Verhalten von Mezkalin.”

Kalam, M.A. et al. (2012) “Mescaline concentrations in small regrowth crowns vs. mature crowns of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae): cultural, economic, and conservation implications.” Paper presented to the Bangladesh Chemical Society, 8 December 2012. (M.A. Kalam, M. Klein, D. Hulsey, P. Daley, K. Trout & M. Terry)

Kalam, M.A. et al. (2013) Journal of Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 7(1): 435–440. “A preliminary report of mescaline concentrations in small regrowth crowns vs. mature crowns of Lophophora Williamsii (Cactaceae): cultural, economic, and conservation implications.” (M.A. Kalam, Molly T. Klein, Diana Hulsey, Keeper Trout, Paul Daley & Martin Terry)

Kalischer, S. (1895) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 5: 59–60. “Über giftige Kakteen.”

Kametani et al. (1977) JCS Perkins Trans. 1: 579 

Kametani, T. et al. (1966) Yakugaku Zasshi, 86 (10): 913–918. “Studies on the Syntheses of Heterocyclic Compounds. CLI. Selective Demethylation of 3,4-Dihydro-6,7,8-trimethoxyisoquinoline and Modified Total Synthesis of Anhalamine.” (Tetsuji Kametani, Nagatoshi Wagatsuma & Fujinori Sasaki)See also [CA 66: 28631t]

Kametani, Tetsuji (1969) The Chemistry of the Isoquinoline Alkaloids. Hirokawa Publ./ Elsevier Publ.

Kampik, G. (1973) Allg. Homöopath. Ztg. 218: 249. [Not obtained yet.]

Kan, M. et al. (1989) Sculpture of Ancient West Mexico. County Museum of Art: Los Angeles. (Michael Kan, Clement Meighan & H.B. Nicholson)

Kandaswami, C. & E. Middleton, Jr. (1994) Advanced Experimental Biology & Medicine, 366: 351–376. “Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of plant flavonoids.”

Kang, Sungzong & Jack Peter Green (1970) Nature, 226: 645. “Correlation between Activity and Electronic State of Hallucinogenic Amphetamines.”

Kang, Sungzong & Jack Peter Green (1973) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 67: 62–67. “Steric and Electronic Relationships among Some Hallucinogenic Compounds.”

Kant, F. (1931) Archive für Psychiatrie, 91: 694. “Uber Reaktionsformen in Giftrausch.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & Henry M. Fales (1968)a The Chemical Society, London. Chemical Communications, [Journal of the Chemical Society D], 24: 1688–1689. “Krebs cycle conjugates of mescaline. Identification of fourteen new peyote alkaloid amides.” 

Kapadia, Govind J. & Henry M. Fales (1968)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 57 (11): 2017–2018. “Peyophorine, a tetrahydroisoquinoline cactus alkaloid containing an ethyl group.” 

Kapadia, Govind J. & Henry M. Fales (1970) Lloydia, 33 (4): 492. (Proceedings.) “Peyote and Related Alkaloids. Structure and Synthesis of Some New Krebs Cycle Conjugates of Mescaline.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & M.B.E. Fayez (1970)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 59 (12): 1699–1727. “Peyote constituents. Chemistry, biogenesis and biological effects.” 

Kapadia & Fayez 1970 J. Pharm Sci. 58:1158 in the literature meant Kapadia et al. 1969a 

Kapadia, Govind J. & M.B.E. Fayez (1973) Lloydia, 36 (1): 9–35. “The chemistry of the peyote alkaloids.”

Kapadia, G.J. & R.J. Highet (1967) Lloydia, 30: 287–288 (Proceedings.) “Peyote Alkaloids IV. Structure of Peyonine, a novel β-Phenethylpyrrole from Lophophora Williamsii.”

Kapadia, G.J. & R.J. Highet (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 57:191–192. “Structure of peyonine, novel phenethylpyrrole from Lophophora Williamsii.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & Mehdi H. Hussain (1972) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 61 (7): 1172–1173. “Peyote and Related Alkaloids XIV: Mescaloxylic acid and mescaloruvic acid, the novel amino acid analogs of mescaline.” (Mescaloruvic acid and mescaloxylic acid as trace constituents.)

Kapadia, Govind J. & G.S. Rao (1965) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 54 (12): 1817–1819. “Gas-liquid chromatography and structure retention time relationship of Anhalonium alkaloids and related bases.” 

Kapadia, Govind J. & Narenda J. Shah (1967) Lloydia, 30: 287. (Proceedings.) “Peyote Alkaloids III. Isolation and Synthesis of Peyonine, a novel β-Phenethylpyrrole from Lophophora Williamsii.”

Kapadia, Govind J. & Narenda J. Shah (1968) 115th Annual Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association (Miami Beach, Fla.): Abstract no. 16, p. 104-?. “Peyote alkaloids V. Preparation of mescaline and selective ether cleavage of pyrogallol trimethyl ethers with lithium aluminum hydride.” 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (2): 254–262. “Anhalotine, lophotine and peyotine, quaternary alkaloids of Lophophora Williamsii.” (Govind J. Kapadia, N.J. Shah & T.B. Zalucky) 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1969) Paper presented at the 116th Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Montreal, Canada. May 18–22. “Identification and synthesis of 3-demethylmescaline, a plausible intermediate in the biosynthesis of the cactus alkaloids.” (from Kapadia & Fayez)

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1969)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 58 (9): 1157–1159. “Peyote alkaloids. IX. Identification and synthesis of 3-demethylmescaline, a plausible intermediate in the biosynthesis of the cactus alkaloids.” (G.J. Kapadia, Y.N. Vaishnav & M.B.E. Fayez) 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1969)b Lloydia, 32: 525. (1-Methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-8-hydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-1-carboxylic acid in L. williamsii proposed as immediate precursor to anhalonidine.) (Govind J. Kapadia, M.B.E. Fayez, Y.S. [?N] Vaishnav, H.M. Fales & G. Subba Rao) 

Kapadia et al.11th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Pharmacognosy (Vienna, Austria) July 1970, To be published” (in the literature) See as Kapadia et al. (1970)a Lloydia, 33 (4): 492.

Kapadia, G. Rao, Leete, Fayez, Vaishnav and Fales, to be published. (in the literature) See as Kapadia, G. et al. (1970) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 92 (23): 6943–6951

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1970)a Lloydia, 33 (4): 492. (Proceedings.) “Peyote and Related Alkaloids. XII. Structure and Synthesis of Peyoglunal, a New Cactus β-Phenethylpyrrole.” (G.J. Kapadia, B.K. Chowdury, M.B.E. Fayez & H.M. Fales)

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1970)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 92 (23): 6943–6951. “On the origin of carbon 1 in tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids.” (G.J. Kapadia, G.S. Rao, E. Leete, M.B.E. Fayez, Y.N. Vaishnav & H.M. Fales) 

Kapadia, G. et al. (1971) Paper presented at the 118th Meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, San Francisco, California, March 27-April 2. “Some newer synthetic cactus alkaloid analogs.” (from Kapadia & Fayez) 

Kapadia et al. 1972, given in the literature, refers to Kapadia & Hussain 1972 

Kapadia, G.J. et al. (1973) Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry , 10 (1): 135–136 “Peyote and related alkaloids. XV. O-Methylpeyoxylic acid and O-Methylpeyoruvic acid, the new cyclic amino acid analogs of mescaline.” (Govind J. Kapadia, G.S. Rao, M.H. Hussain, & B.K. Chowdury) 

Kapadia et al. 1977, given in the literature, refers to Kapadia & Hussein 1972

Kappe, T. & M. D. Armstrong (1965) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 8: 368–374. “Ultraviolet absorption spectra and apparent acidic dissociation constants of some phenolic amines.”

Karady, Sandor (1962) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 27 (10): 3720–3722. “Synthesis of 5-Ethyl-8-methoxycorydaldine.”

Karle, Jean M. (1977) Acta Crystallographia, B33: 185–188. “(±)-N-Demethyl-N-formylmesembrenone.”

Karle, Jean M. (1976) Ph.D. Dissertation. [From Karle 1977]

Karsten, G.K. (1895) Flora Deutschland Second Edition 457

Kasprzyk, Z. & J. Pyrek (1968) Phytochem. 7: 1631. [From Kasprzyk et al. 1970]

Kasprzyk, Z. et al. (1970) Phytochemistry, 9 (9): 2065–2066. “The Identity of Calenduladiol and Thurberin: A Lupenediol Found in Marigold Flowers and Organ Pipe Cactus.” (Zofia Kasprzyk, Jan Pyrek, S.D. Jolad & Cornelius Steelink)

Katz, Richard (1982) Boiling Energy: Community Healing among the Kalahari !Kung. Harvard University Press

Kauder, Ernest (1899) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 237: 190–198 “Über alkaloide aus Anhalonium Lewinii.”

Kauder, Ernest (1899)b Chemische Central-Blatt, 1: 1244 “Über alkaloide aus Mescal-buttons.” I have not been able to locate this paper as cited in the literature. Something may be in error about the citation.

Kaufmann, A. & R. Radosevic (1916) Ber. 49: 675 “Zur synthese von isochinolin- derivaten. I.” 

Kaufman, Teodoro S. (2004) Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 15 (8): 1203–1237. “Synthetic pathways to salsolidine.” 

Kavlin 2000 should read White 2000

Kavlin, Miguel was quoted in White, Timothy (2000) Shaman’s Drum, 57: 33–46. “Dancing with the Condor and Eagle: An Interview with Bolivian Ceremonialist Miguel Kavlin.”

Kawai & Chosaburo 1968 in literature meant Kawai & Yamamoto 1968

Kawai, Nobufumi & Chosaburo Yamamoto (1968) Brain Research, 7: 323–325. “Antagonism between serotonin and LSD studied in vitro in thin sections from the superior colliculus of guinea pig.” 

Keenan, C.W. et al. (1976) General Chemistry Fifth Edition. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-043613-1. (Charles W. Keenan, Jesse H. Wood and Donald C. Kleinfelter) 

Keller, William J. (1972) Ph.D. dissertation; University of Seattle, Washington

Keller, William J. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (1): 37–42. “The Involvement of Epinephrine and Norepinephrine in Normacromerine Biosynthesis.”

Keller, William J. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 413–414. “N-Methyltyramine: Formation in Opuntia clavata and Metabolism in Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii.

Keller, William J. (1982) Phytochemistry, 21 (12): 2851-2852. “Biosynthesis of N-Methylphenthylamine in Dolichothele sphaerica. 

Keller, William J. & Gary G. Ferguson (1976) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 65 (10): 1539–1540. “Selectivity of 4-Methoxyphenthylamine Derivatives as Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase.”

Keller, William J. & Gary G. Ferguson (1977) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 66 (7): 1048–1050. “Effects of 3,4-Dimethoxyphenthylamine Derivatives on Monoamine Oxidase.”

Keller, William J. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1972) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 61 (1): 147–148. “Isolation of (-)-normacromerine from Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii. 

Keller et al. 1972 in the literature refers to Keller & McLaughlin 1972.

Keller, W.J. et al. (1973)a Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 62 (3): 408–411. “Cactus Alkaloids. XV. β-Phenethylamines from Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii.” (W.J. Keller, J.L. McLaughlin & L.R. Brady.)

Keller, W.J. et al. (1973)b Lloydia, 36 (4):397–409. “Cactus Alkaloids. XX. The biosynthesis of catechol-O-methylated β-hydroxyphenethylamines (normacromerine and macromerine) in Coryphantha macromeris var. runyonii.” (W.J. Keller, L.A. Spitznagle, L.R. Brady & J.L. McLaughlin) 

Keller et al. 1978 in the literature refers to Keller 1978.

Kellog, R. et al. (1965) Nature, (London) 208: 1129–1130. “Form Similarity Between Phosphenes of Adults and Pre-School Children’s Scribbling.” (R. Kellog, M. Knoll & J. Kügler)

Kelsey, F.E. (1959) The South Dakota Journal of Medicine and Pharmacy, 12: 231-233. “The Pharmacology of Peyote.” 

Kennedy, Alison Bailey (1982) Current Anthropology, 23 (3): 273–290. “Ecce Bufo: The Toad in Nature and in Olmec Iconography.”

Kerr, S.J. (1972) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 247: 4248–4252. “Competing methyltransferase systems.”

Keup, W. (1959) “The possible role of a LSD-protein complex in LSD model psychosis.” page 338, in: Bradley, P.B. et al. (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Neuro-psychopharmacology. (Rome, September 1958).

Khanna, K.L. et al. (1969) The Chemical Society, London. Chemical Communications, [Journal of the Chemical Society, D] 6: 315. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline.” (K.L. Khanna, H. Rosenberg & A.G. Paul.)

Khanna, K.L. et al. (1970) Phytochemistry, 9: 1811–1815. “Biosynthesis of Phenolic Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids of Peyote.” (K.L. Khanna, M. Takido, H. Rosenberg & A.G. Paul)

Khashaba, A.M. et al. (1996) Current Psychiatry, 3 (1): 89–98. “Plasma Amine Oxidase Activity in Some Psychiatric Patients.” (A.M. Khashaba, A.A. Shalanda, I.Z. El-Niggar, W.M. Ibrahim & M.H. Fawzi)

Kiesling, Roberto (1977) Thesis no: 0351: Universidad Nacional de La Plata. Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Museo, “El género Trichocereus en la República Argentina”

Kiesling, Roberto (1978) Darwiniana, 21 (2-4): page numbers? “El genero Trichocereus” I: Las especies de la Republic Argentina.” [From Ritter]

Kimnach, Myron (1957) Cactus & Succulent Journal, of America 29: 146. Review of Backeberg’s ‘Descriptiones Cactacearum Novarum I’ (1956)

Kindler, K. (1927) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 265: 389–415. “Über neue und verbesserte Wege zum Aufbau von pharmakologisch wichtigen Aminen. I.”

Kindler, Karl & Wilhem Peschke (1932)a Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 270: 340–353. “Über neue und über verbesserte wege zum Aufbau von pharmakologisch wichtigen Aminen IV. Über synthesen von Tyramin und Epinen.”

Kindler, Karl & Wilhem Peschke (1932)b Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 270: 410–413. “Über neue und über verbesserte wege zum Aufbau von pharmakologisch wichtigen Aminen. VI. über Synthesen des Meskalins”

King, M.E. & I. R. Traylor (eds.) (1974) Art and Environment in Native America. Special Publications, Number 7, The Museum of Texas, Tech Univ.

King, R. Merrill (1957) Cactus and Succulent Journal, of the Cactus and Succulent Society of America. 29 (4): 102–104. “Studies in the Tissue Culture of Cacti.”

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1992) Journal of Natural Products, 55 (7): 953–955. “New Triterpenes from Trichocereus bridgesii.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1995) Journal of Natural Products, 58 (11): 1739–1744. “New Triterpenes From Trichocereus pachanoi.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Takaomi Takizawa, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo, Hiroshi Yuasa & Ken-Ichi Kawai)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1998) Pharmaceutical Biology, 36 (1): 50–57. “Antinociceptive Effect of Triterpenes from Cacti.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Michiko Akiba, Masaaki Saitoh, Yang Ye, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (1999) Phytomedicine, 6: 73–77. “Inhibitory effect of some triterpenes from cacti on 32P-incorporation into phospholipids of HeLa cells promoted by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.” (K. Kinoshita, K. Koyama, K. Takahashi & H. Nishino)

Kinoshita, K. et al. (2000) Journal of Natural Products, 63:701–703. “A new triterpenoid saponin from Isolatocereus dumortieri.” (Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Kircher, Henry W. (1969) Phytochemistry, 8: 1481–1488. “The Distribution of Sterols, Alkaloids and Fatty Acids in Senita Cactus, Lophocereus schottii, over its Range in Sonora Mexico.”

Kircher, Henry W. (1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 1078–1080. “Triterpene glycosides and queretaroic acid in organ pipe cactus.“ 

Kircher, Henry W. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2707–2712. “Triterpenes in Organ Pipe Cactus.”

Kircher, Henry W. (1982) “Chemical Composition of Cacti and Its Relationship to Sonoran Desert Drosophilia.” pp. 143–158, in J.S.F. Barker & W.T. Starmer (eds.) Ecological Genetics and Evolution. The Cactus-Yeast-Drosophila Model System. Academic Press. ISBN 0 12 078820 9. 

Kircher, Henry W. & Harold L. Bird, Jr. (1982) Phytochemistry, 21 (7): 1705–1710. “Five 3β,6α-Dihydroxysterols in Organ-Pipe Cactus.”

Kircher, Henry W. & William B. Heed (1970) “Phytochemistry and Host Plant Specificity in Drosophila.” pp. 191-209, in: Cornelius Steelink & V.C. Runeckles (eds.) Recent Advances in Phytochemistry, Volume 3.

Kircher, H.W. et al. (1967) Journal of Insect Physiology 13: 1869–1874. “Senita Cactus Alkaloids: Their Significance to Sonoran Desert Drosophila Ecology.” (Henry W. Kircher, William B. Heed, Jean S. Russell and John Grove)

Kirkwood, S. & L. Marion (1950) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72: 2522–2524. “The biogenesis of alkaloids. I. The isolation of N-methyltyramine from barley.”

Kissinger, P.T. (1977) Anal. Chem. 49: 447A-456A. “Amperometric and coulometric detectors for high-performance liquid chromatography.” 

Klein, M.T. et al. (2013)a “Mescaline Concentrations in Different Organs of Lophophora Williamsii: Implications for Cultural Use and Conservation.” Paper presented to meeting of the Society for Economic Botany, (Molly T. Klein, M.A. Kalam, N. Fowler & M. Terry)

Klein, Molly T. (2013)b “Mescaline Concentrations in Different Organs of Lophophora Williamsii: Implications for Cultural Use and Conservation.” Thesis. Sul Ross State University, Alpine, Texas. 

Klein, Molly T. et al. (2015) Haseltonia, 20: 34–42. “Mescaline concentrations in three principal tissues of Lophophora williamsii (Cactaceae): Implications for sustainable harvesting practices.” (Molly T. Klein, M. Kalam, Keeper Trout, Norma Fowler & Martin Terry) [~4 Mb — http://www.cactusconservation.org/CCI/library/pdf/Klein_et_al_2015_Haseltonia_20_34-42.pdf]

Kloesel, Lawson (1958) American Journal of Pharmacy” 130: 307–316. “Some Notes On Peyote” [From Anderson 1980]

Klüver, Heinrich (1926) American Journal of Psychology, 37 (4): 502–515. “Mescal Visions and Eidetic Visions.”

Klüver, Heinrich (1928)a Mescal, and Mechanisms of Hallucinations. [reprinted 1966 University of Chicago Press.] 

Klüver, Heinrich (1928)b Mescal, The “Divine” Plant and its Psychological Effects. London. 

Klüver, Heinrich (1942) “Mechanisms of Hallucinations.” pp. 175–207 in Studies in Personality: Essays in Honor of Lewis M. Terman. NewYork: McGraw-Hill. 

Klüver, Heinrich (1966) Mescal and Mechanisms of Hallucination. Phoenix Books: University of Chicago Press 108 pages. 

Knabe (1959) Arch. Pharm. 292: 652. 

Knize, Karel (nd) Index to Field #s of Collected Specimens 1967–1977 

Knoll, Max (1958) Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 17: 110–126. “Anregung geometrischer Figuren und anderen subjektiver Lichtmuster in elektrischen Feldern.” 

Knoll, Max (1967) Eranos Jahrbuch, 1965. 34: 361–397 + 27 pages of illustrations. “Die Welt der Inneren Lichterscheinungen.” [“The World of Inner Light Sensations.”] [Eranos-Jahrbuch 1965. Form als Aufgabe des Geistes ©1967. Publ. Rhein-Verlag Zürich 1966] [See also his contained references.]

Knoll, Max & Kügler, J. (1959) Nature, (London) 184: 1823–1824. “Subjective Light Pattern Spectroscopy in the Electroencephalic Range.”

Knoll, Max et al. (1963) Confina Neurologica, 23 (3): 201-226. “Effects of Chemical Stimulation of Electrically-Induced Phosphenes on Their Bandwidth, Shape, Number and Intensity.” (M. Knoll, J. Kugler, O. Höfer & S.D. Lawder)

Knoll, Max et al. (1962) Elektromedizin, 7 (4): 235–242. “Reproductionbarkeit von elektrisch angeregten Lichterscheinungen (Phosphene) bei zwei Versuchspersonen innerhalb von 6 Monaten.” (Max Knoll, O. Hofer, D. Lawder & J.M. Lawder)

Knoll, Max et al. (1962) Journal of Analytic Psychology, 7: 55–69. “Note on the Spectroscopy of Subjective Light Patterns.” (Max Knoll, J. Kügler, J. Echmier & O. Hofer)

Knorr et al. (1969) (in the literature) meant Korr et al. 1969

Knox, Michael J. & W. Dennis Clark (1986) Biochemical Systematics & Ecology, 14: 25–27. “Population Variation in β-Phenethylamines from Mammillaria microcarpa.”

Knox, MJ et al. (1983) Journal of Chromatography, 265: 357–362. “Quantitative analysis of β-phenethylamines in two Mammillaria species (Cactaceae)” (M.J. Knox, W.D. Clark & S.O. Link)

Köhres, Gerhard (not dated) Eine Studie über das Blüh- und Fortpflanzungsverhalten der Gattung Lophophora.

Koessler, Karl K. & Milton T. Hanke (1919) The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 39: 585–592. “Studies on Proteinogenous Amines. V. The Preparation of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine hydrochloride (Tyramine hydrochloride)”

Kondo & Shinozaki (1929) J. Pharmac. Soc. Japan, 49: 267–269. “Preparation of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine”

Kopin, I.J. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 137: 34–40. “Fate of Norepinephrine-H3 in the Isolated Perfused Rat Heart” (Irwin J. Kopin, Georg Hertting and Edna K. Gordon) see also (1962) Fed. Proc. 21: 332. [Ed. Note: this should be written 3H.]

Korr, H. et al. (1969) Psychopharmacologia, 16: 183–200. “Autoradiographische Untersuchungen zur Verteilung von Mescalin und dessen Einfluß auf die zentrale Erregung bei Mäusen.” (H. Korr, E. Lehr, N. Seiler & G. Werner)

Kovács, Ödön & Gábor Fodor (1951) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 84 (9): 795–801. “Beitrag zur Synthese der Tetrahydroisochinolin-Alkaloide unter physiologischen Bedingungen”

Kovacsics, G.B. & J.K. Saelens (1968) Arch. Int. Pharmacodyn. 174 (2): 481–490. “Measurement of the levels and turnover of norepinephrine in discrete areas of rat brain using an enzymatic assay.”

Koyama, K. et al. (1993) Journal of Natural Products, 56 (12): 2201–2203. “New triterpenes from cactaceous plants.” (Kiyotaka Koyama, Toshiyuki Yama, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kunio Takahashi, Norio Kondo & Hiroshi Yuasa) 

Krainz, Hans (various) Die Kakteen. (These are serial folios rather than a bound book.)

(1962) 1. IV. CVa “Trichocereus thelegonus (Weber) Britton & Rose.”

(1964) 1. III. CVIIIb “Gattung Lophophora

(1975) 1. X. CVIIIb Lophophora Williamsii (Lemaire ex Salm-Dyck) Coulter var. williamsii

(1975) 15. I. CVa “Trichocereus macrogonus (Salm-Dyck) Riccobono”

Kramer, S.Z. et al. (1965) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 24: 390. [Abstract; entry 1450] “Catatonic Behavior and Brain Electrical Activity in Chicks as Influenced by some Catecholamines and their Metabolites.” (Stanley Z. Kramer, Eli Seifter & Joseph Seifter)

Krapf, E.E. (1951) Neurobiologia (Recifa, Brazil), 14: 99–108. “Experimentos com venènos embriagadores: seu valor para a patopsicologia y a clinica psiquiatrica.”

Kratzel, K. & H. Silbernagel (1955) Mitteilungen der Oesterreichischen Gesellschaft fuer Holzforschung, 7: 71–78. [1956 CA 50: 6040f-g] [“Concerning the effect of thermal treatment of beechwood and beech lignin.”]

Krause, Alfred (1933) Kakteenkunde. issue 1, facing page 20. “Geschäftliche Pikieren von Kakteensämlingen.”

Kreuzinger, Kurt G. (1935) Verzeichnis amerikanischer und anderer Sukkulenten mit Revision der Systematik der Kakteen. Eger, Czechoslovakia. 9 : Lophophora jourdaniana Kreuzinger syn. violaciflora. Grym 1997 gives as “Verzeichnis 9”.

Krieger (1956) Ph.D. Dissertation, Karlsruhe.

Kringstad, Randi & Arnold Nordal (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 1868–1870. “Lactone-Forming Acids in Succulent Plants.”

Krochmal, Arnold & Connie Krochmal (1973) A guide to the medicinal plants of the United States. Quadrangle/The N.Y. Times Book Co. 256 pages.

Kruger, T.L. et al. (1977) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 42: 4161–4162. “Identification of alkaloids in crude extracts by mass-analyzed ion kinetic energy spectrometry.” (T.L. Kruger, R.G. Cooks, J.L. McLaughlin & R.L. Ranieri)

Kryz, K.-H. (1919) Z. Unters. Nahr.-Genussm. Gebranchsgegenstaende, 38: 364–365. [From Piattelli 1981]

Kryz, K.-H. (1920) Oesterr. Chem.-Ztg. 23: 55–56. [From Piattelli 1981]

Kubota, Seiju et al. (1966) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 31: 516–520. “The structure and total synthesis of takatonine.”

Kuck, A.M. et al. (1966) Chem. Ind. 945–946. 

Kuck, A.M. et al. (1967) J. Chem. Soc. 1327–1328. (also as Kuck & Delefeu 1967). This is a screwy miscitation in the literature. It should be Albónico et al. 1967.

Kugler, F. et al. (2006) Journal of Agricuture & Food Chemistry, 54: 4311–4318. “Determination of Free Amino Compounds in Betalainic Fruits and Vegetables by Gas Chromatography with Flame Ionization and Mass Spectrometric Detection.” (F. Kugler, St. Graneis, P.P.-Y. Schreiter, F.C. Stintzing & R. Carle)

Kugler F. (2007) Z Naturforsch C, 62 (5-6): 311–318. “Studies on betaxanthin profiles of vegetables and fruits from the Chenopodiaceae and Cactaceae.” (F. Kugler, S. Graneis, F.C. Stintzing, & R. Carle)

Kulshreshtha, M.J. et al. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 2369–2381. “The Triterpenoids.” (M. Jyoti Kulshreshtha, D.K. Kulshreshtha & R.P. Rastogi)

Kulz & Horning, Ger. pat. 682,394 (1939), Chem. Zentr. 1940, I, 1078, [CA (1942) 36: 3011]

Kunitomo, Jun-ichi (1962) Yakugaku Zasshi, 82: 611–613. “Studies on the Alkaloids of Rutaceous plants. XVII. Alkaloids of Phellodendron amurense Rupr” [CA 57: 4760d] 

Kurath, Gertrude (1953) American Anthropologist, 55: 113 Review of: Cantos indigenas de Mexico, by Concha Michel (Mexico, D.F.; 1951)

Kurland, A.A. et al. (1966) “Psychedelic Psychotherapy (LSD) in the Treatment of Alcoholism.” pp. 435–440. in: Brill et al. (eds.) Neuro-psycho-pharmacology. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psycho-Pharmacologicum. [A.A. Kurland, J.W. Shaffer & S. Unger] 

Kuti, Joseph O. (2004) Food Chemistry, 85: 527–533. “Antioxidant compounds from four Opuntia cactus pear fruit varieties.”

Kvist, Lars Peter & Mónica Moraes R. (2006) “Plantas psicoactivas.” pp. 294–312 in Botánica Económica de los Andes Centrales. (Editors.: M. Moraes R., B. Øllgaard, L. P. Kvist, F. Borchsenius & H. Balslev) Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz. They cite Vivanco Hidalgo 2001 which cites Vivanco Hidalgo 2000. 

LaBarre, Weston (1938) The Peyote Cult, Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn. [The 2nd edition was published in 1964 by Shoe String Press; 260 pp. The enlarged 3rd edition was published in 1969. The revised “Fourth edition, enlarged”, was published in 1975 by Archon Books, Hamden, CT; 296 pp, The revised 5th edition, enlarged yet again, was published in 1989 by the University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 0-8061-2214-5; 352 pp.]

LaBarre, Weston (1957)a American Anthropologist, 59: 359. Book Review of The Peyote Religion by J.S. Slotkin. 

LaBarre, Weston (1957)b American Anthropologist, 59: 708–711. “Mescalism and Peyotism.”

LaBarre, Weston (1960) Current Anthropology 1: 45–60. “Twenty Years of Peyote Studies.”

LaBarre, Weston (1964) The Peyote Cult Second Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1969) The Peyote Cult Third Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1975) The Peyote Cult Fourth Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1979)a Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 11 (1-2): 7–11. “Shamanic Origins of Religion and Medicine” 

LaBarre, Weston (1979)b Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 11 (1-2): 33–39, “Peyotl and Mescaline.” 

LaBarre, Weston (1981) “Peyotegebrauch bei noramerikanischen Indianern” in G. Völger (ed.) Rausch und Realität Volume 2. Rautenstrauch-Joest-Museum: Köln.

LaBarre, Weston (1989) The Peyote Cult Fifth Edition. See LaBarre 1938.

LaBarre, Weston (1990) The Ghost Dance. Origins of religion. Waveland Press ISBN 0-88133-561-4 (First published in 1970) 677 pages. Also printed in 1972

Labouret, J. (1853) Monographie de la Famille des Cactées comprenant la synonymie, les diverses méthodes de classification proposées jusqu’à ce jour pour sa division en genres et sous-genres, et quelques notes sur la germination et la physiologie; Suivie d’un Traité Complet de Culture et d’une table alphabétique des espèces et variétés. Paris, Dusacq, Librairie Agricole de la Maison Rustique. XLVII + 682 pp ILLS has been unable to obtain this work

Labouret, J. (1855) Horticole. Journal d’Horticulture Pratique. IV. 4: 24–28. Paris; Dusaq, Librairie Agricole de la Maison Rustique. [Britton & Rose gives as Revue Horticole] pp. 25–26 is Cereus tetracanthus.

Laing, R.O. (1979) Central African Journal of Medicine, 25: 265–266. “Three cases of poisoning by Boophane disticha.” [From DeSmet 1996]

LaManna et al. (1960) Farmaco Ed. Sci. 15: 9 

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1969) Pocket Encyclopedia of Cacti in Colour. Including other succulents. Blandford Press: Dorset ISBN 0 7137 0506X

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1971) The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and Other Succulents. Volume 3. [First edition in 1963] Blandford Press: Poole/Dorset ISBN 07137 0009 2.

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1973)a The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and other Succulents. Volume 1. [First edition 1955] Blandford Press: London. No ISBN.

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1973)b The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and other Succulents. Volume 2. [First edition 1959] Blandford Press: London.

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1974) Colorful Cacti of the American Deserts. Macmillan Publ. Co: New York [Also 1974 by Blandford] ISBN 0-02-567670-9

Lamb, Edgar & Brian Lamb (1978) The Illustrated Reference on Cacti and Other Succulents. Volume 5. Blandford Press: Dorset. ISBN 0 7137 0852 2

Lambert et al. (1975) Org. Mag. Reson. 72: 66.

Lame Deer & Richard Erdoes (1979) Tahca Ishte – Medizinmann der Sioux. List: Munich.

Landes (1963) Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 593–596.

Lang, M. et al. (2012) Science, 337 (6102): 1658-1661. “Mutations in the Neverland Gene Turned Drosophila pachea into an Obligate Specialist Species.” (Michael Lang, Sophie Murat, Andrew G. Clark, Géraldine Gouppil,
Catherine Blais, Luciano M. Matzkin, Émilie Guittard, Takuji
Yoshiyama-Yanagawa, Hiroshi Kataoka, Ryusuke Niwa, René Lafont, Chantal Dauphin-Villemant & Virginie Orgogozo)

Langer, S. Z. (1970) Journal of Physiology (London), 208: 515–546. “The metabolism of 3H-noradrenaline released by electrical stimulation from the isolated nictitating membrane of the cat and from the vas deferens of the rat.”

Landis, C. and Clausen, J. (1954) Journal of Psychology, 38: 211-221. “Certain effects of mescaline and lysergic acid on psychological functions.”

Lanternari, Vittoria (1974) (1960) “Il Peyotismo” pp. 67–111 in V. Lanternari Movimenti religiosi di libertà e di salvezza dei popoli oppressi. Feltrinelli: Milano.

Las Casas (1909) Apol. Hist. de las Indias, Chap. 166, pp. 445–446, ed. Serrano y Saenz, Madrid. 1909 (from Safford 1916)

Lastres, Juan B. (1951) História de la Medicina Peruana. Vol. 1. La Medicina Incáica. (Lima) (From several Dobkin de Rios articles including 1968 Economic Botany,)

Lebeau, P. & M.M. Janot (1955) Traité de pharmacie chimique. Paris 1955. Vol 4, p. 3135.

Lee, E.B. et al. (2002) Arch. Pharm. Res. 25 (2002) 67–70. “Effects of Opuntia ficus-indica var. Saboten stem on gastric damages in rats.” (E.B. Lee, J.E. Hyun, D.W. Li & Y.I. Moon)

Lee, E.H. et al. (2003) Archives of Pharmacal Research, 26 (10): 1018–1023. “Constituents of the Stems and Fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.” (Eun Ha Lee, Hyoung Ja Kim, Yun Seon Song, Changbae Jin, Kyung-Tae Lee, Jungsook Cho & Yong Sup Lee)

Lee & McLaughlin 1975 in the literature refers to Lee et al. 1975.

Lee et al. 1974 in the literature refers to Lee et al. 1975.

Lee, Martin A. & Bruce Shlain (1985) Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD, and the Sixties Rebellion. Grove Press.

Lee, N.H. et al. (2000) Kor. J. Pharmacogn. 31 (2000) 412–415. “Screening of the radical scavenging effects, tyrosinase inhibition, and anti-allergic activities using Opuntia ficus-indica.” (N.H. Lee, J.-S. Yoon, B.H. Lee, B.W. Choi & K.H. Park)

Lee, T.M. et al. (1975) Lloydia, 38 (3): 366–367. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXVI. Tyramine from Azureocereus ayacuchensis” (T.M. Lee, J.L. McLaughlin & W.H. Earle) 

Leete, Edward (1959) Chemistry and Industry, (London) 1959: 604. “Biogenesis of Mescaline.”

Leete, Edward (1966) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 88 (18): 4218–4221. “Biosynthesis of the Peyote Alkaloids. The Incorporation of Tyrosine 2-C14 into Mescaline and Anhalonidine.” [Note: this should be written 14C.]

Leete, Edward & J.D. Braunstein (1969) Tetrahedron Letters, 6: 451–452. “Biosynthesis of Anhalonidine: Origin of the Two Carbon Unit.”

Legler (1906)a Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 35 (3): 868.

Legler (1906)b Compt. Rend. 142: 108. 

Legler (1906)c Compt. Rend. 143: 234, 916.

Legler (1907)a Bull. Soc. Chim. France, 1 (4): 148 

Legler (1907)b Compt. Rend. 144: 488.

Lehmann, Arthur C. & Louis J. Mihalyi (1982) Ethnology 21 (4): 335–347. “Aggression, Bravery, Endurance, and Drugs: A Radical Re-evaluation and Analysis of the Masai Warrior Complex.”

Lemaire, Charles A. (1838) Cactearum aliquot novarum ac insuetarum in horto monvilliano cultarum accurata descritio, Fasc. I. Lutetiae Parisiorum

Lemaire, Charles (1839) Cactearum Genera Nova ett Species Nova en Horto Monville. Paris 

Lemaire, Charles (1866) Iconographie des Cacteés. Paris 

Lemmo (1977) High Times, (June, No. 22): 76-?. “Psychedelic Cacti.” (page numbers are not on the last pages.)

Leninger, Albert L. (1975) Biochemistry Second Edition. Worth Publ., New York. ISBN 0-87901-047-9.

Leon et al. (1969) J. Clin. Pharm. 9: 399. [A.S. Leon, W.B. Abrams, M. Markowitz & E.C. Meisner]

Leonard, B.E. & Sally R. Tonge (1969) Life Sciences, 8, pt. 1 (15): 815–825. “The Effects of Some Hallucinogenic Drugs Upon the Metabolism of Noradrenaline.”

Leonard, Irving A. (1942) American Anthropologist, 44: 324–326. “Peyote and the Mexican Inquisition.” [Stewart gives the original as “AGN, Inquisición: 333.35: 1620. Edicto impresso del Santo Oficio contra el uso del peyote, p. 1. Mexico City. (In Aguirre Beltrán, 1963: 371.)]

Leroy, A. (1896) Bull. de la Soc. d’Acclimatation, 43: 181-?. “Emploi des fleurs du Figuier de Barbarie contre la dysenterie.” (from Hobschette 1929 & also Soulaire)

Lesèche, B. et al. (1981) Journal of Heterocyclic Chemistry, 18: 143–153. “Study of oxidation of 6,7-dimetoxy-tetrahydroisoquinolin-4-ol or 7,8-dimethoxyl-tetrahydroisoquinoloin-4-ol and reactivity of 6,7-dimethoxy-tetrahydroisoquinol-4-one carbonyl.” (B. Lesèche, J. Gilbert & C. Viel)

Leuba, James H. (1960) La psicologia del misticismo religioso. Feltrinelli: Milano.

Leuenberger, Beat Ernst (1995) Englera, 16: 13–24. “Biographical Notes on Friedrich Ritter (1898 – 1989).”

Levine, Michael (1994) The Big White Lie: The deep cover operation that exposed the CIA sabotage of the drug war. 

Levis, D.J. & Caldwell, D.F. (1971) Biol Psychiatr. 3: 251-257. “The effects of a low dosage of mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine under two levels of aversive stimulation”

Levy, B. et al. (1971) Drill’s Pharmacology 4th edition 

Lewin, Louis (1888)a Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fur Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 24: 401–411. “XXVII. Ueber Anhalonium Lewinii.” [see also Lewin 1894a & 1894b] 

Lewin, Louis (1888)b Therapeutic Gazette, 3rd. Ser., 4: 231-237. “Anhalonium Lewinii

Lewin, Louis (1894)a Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Archiv fur Experimentelle Pathologie und Pharmakologie, 34: 374–391. “Ueber Anhalonium Lewinii 

Lewin, Louis (1894)b Berichte der Deutschen Botanischen Gesellschaft, 12: 283–290 “Ueber Anhalonium Lewinii und andere giftige Cacteen.” [Anhalonium jourdanianum p. 289]

Lewin, Louis (1931) Phantastica. Dutton, New York. [First published (in German) in 1924 Stilkee: Berlin. Reprinted (in English) in 1964 by E.P. Dutton, New York.]

Lewin, Louis (1937) Kakteenkunde, 5: 190 [Lophophora jourdaniana Lewin] [from Grym 1997]

Lewin, Roger (1991) New Scientist, 130 (1772): 30–34. “Stone Age Psychedelia.”

Lewis, S.-T. & F. Ludueña (1933)a C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées, 114: 814–816, (1933)b Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol. 9: 352–364. “Sur l’action de l’extrait de Trichocereus candicans (Britton et Rose) et de ses principes actifs, l’hordenine ou anhaline et les sels de p-oxyphénylyéthylméthylammonium, sur la sécrétion d’adrénaline” 

Lewis, S.-T. & F. Ludueña (1934) C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées, 116: 1085., (1934) Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 10: 105–110. “Action de l’atropine sur la sécrétion d’adrénaline produite par l’excitation du nerf splanchnique, la nicotine et les ammoniums quaternaires”

Lewis-Williams, J. David (1981) Believing and Seeing: Symbolic meanings in southern San rock paintings. Academic Press: London. ISBN 0-12-447060-2.

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1988) Current Anthropology, 29 (2): 201-245 “The Signs of All Times. Entoptic Phenomena in Upper Paleolithic Art.”

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1989) Images of Power. Southern Book Publishers: Johannesburg.

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1992) Rock Paintings of the Natal Drakensberg. South Africa University of Natal Press: Pietermaritzburg.

Lewis-Williams, J.D. & T.A. Dowson (1993) Current Anthropology, 34 (1): 55–65 “On Vision and Power in the Neolithic: Evidence from the Decorated Monuments.”

Lewis, Joyce L. & H. McIlwain (1954) Biochemical Journal, 57 (4): 680–684. “Action of some ergot derivatives, mescaline and dibenamine on the metabolism of separated mammalian cerebral tissues.”

Li, Shih-chen (1973) Chinese medicinal herbs. Georgetown Press, San Francisco.

Life Enhancement (1997) 34:18–23. A sane discussion of GHB and the maliciously deceptive insanity the FDA/DEA is currently directing towards it for self-serving purposes. [See also the book by Dean]

Lindgren et al. 1976 in the literature meant Lindgren & Bruhn 1976

Lindgren, J.-E. et al. (1971) FEBS Letters, 13 (1): 21-27. “Detection of Biochemical Intermediates by Mass Fragmentography: Mescaline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Precursors.” (J.E. Lindgren, S. Agurell, J. Lundström & U. Svensson) 

Lindgren, Jan-Erik & Jan G. Bruhn (1976) Lloydia, 39 (6): 464–466. “Mass fragmentographic identification of O-
methylcorypalline in Pilocereus guerreronis

Ling, J.S.L. et al. (1958) J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 122: 44A (pharmacol)

List, P.H. (1958) Archiv der Pharmazie, (Weinheim, Ger.) 291: 502–513. “Basische Pilzinhaltstoffe. 2. Mitteilung. Biogene Amine und Aminosäuren des Schopftintlngs, Coprinus comatus Gray”

Little, M.D. et al. (1968) Anat. Rec. 160: 385–386. “Limb tremors produced in rats by intrastriatal injection of mescaline or 3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamine”

Liu, Q. et al. (1995) Arch Biochem Biophys., 321 (2): 397–404.”Enzymes of B-ring-deoxy flavonoid biosynthesis in elicited cell cultures of “old man” cactus (Cephalocereus senilis).” (Q. Liu, M.S. Bonness, M. Liu, E. Seradge, R.A. Dixon & T.J. Mabry)

Livanov, M.N. & Poliakiv, K.L. (1945) Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, 3: 286–307. “Electrical processes in the rabbit’s cortex during the development of conditioned response to rhythmic stimulation.”

Livshits (1937) Soviet Medicine, 6: 42.

Lloyd, John Uri (1895) Etidorpha, or the End of Earth. (Republished in 1976 by Sunn: Albuquerque, NM and, again, in 1978 by Pocket Books: NewYork.)

Lloyd Brothers (1903, 1908) Drug Treatise, Number II. “A Treatise on Cactus Grandiflorus.  Cactus Grandiflorus (Cereus Grandiflorus — Cactus)” (Lloyd Brothers, Cincinnati)

Loewe (1954) Arzneimittel Forschung 4: 583.

Loizaga Pazzi, Armando (2010) “Peyote y salud mental.” paper from 2010 Congreso Internacional de medicina traditcional y salud pública. “El peyote, medicina tradicional o droga lúdica” 20–23 October, Toluca, México.

Lowenstein, Thomas K. (2001) The American Prospect. pp 33–36. “Collateral Damage.”

Lucchi, L. et al (1981) Brain Research, 232: 506–510. “Action of ethanol and salsolinol on opiate receptor function.” (L. Lucchi, A. Bosio, P. F. Spano & M. Trabucchi)

Ludueña, F.-P. (1933)a C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 114: 809–811; (1933) Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 9: 335–343. “Action pharmacodynamique d’un extrait de Trichocereus candicans (Britton et Rose)”

Ludueña, F.-P. (1933)b C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 114: 950–951; 1933 Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 9: 457–460. “Effet de la cocaine sur l’action de l’extrait de Trichocereus candicans et de ses principes actifs sur l’excitabilité du nerf splanchnique”

Ludueña, F.-P. (1933)c C. R. Séances Soc. Biol. Filiales Associées 114: 951–953; (1933) Rev. Soc. Arg. Biol 9: 453–456. “Effet du sulfate de spartéine sur l’action de l’extrait de Trichocereus candicans et de ses principes actifs sur l’excitabilité du nerf splanchnique”

Ludueña, F.-P. (1934) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées (Sociéte de Biologie de Rosario 1934) “La naturaleza química y la accíon farmacodinámica de los alcaloides del Trichocereus candicans.”

Luduena, F.-P. (1936) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées (Sociéte de Biologie de Rosario 1935) 121: 368–369. “Pharmacologie de la Trichocéréine. Alcaloïde du Trichocereus terschecki (Parm.) Britton et Rose.”

Ludwig, Arnold M. & Jerome Levine (1966) Clinical Medicine, 73: 21-24. “The clinical effects of psychedelic agents.” 

Lum, P.W.L. & P. Lebish (1974) Journal of the Forensic Sciences Society, 14: 6369. “Identification of peyote via major nonphenolic peyote alkaloids.” [From El-Seedi 2006)

Lumholtz, Carl (1902) Unknown Mexico: Explorations in the Sierra Madre and Other Regions, 1890–1898, Volume 1. Charles Scribner & Sons: New York. Reprinted by Dover Publications 1987: ISBN 0486253643, 9780486253640. Reprinted by Dodo Press in 2008. 

Lumholtz, Carl (1989) A Nation of Shamans: The Huichols of the Sierra Madre. Bruce I. Finson: Oakland. [The Shamanic Library No. 1: Reprint of Symbolism of the Huichols.]

Luna, Luis Eduardo (1984)b Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 11 (2): 135–156. “The Concept of Plants as Teachers Among Four Mestizo Shamans of Iquitos, Northeastern Peru.”

Luna, Luis Eduardo (1992) “Icaros. Magic Melodies Among the Mestizo Shamans of the Peruvian Amazon.” pp. 231-253 (Chapter 10) in: E. Jean Matteson Langdon and Gerhard Baer (eds.) (1992) Portals of Power. Shamanism in South America. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 1992

Luna, Luis Eduardo (ed.) (199?) “Music the Plants Taught Us.” (Audio tape of ayahuasca icaros; offered through many sources including the Basement Shaman.)

Lundström, Jan (1970) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 7 (6): 651–666. “Biosynthesis of mescaline and 3,4-dimethoxyphenethylamine in Trichocereus pachanoi Br. and R.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1971)a Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 25 (9): 3489–3499. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids in Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult. Occurrence and biosynthesis of catecholamines and other intermediates.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1971)b Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 8 (3): 275–302. “Biosynthetic studies on mescaline and related cactus alkaloids.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1971)c Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 8 (5): 485–496 “Biosynthesis of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult.” 

Lundström, Jan G. (1972) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 26 (3): 1295–1297. “Identification of New Peyote Alkaloids; Isomers of the Main Phenolic Tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (Isolation of isoanhalamine, isoanhalidine, isoanhalonidine, iso pellotine.) (not biosynthetic study per se but does offer some supportive evidence.)

Lundström, Jan G. (1983) “Simple Isoquinoline Alkaloids.” pp. 255–327 (Chapter 6) in: Arnold Brossi (ed.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Pharmacology. Volume 21. Academic Press.

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1967) Journal of Chromatography, 30: 271-272. “Thin-layer chromatography of the peyote alkaloids”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1968)a Journal of Chromatography, 36 (1): 105–108. “Gas chromatography of peyote alkaloids. A new peyote alkaloid” [First report of DMPEA as a trace alkaloid in peyote] 

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1968)b Tetrahedron Letters, 42: 4437–4440. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and Anhalamine in Peyote. II.”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1969) Tetrahedron Letters, 39: 3371–3374. “A Complete Biosynthetic Sequence From Tyrosine To Mescaline in Two Cactus Species.”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1971) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 8 (3): 261-274. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids in Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult.”

Lundström, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1972) “Biosynthesis of Mescaline and other Peyote Alkaloids.” pp. 89–94. in: Mothes et al. (eds.) 4. Internationales Symposium. Biochemie und Physiologie der Alkaloide. Halle (Saale), 25. bis 28. Juni 1969 Akademie-Verlag; Berlin 1972 (Kurt Mothes, Klaus Schreiber & Horst Robert Schütter (eds.)

Lüthy, Jonas M. (1995) Taxonomische Untersuchung der Gattung Mammillaria Haw. (Cactaceae). Arbeitskreis für Mammillarienfreunde und J. Lüthy: Bern. [From Rätsch 1998]

Lycaeum website [www.lycaeum.org] 

Lyttle, Thomas (1997) Psychedelic Monographs & Essays. Volume 2. Summer 1997.

Lyttle, Thomas & Elmer Smith (1990) “Neurostructuralism and Hallucination.” in Psychedelic Monographs and Essays Volume 5, page 43–61.

Ma, W.W, Jiang, X.Y, Cooks, R.G, McLaughlin, J.L, Zeylemaker, F. and Ostolaza, C.N. (1986) Abstract 27th Annual Meeting American Society of Pharmacognosy July 27–30 Ann Arbor MI: Abstr.-52. [Same data as Ma et al. 1986?]

Ma, W.W. et al. (1986) Journal of Natural Products, 49 (4): 735–737. “Cactus Alkaloids LXI. Identification of mescaline and related compounds in eight additional species using tlc and mass-spectrometry/mass spectrometry.” (W.W. Ma, X.Y. Jiang, R.G. Cooks, J.L. McLaughlin, A.C. Gibson, F. Zeylemaker & C.N. Ostolaza)

Maas, J.W. & D.H. Landis (1968) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 163 (1): 147–162. “In vivo studies of the metabolism of norepinephrine in the central nervous system. “

Maass, W. (1905) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde. Zeitschrift der Liebhaber von Kakteen und anderen Fettpflanzen. 50: 117–122. “Die Jahres-Hautversammlung 1905.” [Page 119 merely mentions the name Cereus bridgesii longispinus.] [Also given as publication of Echinocactus jourdanianus (Rebut) Rebut ex Maass] Page 122 mentions Rebut’s name Echinocactus jourdanianus.

Mabry, T.J. et al. (1963) Phytochemistry, 2: 61–64. “The Betacyanins and Their Distribution.” (Tom J. Mabry, Ann Taylor & Billy L. Turner)

MacDougall & Miranda. RE: Pterocereus (?) gaumeri MacDougall & Miranda given as a provisional name; See Miranda 1954

MacDougall, Thomas & Helia Bravo (1956) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 1 (4): 64–67. “Pachycereus tehuantepecanus T. MacDougall et H. Bravo H., sp. nov.”

Mack, J.P.G. and Michael Slaytor (1979) Phytochemistry, 18:1921–1925. “Indolethylamine N-Methyltransferases of Phalaris tuberosa, Purification and Properties.”

Maclay, W.S. & E. Guttman (1941) Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry, 45: 130–137. “Mescaline hallucinations in artists.”

Madsen, Jens (1989) “5. Echinopsis Zucc.”, pages 27–30 of “45. Cactaceae.”; in Gunnar Harling & Lennart Andersson (eds.) Flora of Ecuador, No. 35.

Maffii, G. & E. Soncin (1958) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 10: 541–552. “Stereotyped Response Induced by Mescaline In Mice as a Means of Investigating the Properties of Drugs Acting on the CNS.”

Maggendorfer, F. (1928) Handbuch der Geistekranken. Vol. 7: 159, 162, 355–356. “Intoxikationspsychosen”

Magos, G.A. et al. (1999) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 64 (1): 35–44. “Pharmacology of Casimiroa edulis IV. Hypotensive effects of compounds isolated from methanolic extracts in rats and guinea pigs.” (G.A. Magos, H. Vidrio, W.F. Reynolds & R.G. Enríquez)

Maickel, R.P., Cox, R.W., Jr., Saillant, J. and Miller, F.P. (1968) Int. J. Neuropharmacol. 7: 275–281.

Major, R.T. & F. Dürsch (1958) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 23: 1564–1565. “Na,Na-Dimethylhistamine, a hypotensive principle in Casimiroa edulis Llave et Lex.”

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Malitz, S. et al. (1960) Comprehensive Psychiatry, 1 (1): 8–17. “Some observations on Psilocybin, a New Hallucinogen in Volunteer Subjects.” (Sidney Malitz, Harold Esecover, Bernard Wilkens & Paul H. Hoch)

Malmejac (1964) Physiol. Rev. 44: 186.

Mandalari, G. et al. (2009) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 57 (21): 10323–10330. “Anatomical, chemical, and biochemical characterization of cladodes from prickly pear [Opuntia ficus-indica (L.) Mill.].” (G. Ginestra, M.L. Parker, R.N. Bennett, J. Robertson, G. Mandalari, A. Narbad, R.B. Lo Curto, G. Bisignano, C.B. Faulds & K.W. Waldron)

Mandava,N.B. et al. (1981) Journal of Natural Products, 44 (1): 94–100. “Inhibition of Plant Growth by Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines” (N.B. Mandava, J.F. Worley and G.J. Kapadia)

Manger et al. (1969) Clin. Chem. 15: 1101. (W.M. Manger, O.S. Steinsland, G.G. Nahas, K.G. Wakim and S. Dufton]

Manna & Campiglo (1959) Farmaco Ed. Sci. 14: 317.

Manna & Ghislandi (1964) Farmaco Ed. Sci. 19: 377.

Manske (1937) Can J. Res. Sect. B. 15: 159

Manske, Richard Helmut Fred (1954) in RHF Manske (ed.) The Alkaloids Vol. IV pp. 8–14.

MAPS [Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies] 2105 Robinson Avenue / Sarasota, Florida 34232

Margadarsi 1998 & 2000 (personal communication)

Marinesco, G. (1931) Presse Médicale, 40: 743–744. “A propos de l’audition colorée.”

Marinesco, G. (1933)a Presse Médicale, 41: 1433–1437. “Recherches sur l’action de la mescaline.”

Marinesco, G. (1933)b Presse Médicale, 92: 1864–1866. “Visions colorées produites par la mescaline.”

Marini-Bettòlo, G.B. & Juan A. Coch Frugoni (1956) Gazzeta Chimica Italiana, 86: 1324–1331. “Influenza del pH nella separazione elettroforetica su carta degli alcaloidi.” [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [Also 1958 CA 52: 653c] [From paper presented to the XV Congresso di Chimica Pura e Applicata – Lisbona, 8–16 settembre, 1956]

Marini-Bettòlo, G.B. & Juan A. Coch Frugoni (1958)a Rendiconti. Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 21: 319–327 [cf. CA 49, 1280e] “Influenza del pH nella separazione elettroforetica su carta degli alcaloidi.” [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [CA (1959) 53: 1633] [From paper presented to the XV Congresso di Chimica Pura e Applicata – Lisbona, 8–16 settembre, 1956]

Marini-Bettòlo, G.B. & Juan A. Coch Frugoni (1958)b Journal of Chromatography, 1: 182–185. “Portable Apparatus for Paper Electrophoresis. Its application to preliminary analysis of curarizing alkaloids in plants and curares.”

Märki, F. et al. (1962) Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 58: 367. (F. Märki, J. Axelrod and B. Witkop) [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Marnell, Tim (ed) (1997) Drug Identification Bible Third edition. DIB: Denver. ISBN 0-9635626-2-2

Marona-Lewicka D & D.E. Nichols (2007) Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 87 (4): 453–461. “Further evidence that the delayed temporal dopaminergic effects of LSD are mediated by a mechanism different than the first temporal phase of action.”

Marrazzi, Amadeo S. & E. Ross Hart (1953) Progress in Neurology & Psychology, 8: 69–88. “Mescaline- Pharmacology of the nervous system.”

Marrazzi, Amadeo S. & E. Ross Hart (1955a) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 453–457. “The Possible Role of Inhibition at Adrenergic Synapses in the Mechanism of Hallucinogenic and Related Drug Actions.”

Marrazzi, Amadeo S. & E. Ross Hart (1955b) Science, 121 (3141): 365–367. “Relationship of hallucinogens to adrenergic cerebral neurohumors.”

Marriott, Alice & Rachlin, Carol K. (1972) Peyote. Mentor Books: New York & Scarborough, Ontario.

Marriott, Alice & Rachlin, Carol K. (1988) Peyote. La Salamandra: Milano.

Marshall, C.R. (1935) British Journal of Ophthamology, 19: 177–201. “Entopic Phenomena Associated with the Retina.”

Marshall, C.R. (1936–1937) Journal of Neurology and Psychopathology, (London), 17: 289–304. “An inquiry into the causes of mescal visions.”

Marshall, W. Taylor & Thor Methron Bock (1977) Cactaceae.

Martin, George C. (1933) Witte Memorial Museum Bulletin, 3. “Archeological explorations of the Shumla caves.”

Martin, George C. (1937) Archaeological Exploration of the Shumla Caves. Report of the George C. Martin Expedition. Southwest Texas Archaeological Society, Witte Memorial Museum, San Antonio.

Martin, Richard J. & Roger G.H. Downer (1989) Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology, 11: 29–45. “Effects of Potential Inhibititors on N-Acetylation of Octopamine by Tissue Extracts From Malpighian Tubules and Cerebral Ganglia of Periplaneta americana L.”

Martin, Robert J. & Thomas G. Alexander (1968) Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 51 (1): 159–163. “Analytical Procedures Used in FDA Laboratories for the Analysis of Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Martínez, Maximino (1928) Las Plantas Medicinales de Mexico. Mexico. [from Schultes 1937b]

Martínez, Maximino (1959) Plantas Utiles de la Flora Mexicana, (Peyote: 468–477) Ediciones Botas

Martínez, Maximino (1989) Las Plantas Medicinales de México. 6th Edition, Ediciones Botas. México. ISBN 9686334076. 656 pages.

Martius, Carl Friedrich Phillip [AKA “Carolus Fridericus Philippus De Martius”] (1890) Flora Brasiliensis 4 (2) 201 & fig. 40. “7. Cereus macrogonus.” This problematic article was written by Schumann but both the mistaken origin and floristic errors were attempted to be corrected in Schumann 1898. Sadly only his comments in Flora Brasiliensis were noticed by most later workers.

[The work Flora Brasiliensis involved 65 authors and took 66 years. Martius began editing in 1840. The editing was taken over by August Wilhelm Eichler in 1868 (Martius died at the end of 1868) and then by Ignatz Urban in 1887 (following Eichler’s death). The work was finally completed in 1906. Urban was the current editor when volume 4 was finally pubished in 1890.] Reprinted in 1967 by Verlag von J. Kramer.

Maruyama, M. et al. (1993) Journal of Neural Transmission, 94 (2): 1435–1463. “Naturally-occurring isoquinolines perturb monoamine metabolism in the brain: studied by in vivo microdialysis.” (W. Maruyama, D. Nakahara, P. Dostert, A. Takahashi & M. Naoi)

Marx, M. et al. (1967) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 32: 3150–3155. “Terpenoids. LX. Revised Structures of the Cactus Triterpene Lactones Stellatogenin and Thurberogenin.” (Michael Marx, J. Leclercq, B. Tursch & Carl Djerassi)

Mascher, E. et al. (1966) “Psycholytic Therapy: Statistics and Indications.” pp. 441–444. in: Brill et al. (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the Fifth International Congress of the Collegium Internationale Neuro-Psycho-Pharmacologicum.

Mass, J.W. et al. (1980) Psychol. Med. 10: 759

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1980)a Journal of Natural Products, 43 (3): 411–413. “Lemairin, a New Glucoside from the Mexican Cactus, Pachycereus weberi.”

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L McLaughlin (1980)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 69 (1): 94–95. “Cactus alkaloids XLII: 3,4-Dimethoxy-β-phenethylamine and Heliamine from the Mexican Cereoid Backebergia militaris

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L McLaughlin (1980)c Phytochemistry, 19: 673–678. “Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids of the Mexican Columnar Cactus Pachycereus weberi

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1980)d Planta Medica, 38: 180–182. “Cactus Alkaloids. XLV. Tetrahydroisoquinolines from the Mexican Cereoid Pachycereus pringlei.”

Mata, Rachel & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1982) Revista Latinoamericana de Quimica, 12: 95–117. “Cactus Alkaloids. 50. A comprehensive tabular summary.”

Mata & McLaughlin 1976 (in the literature) meant Mata et al. 1972.

Mata & McLaughlin 1976 Lloydia, 39(6):461 in the literature meant Mata et al. 1976a.

Mata, R. et al. (1976)a Lloydia, 39 (6): 461–463. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXX. N-Methylated Tyramines from Trichocereus spachianus, T. candicans and Espostoa huanucensis” (Rachel Mata, Jerry L. McLaughlin & W. Hubert Earle)

Mata, R. et al. (1976)b Lloydia, 39 (6): 480 (Proceedings.) “Cactus alkaloids. XXXI. N-methylated tyramines from Trichocereus candicans, T. spachianus and Espostoa huanucensis” (R. Mata, W.H. Earle & J.L. McLaughlin)

Mata et al. 1980 in the literature meant Mata & McLaughlin 1980

Mata, R. et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (5): 1263–1270. “13C NMR Analysis of Some Simple Tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (Rachel Mata, Ching-Jer Chang & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Mátéfi, L. (1952) Confina Neurologica, 12: 146–177. “Mezcalin und Lysergsäure diäthylamid-Rausch: Selbstversuche mit besonderer Berücksichtigung eines Zeichentests.”

Matsutani, H. & T. Shiba (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 1132.

Mauseth, James D. (1983)a Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 55 (4): 171–175. “Introduction to Cactus Anatomy. Part 5. Secretory Cells.”

Mauseth, James D. (1984)a Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 56 (1): 33–37. “Introduction to Cactus Anatomy. Part 7. Epidermis.”

Maxwell, Ross A. (1968) The Big Bend of the Rio Grande. A guide to the rocks, geologic history, and settlers of the area of Big Bend National Park. Guidebook 7. Bureau of Economic Geology. University of Texas at Austin. 138 pages plus a 1966 1:62,500 color-keyed geologic map of the park as an insert. (1979-4th printing./ 1968 first printing)

May, Richard (1980) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 52: 14–18. “Sclerocactus polyancistrus: Its growth, distribution and cultivation, Part II.”

Mayer-Gross, W. (1931) “Ueber Synaesthesien im Meskalinrausch.” in G. Anschütz (ed.) Farbe-Ton-Forschungen vol. 3, Hamburg.

Mayer-Gross, W. (1951) British Medical Journal ,(Vol. 2): 317–321. “Experimental Psychoses and other Abnormalities Produced by Drugs.”

Mayer-Gross, W. & H. Stein (1926) Deutsche Zeitschrift für Nervenheilkunde, 89: 112–118. “Veränderte Sinnestätigkeit im Meskalinrausch.”

McAllester, David P. (1949) Peyote Music. Viking Fund Publications in Anthropology No. 13.

McAllester, David P. (1952) in J.S. Slotkin’s Menomini Peyotism, (Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 42, pt. 4.) pp. 681–700. “Menomini peyote music.”

McAllester, David P. (1954) Enemy way music: A study of social and esthetic values as seen in Navaho music. (Reports of the Rimrock Project, Values Series No. 3, Papers of the Peabody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology.)

McAllister, Gilbert (1954) Cactus and Succulent Journal, (26): 146–147. “Peyote at Shafter, Texas, in the Big Bend.”

McAnalley, B.W. et al. (1988) Paper presented at the IV International Conference on AIDS (Stockholm, Sweden, June, 1988). “Demonstration of in-vitro antiviral action of Acemannan against multiple viruses including the HIV virus.”

McCall, R.B. (1982) Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. 6(4): 509–514. “Neurophysiological effects of hallucinogens on serotonergic neuronal systems.”

McCall, R.B. & G.K. Aghajanian (1979) Neuroscience Abstracts, 5: 343. “Hallucinogens sensitize serotonin and norepinephrine receptors in the facial motor nucleus.”

McCleary 1960 in the literature meant McCleary et al. 1960

McCleary et al. (1960) Economic Botany, 14 (4): 247–249. “Antibiotic activity of an extract of peyote (Lophophora Williamsii [Lemaire] Coulter)” (James A. McCleary, Paul S. Sypherd & David L. Walkington)

McCleary, James A. (1960) (in the literature) meant McCleary et al. 1960

McCleary, James A. & David L. Walkington (1964) Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club, 91 (5): 361–369. “Antimicrobial Activity in the Cactaceae.”

McCoy, Alfred W. (1972) The Politics of Heroin in Southeast Asia.

McEwen, Charles M. Jr. (1965) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 240 (5): 2003–2018. “Human Plasma Monoamine Oxidase. I. Purification and Identification.”

McFarlane, I.J. & M. Slaytor (1972)a Phytochemistry, 11(1): 229–234. “The Role of N-Acetyl Amines in Tetrahydro-β-carboline and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Biosynthesis.”

McFarlane, I.J. & M. Slaytor (1972)b Phytochemistry, 11: 235–238. “Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Echinocereus merkeri.”

McFarlane, W.D. (1966) Am. Soc. Brew. Chem Proc. 184.

McGlothlin, William H. (1965) Psychedelic Review, 6: 16–57. “Hallucinogenic Drugs: A Perspective with Special Reference to Peyote and Cannabis.”

McIvor, R.A. & J.M. Pepper (1953) Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 31: 298–302. “The Reaction of 5-Bromovanillin and Sodium Methoxide.” (Synthesis of syringaldehyde.)

McKellar, P. (1963) “Mescaline and Human Thinking.” in Crocket, Sandison & Walk (eds.) Hallucinogenic Drugs and Their Psychotherapeutic Use. Charles C. Thomas, Springfield.

McKenna, D. J. et al. (1986) América Indigena, 46(1): 73–99. “Ingredientes biodinamicos en las plantas que se mezclan al ayahuasca. Una farmacopea tradicional no investigada.” [Dennis J. McKenna, L.E. Luna & G.H.N. Towers] [Epiphyllum]

McKenna, Terence (1991) The Archaic Revival. Speculations on Psychedelic Mushrooms, the Amazon, Virtual Reality, UFOs, Evolution, Shamanism, the Rebirth of the Goddess, and the End of History. Harper SanFrancisco. ISBN 0-06-250613-7

McKenna, Terence (1992) Food of the Gods: The search for the original tree of knowledge. A radical history of plants, drugs and human evolution. Bantam Books

McKenna, Terence (1993) True hallucinations. Being an Account of the Author’s Extraordinary Adventures in the Devil’s Paradise. Harper SanFrancisco. 1994 paperback: ISBN 0-06-250652-8.

McLaughlin, Jerry Loren (1965) PhD dissertation; University of Michigan. “Identification and biosynthesis of certain alkaloids of Lophophora Williamsii (Lem.) Coult.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. (1969) Lloydia, 32 (3): 392–394.
“Cactus alkaloids. VI. Identification of hordenine and N-Methyltyramine in Ariocarpus fissuratus varieties
fissuratus and lloydii.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. (1973) Lloydia, 36 (1): 1–8. “Peyote: an introduction.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. & Ara G. Paul (1965) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 54 (4): 661. “Presence of Hordenine in Lophophora Williamsii.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. & Ara G. Paul (1966) Lloydia, 29 (4): 315–327. “The cactus alkaloids. I. Identification of N-Methylated Tyramine Derivatives in Lophophora Williamsii.”

McLaughlin, Jerry L. & Ara G. Paul (1967) Lloydia, 30 (1): 91–99. “The Cactus Alkaloids. II. Biosynthesis of Hordenine and Mescaline in Lophophora Williamsii.”

McLeary, J.A., in the literature, is a typo referring to McCleary

Melero, C.P. et al. (2000) Molecules, 5: 51–81. “A Short Review on Cardiotonic Steroids and Their Aminoguanidine Analogues.” (Concepción P. Melero, Manuel Medarde & Arturo San Feliciano) (downloadable from http://www.mdpi.org/molecules/papers/50100051.pdf)

Mellen, Chase, III (1963) The Harvard Review, 1 (4): 63–67. “Reflections of a Peyote Eater.”

Menachery, Mary D. et al. (1986) Journal of Natural Products, 49 (5): 745–778. “Simple Isoquinolines” (Includes review of physical data and distribution.)

Mencken, H.L. (1930) Treatise on the Gods. Alfred A. Knopf 1930 (364 pp & 12 p index); Second Edition: Corrected & revised. Alfred A. Knopf, NY 1946 (360 pp & 15 p index). Reprinted several times.

Mercado, Leo (ed.) The Peyote Foundation Journal Publication of the Peyote Foundation. [http://www.peyote.net]

Merchant, J.R. & A.J. Mountwala (1958) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 23: 1774–1776. “Synthesis of Some β-Phenethylamine Derivatives. I”

Mercier, J. & S. Dessaigne (1959) Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises, 17: 606.

Merck (1960) The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 7th Edition. Rahway, N.J.: Merck and Co.

Merck (1976) The Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs. 9th Edition. Martha Windholz (ed.), Merck & Co.; Rahway, NJ. ISBN 911910-26–3.

Merlis, S. & H.C.B. Denber (1956) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 123 (6): 542–545. “Studies on mescaline, V. Electroencephalographic evidence for the antagonism between mescaline and chlorpromazine hydrochloride.”

Merlis, S. & Wallace Hunter (1954) Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 430–432. “Studies on mescaline II: Effects of administration after electric convulsive treatment of schizophrenic patients.”

Merriam, Alan P. & D’Azevedo, Warren L. (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 615–641. “Washo peyote songs.”

Merrill, W.L. (1977) An Investigation of Ethnographic and Archeological Specimens of Mescalbeans (Sophora secundiflora) in American Museums. (Technical Reports No. 6) Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. [From Ott 1993]

Mester, I (1973) Fitoterapia (Milano), 44: 123–152. “The occurrence of the alkaloids in Rutaceae”

Mester, I. (1977) Fitoterapia (Milano), 48: 268–278. “The Occurrence of Alkaloids in Rutaceae. Addendum I”

Metzner, Ralph (1963) Psychedelic Review, 1: 69–100. “The pharmacology of psychedelic drugs.”

Metzner, Ralph (1994) The Well of Remembrance: Rediscovering the Earth Wisdom Myths of Northern Europe. Shambala.

Meyer, Brian & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1980) Planta Medica, 38 (1): 91–92. “Cactus alkaloids. XLI. Candicine from Trichocereus pasacana

Meyer, Brian & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1982) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 54 (5): 226–228. “A Note on the Phytochemistry of Opuntia (Cactaceae).”

Meyer, B.N. et al. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 719–720. “β-Phenethylamines From the Cactus Genus Opuntia” (Brian N. Meyer, Yehia A.H. Mohamed & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Meyer, B.N. et al. (1981) Planta Medica, 43 (11): 304–306. “Candicine from Stapelia gigantea.” (Brian N. Meyer, Jerry L. McLaughlin & William J. Keller)

Meyer, B.N., Helfrich, J.S., Nichols, D.E., Davis, D.V., Cooks, R.G. and J.L. McLaughlin 1982 Abstr. 23rd Annual Meeting American Society of Pharmacognosy August 1–5 1982, Pittsburg Pa, 23: Abstr.-41 [from Meyer et al. 1983]

Meyer, B.N. et al. (1983) Journal of Natural Products, 46 (5): 688-693. “Cactus Alkaloids LIII. Coryphanthine and O-Methylcandicine, Two New Quaternary Alkaloids from Coryphantha greenwoodii” (B.N. Meyer, J.S. Helfrich, D.E. Nichols, J.L. McLaughlin, D.V. Davis and R.G. Cooks)

Meyer, J. M. & J. C. Fogleman (1987) J. Chem. Ecol, 13:2069–2081. “Significance of saguaro cactus alkaloids in the ecology of Drosophila mettleri, a soil-breeding, cactophilic drosophilid.”

MFDS (2003) Drug Information Journal, article P15_587. “The Analysis of Peyote Cactus, Mescal Buttons and Mescaline.” (Ministry of Food and Drug Safety in the Korean Food & Drug Administration.)

Michaelis, Paul (1896) Thesis Erlangen. “Beiträge zur verglichenden Anatomie der Gattungen Echinocactus, Mammillaria und Anhalonium” [Echinocactus lewinii (Hennings) Schumann var. jourdaniana Michaelis]

Michaux, Henri (1956) Misérable miracle, Rocher: Monaco; also (1967) Miserabile miracolo. l’infinito turbolento. Feltrinelli: Milano; also (1969) Miserable miracle (tr. by Louise Varèse) City Lights: San Francisco; also (1972) Misérable miracle. La Mescaline. (avec quarante-huit dessins et documents manuscrits originaux de l’auteur.) Éditions Gallimaud 195 pages

Michaux, Henri (1957) L’infini turbulent, Mercure de France: Paris; Also (1976) Infinite Turbulence (tr. by Michael Fineberg 1976) Calder and Boyars.

Michaux, Henri (1968) Allucinogeni e conoscenza. Rizzoli: Milano.

Michaux, Henri (1986) Unseliges Wunder: Das Meskalin. Carl Hanser: Munich.

Michel, Karen Lincoln (1999) Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Wisconsin) Friday, December 17. “For Native American Church, Peyote is Sacred.” [See http://www.jsonline.com/]

Middleditch, B.S. (1976) Journal of Chromatography, 126: 581–589. “Aldehyde condensation products as derivatives for the vapor phase analysis of biogenic amines”

Miller et al. (1978) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 43: 1580-?. “Synthesis of Morphinandienones, A. Dihydrophenanthrone and Pummerer’s Ketones by Anodic Coupling.” (L.L. Miller, R.F. Stewart, J.P. Gillespie, V. Ramachandran, Y.H. So & F.R. Stermitz)

Miller, H.E. et al. (1968) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 51 (6): 1470–1474. “Biogenese der Betalaine. Biotransformation von Dopa and Tyrosin in den Betalaminsäureteil des Betanins.” (H.E. Miller, H. Rösler, A. Wohlpart, H. Wyler, M.E. Wilcox, H. Frohofer, T.J. Mabry & André S. Dreiding)

Miller, John (2000) comments forwarded by MS Smith (Ariocarpus bravoanus comment derived from Anderson & Fitz Maurice 1997; scaphirostris comment was referenced to personal communication from Ted Anderson in 1999)

Miller, John M. & Bruce A. Bohm (1982) Phytochemistry, 21 (4): 951–952. “Flavonol and Dihydroflavonol Glycosides of Echinocereus triglochidiatus var. gurneyi.”

Miller, Richard Lawrence (1996) Drug Warriors and Their Prey: From Police Power to Police State. Prager: Westport. ISBN 0-275-95042-5.

Milne, G.W.A. et al. (1973) Anal. Chem. 45: 1952. (cims)

Minale, L. et al. (1965) Phytochemistry, 4: 593–597. “Pigments of Centrospermae – IV. On The Biogenesis of Indicaxanthin and Betanin in Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.” (L. Minale, M. Piattelli & R.A. Nicolaus)

Minale, L. et al. (1966) Phytochemistry, 5: 1037–1052. “Pigments of Centrospermae – VI. Acylated Betacyanins.” (L. Minale, M. Piattelli, S. De Stefano & R.A. Nicolaus)

Minelli, Laurenchich & Frigerio, Bianca Maria (1976) Terra Ameriga, 37/40: 21–30. “Il peyote nel Messico pre-colombiano.”

Mindt, L. et al. (1977) Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture, 26: 993-1000. “Cactaceae Mucilage Composition.” (Lothar Mindt, Karl Saag, George R. Sanderson, Patrick Moyna & Gerardo Ramos)

Miranda, Faustino (1954) Ceiba, 4 (2): 126–145. “Plantas Nuevas de Chiapas” [pp. 139–140 is P. gaumeri (?) Th.MacDougall & F.Miranda.]

Mitchell, S. Weir (in the literature) See as Weir Mitchell

Moerman, D.E. (1998) Native American Ethnobotany. Timber Press, Portland. ISBN 0881924539. 927 pages

Moffat, A.C. & E.C. Horning (1970) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 222: 248–250. “A new derivative for the gas-liquid chromatography of picogram quantities of primary amines of the catecholamine series.”

Mohamed, Y.A.H. et al. (1979) Journal of Natural Products, 42 (2): 197–202 “Cactus Alkaloids. XXXIX. A
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Mokrasch, L.C. & Ian Stevenson (1959) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 129 (2): 177–183. “The metabolism of mescaline with a note on correlations between metabolism and psychological effects.”

Moksha Press http://www.entheobiblica.com

Molinoff, Perry B. & Julius Axelrod (1969) Science, 164 (878): 428–429. “Octopamine: normal occurrence in sympathetic nerves of rats.”

Molinoff, P.B. et al. (1969) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 170 (2): 253–261. “An enzymatic assay for octopamine and other beta-hydroxylated phenylethylamines.” (P.B. Molinoff, L.Landsberg & J. Axelrod)

Molinoff, P. et al. (1970) Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences (USA), 66 (2): 453–458. ”Neurally Mediated Increase in Dopamine-β-Hydroxylase Activity.” (Perry B. Molinoff, Steven Brimijoin, Richard Weinshilboum & Julius Axelrod)

Möller, A. (1935) Acta psychiatrica et neurologica 10: 405–442. “Einige Meskalin Versuche.”

Moniot, Jerome L. et al (1978) Heterocycles, 9: 145. [This may be with coauthor Maurice Shamma?)

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (1996) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 51c: 426–428. “On the formation of weddellite in Chamaecereus silvestrii, a cactaceae from northern Argentina. “

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (1997) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 52c: 267–269. “On the formation of whewellite in the cactaceae species Opuntia microdasys.”

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2000) Plant Physiology, 157: 457–460. “First evidences of the bioaccumulation of α-quartz in Cactaceae.”

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2002) Plant Physiology, 128: 707–713. “Characterization of calcium oxalates generated as biominerals in cacti.”

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2004)a. “Plant biomineralization.” pp. 403–419 in: H. Hemantaranjan (ed.), Advances in Plant Physiology, vol. 7. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur. (from Monje & Baran 2005)

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2004)b Journal of Plant Physiology, 161: 121–123. “Complex biomineralization pattern in Cactaceae.” (from Monje & Baran 2005)

Monje, Paula V. & Enrique J. Baran (2005) Phytochemistry, 66 (5): 611–614. “Evidence of formation of glushinskite as a biomineral in a Cactaceae species.”

Monnier, M. & L. Hostli (1965) Pfluger’s Arch. Ges. Physiol. 282: 60 (GHB article) [From Roth & Giarman 1970]

Moore, Harvey C. (1956) American Anthropologist, 58: 220. Review of: Enemy way music: A study of social and esthetic values as seen in Navaho music, by David P. McAllester.

Moore, R.Y. & F.E. Bloom (1979) Annual Review of Neuroscience, 2: 113–168. “Central Catecholamine Neuron Systems: Anatomy and Physiology of the Norepinephrine and Epinephrine Systems.”

Morales, Glauco & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1989) Journal of Natural Products, 52 (2): 381–384. “3β-O-Palmityl Longispinogenin from Trichocereus chilensis.”

Morales, R.M.E. (2006) Tesis Doctoral. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León. “Extractos de Lophocereus schottii (Engelmann) Britton & Rose y Stenocereus gummosus (Engelmann) Gibson & Horak con actividad antibacteriana y antineoplásica sobre líneas celulares humanas.” [from Garza Padrón 2010]

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Moreno-Álvarez, M.J. et al. (2006) Bol. Nakari 17: 9–12. “Evaluación bromatológica de frutos y cladodios de la tuna (Opuntia boldinghii Britton et Rose).” (M.J. Moreno-Álvarez, D. García-Pantaleón, D.R. Belén-Camacho, C. Medina-Martínez, N. Muñoz-Ojeda, I. Herrera & C. Espinoza) [from García Pantaleón et al. 2009]

Morgan, George Robert (1976) Dissertation; University of Colorado. “Man, Plant and Religion: Peyote Trade on the Mustang Plains of Texas.”

Morgan, George Robert (1983)a Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 29 (2): 73–86 “The Biogeography of Peyote in South Texas.”

Morgan, George Robert (1983)b Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 9: 319–321. “Hispano-Indian Trade of an Indian Ceremonial Plant, Peyote (Lophophora Williamsii), on the Mustang Plains of Texas.”

Morgan, George R. & Omer C. Stewart (1984) Southwestern Historical Quarterly, 87: 269–296. “Peyote Trade in South Texas.”

Morin et al. (1957) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 22: 331–332. “Synthesis of 5,6,7-trimethoxyindole, a possible intermediary metabolite of mescaline.”

Morin et al. (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24: 917. (in the literature) meant Benington et al. 1959

Morrison, Robert Thornton & Robert Neilson Boyd (1976) Organic Chemistry Third Edition Allyn and Bacon, Inc. ISBN 0-205-03239-7.

Morselli, G.E. (1936) Journal de psychologie normale et pathologique, 33: 368–392. “Contribution à la psychopathologie de l’intoxication par la mescaline.”

Morselli, G.E. (1944–1945) Rivista di psicologia, 40–41: 1-23. “Mescalina e schizofrenia.”

Moseby (1994) Mosby’s Medical, Nursing, & Allied Health Dictionary, Fourth Edition. Kenneth N. Anderson, Lois E. Anderson & Walter D. Glanze (eds.) Mosby-Year Book Inc. ISBN 0-8016-7225-2 (Prof.) – ISBN 0-8151-6113-1 – ISBN 0-8151-6111-5 (trade)

Moser, M. et al. (1996) Journal of Neural Transmission, 103 (4): 1435–1463. “Salsolinol, catecholamine metabolites, and visual hallucinations in L-dopa treated patients with Parkinson’s disease.” (A. Moser, F. Siebecker, P. Vieregge, P. Jaskowski & D. Kömpf)

Mottram, Roy (1997) Cactaceae Consensus Initiatives 2: 8. “Two new names in Echinopsis.” [This was the publication of the name Echinopsis scopulicola.]

Mount, Guy (1993) The Peyote Book. A Study of Native Medicine. 3rd Edition. Sweetlight Books. ISBN 0-9604462-3-0.

Moyna, Patrick & José Luis DiFabio (1978) Planta Medica, 34: 207–210. “Composition of Cactaceae Mucilages.”

Müller-Ebeling, Claudia & Rätsch, Christian (1997) “Kreisrituale mit Peyote und MDMA” pp. 68–74 in Constantine Weigle & Ronald Rippchen (eds.) MDMA: Die psychoaktive Substanz für Therapie, Ritual und Rekreation. Werner Pierper’s Medien Xperimente: Löhrbach (Der Grüne Zweig 103, erw. Neuaufl.)

Mulvena, Dawn P. & Michael Slaytor (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (1): 47–48. “N-Methyltransferase activities in Phalaris aquatica.”

Mulvena, Dawn P. et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (12): 2885–2886. “Methoxylated Gramine Derivatives From Phalaris aquatica.” (Dawn P. Mulvena, Kelvin Picker, Damon D. Ridley & Michael Slaytor)

Munier, I.R. & M. Macheboeuf (1949) Bulletin. Société de Chimie Biologique [France] 31: 1144–1162. “Microchromatographie de partage des alcaloides et de diverses bases azoties biologiques.”

Murg, Wilhelm (2002) http://www.okit.com/news/2002/february/nativeamericanchurch.html [Article on DEA, AIRFA and the NAC]

Murphee, H.B. et al. (1958) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 122: 55A-56A. “Effects of lysergic acid derivatives on man: antagonism between d-lysergic acid diethylamide and its 2-bromo congener.” (H.B. Murphee, E.W.J. DeMaar, H.L. Williams & L.L. Bryan)

Murple was via personal communication.

Murray, T.F. et al. (1977) Pharmacology, Biochemistry & Behavior, 7 (3): 239–244. “Pharmacological and behavioral components of tolerance to LSD and mescaline in rats.” (T.F. Murray, A.L. Craigmill & G.J. Fischer)

Musacchio, José M. & Menek Goldstein (1962) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 58: 607–608. “The formation In Vivo of N-acetyldopamine and N-acetyl-3-methoxy dopamine.” [Also in vivo formation of N-acetylmescaline.]

Musacchio, José M. & Menek Goldstein (1967) Biochemical Pharmacology, 16: 963–970. “The metabolism of mescaline-14C in rats.”

Musacchio, José M. et al. (1963) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 22: 481. [Abstract; entry 1915] “N-Acetylation and Demethylation of Mescaline in Rats.” (José M. Musacchio, A. Dudowitz, H. Gerber and Menek Goldstein)

Musshoff, F. et al. (2000) Forensic Science International, 113 (1-3): 359–366. “Determination of dopamine and dopamine-derived (R)-/(S)-salsolinol and norsalsolinol in various human brain areas using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.” (F. Musshoff, P. Schmidt, R. Dettmeyer, F. Priemer, K. Jachau & B. Madea)

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1973) Organization and Ecstacy: Peyote and the Huichol Case. (Unpublished manuscript)

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1975) “Peyote and Huichol Worldview: The Structure of a Mystic Vision.” pp 417–438, in Vera Rubin (ed.) Cannabis and Culture. Mouton: The Hague, Paris.

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1976) (1974?) Peyote Hunt: The Sacred Journey of the Huichol Indians. [Symbol, Myth and Ritual Series.] Cornell University Press. 288 pages (285 pages?) ISBN 0-8014-9137-1

Myerhoff, Barbara G. (1980) Der Peyote Kult. Trikont: Munich.

Nadker, Kurt H. (1991) Drogen: Rauschgift und Medizin. Munich: Quintessenz. page 95 [From Rätsch]

Nagelvoort, J.B. (1891) Bulletin of Pharmacy, 5: 354. “Notes on Cactina.” Errata: Bulletin of Pharmacy, 5: 398.

Nagelvoort, J.B. (1895) American Journal of Pharmacy, 67: 31–32. “Letter to Editor.”

Nahmed Sittri, S. et al. (1972) El peyote y los huicholes. SepSentas: Mexico. (Salamón Nahmed Sittri, Otto Klineberg, Peter T. Furst & Barbara G. Myerhoff)

Nair, A.G.R. & S.S. Subramanian (1964) Current Science, 33: 211-212.”Isolation of Isoquercitrin from the Flowers of Opuntia dillenii.”

Nakano, T. (1954) Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 2 (4): 321–325. “Studies on the alkaloids of magnoliaceous plants. XII. Alkaloids of Magnolia grandiflora L.”

Nakada, T. & K. Nashihara (1944) Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 64: 74–76. “Syntheses of anhalonium bases, I. Synthesis of carnegine and pellotine methyl ester” [1951 CA 45: 2955h]

Nakano, T. & M. Uchiyama (1956) Pharmaceutical Bulletin (Tokyo) 4 (5): 409–410. “Alkaloids of magnoliaceous plants. XVIII. Alkaloids of Magnolia kobus DC. var. borealis Koidz.“

Naranjo, Claudio (1973) “Psychological Aspects of the Yagé Experience in an Experimental Setting.” Pp. 176–190 (Ch 10) in Harner (1973)

Naranjo, Plutarco (1958) Arch. Criminol. Neuropsiquiatr. Quito, 6: 358. “Psychotomimetic Drugs. Comparative Study of harmine, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD-25) and mescaline.”

Naruto, S. & H. Kaneko (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (12): 3008–3009. “Alkaloids from Corydalis ambigua.”

Neal, J.M. & J.L. McLaughlin (1970) Lloydia, 33 (3): 395–396. “Cactus Alkaloids. IX. Isolation of N-Methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamine and N-Methyl-4-methoxy-β-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus retusus

Neal, J.M. & J.L. McLaughlin (1972) Journal of Chromatography, 73: 277–278. “Cactus Alkaloids. XVII. Thin-Layer Chromatography of Dansylated Nonphenolic β-Phenethylamines.”

Neal, J.M. et al. (1971)a Economic Botany, 25 (4): 382–384. “Cactus Alkaloids. XI. Isolation of Tyramine, N-Methyltyramine and Hordenine from Obregonia denegrii” [also CA (1972) 76: 151035]. (J.M. Neal, P.T. Sato & J.L. McLaughlin)

Neal, J.M. et al. (1971)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 60 (3): 477–478. “Cactus alkaloids. X. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyltyramine from Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus” (J.M. Neal, P.T. Sato, C.L. Johnson & J.L. McLaughlin)

Neal, J.M. et al. (1972) Science, , 176: 1131–1133. “Peyote alkaloids: Identification in the Mexican cactus Pelecyphora aselliformis.” (J.M. Neal, P.T. Sato, W.N. Howard & J.L. McLaughlin)

Neff, N. & G.V. Rossi (1963) American Journal of Pharmacy and the Sciences Supporting Public Health. 135 (9): 319–327. “Mescaline.”

Neff, N et al. (1964) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 144 (1): 1–7. “Distribution and Metabolism of Mescaline-C14 in the Cat Brain.” (N. Neff, G.V. Rossi, G.D. Chase & J.L. Rabinowitz) [Note: this should be written 14C.]

Neher, Andrew (1961) Electroencephalography, and Clinical Neurophysiology 13 (3): 449–451. “Auditory Driving Observed with Scalp Electrodes in Normal Subjects.”

Neher, Andrew (1962) Human Biology, 34 (2): 151–160. “A Physiological Explanation of Unusual Behavior in Ceremonies Involving Drums.”

Neme, G. et al. (1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 277–278. “3-Nitro-4-hydroxy-phenethylamine from Cereus validus.” (Genaro Neme, Matias Nieto, Antonio T. D’Arcangelo & Eduardo G. Gros)

Nesterick, C.A. & R.G. Rahwan (1979) Journal of Chromatography, 164 (2): 205–216. “Detection of endogenous salsolinol in neonatal rat tissue by a radioenzymatic–thin-layer chromatographic assay.”

Nesterick, C.A. & R.G. Rahwan (1979) Pharmacologist, 23: 225. (Abstr.) “Detection of endogenous salsolinol in neonatal rat tissue by a radio-enzymatical thin layer chromatographic assay.”

Nettl, Bruno (1953) Journal of American Folklore, 66 (260): 161–164. “Observations on meaningless peyote song texts.”

Nettl, Bruno (1958) American Anthropologist, 60 (3): 518–532. “Historical aspects of ethnomusicology.”

Nevole, S. (1947) Lékarského Khihkuspectvi a Nakladatelstvi. [Concerning four-dimensional sight: a physio-pathological study of space-perception, with special reference to experimental poisoning with mescaline.”] [Haven’t read it but love the title.]

Newcomb, William W. (Bill) Jr. (1980) Indians of Texas. University of Texas Press. 0-292-73271-6 (cloth)/0-292-78425-2 (paper). First edition was in 1961.

Newton, R.A. et al. (1996) Journal of Neurochemistry, 67(6): 2521-2531. “Characterization of human 5-hydroxytryptamine2A and 5-hydroxytryptamine2C receptors expressed in the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y: comparative stimulation by hallucinogenic drugs.” (R.A. Newton, S.L. Phipps, T.P. Flanigan, N.R. Newberry, J.E. Carey, C. Kumar, B. McDonald, C. Chen & J.M. Eliot)

Niedfeld (1931) Tesis del profesorado suplente, Universidad del Litoral, Rosario. [from Reti]

Nieforth, Karl A. (1971) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 60 (5): 655–665. “Psychotomimetic Phenethylamines.”

Nielsen, John & Roxane, owners Prescott Brewing Company, Prescott, AZ letter to editor published in 1997 Southwest Brewing News, 5 (5): page 2

Nieto, M. (1987) An. Asoc. Quim. Argent. 75: 11–13. [from Shulgin: THIQ]

Nieto, M. et al. (1982) Anales. Asociacion. Quimica (Argentina) 70: 295–299. “Alcaloides en Cuatro Especies de Cactaceas.” (M. Nieto, S.O. Ruiz, G. Neme & A.T. D’Arcangelo)

Nieuwenhuis, J.J. et al. (1981) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkins Transactions 284–286. “(4R)-(-)-O-Methyljoubertiamine and O-Methyldihydrojoubertiamine, Two Minor Alkaloids from Sceletium subvelutinum L. Bolus.” (Jacobus J. Nieuwenhuis, Franz Strelow, Heinrich F. Strauss & Adriaan Wiechers)

Nikodijevic, B et al. (1969) Biochemical Pharmacology, 18: 1577–1584. “Catechol-O-methyltransferase. I. An enzymatic assay for cardiac norepinephrine.” (B. Nikodijevic, J. Daly & C.R. Creveling)

Ninio, R. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (3): 797–801. “Changes in sugars, acids, and volatiles during ripening of koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.” (Racheli Ninio, Efraim Lewinsohn, Yosef Mizrahi & Yaron Sitrit)

Ninio, R. et al. (2003) Postharvest Biol. Technol. 30: 273–280. “Quality attributes of stored koubo [Cereus peruvianus (L.) Miller] fruits.” ((Racheli Ninio, Efraim Lewinsohn, Yosef Mizrahi & Yaron Sitrit)

Nobel, Park S. (ed.) (2002) Cacti: Biology and Uses. Univeristy of California, Berkeley. 280 pages. ISBN 0-520-23157-0.

Nolte, K.B. & R.E. Zumwalt (1999) Western Journal of Medicine, 170: 328. “Fatal peyote ingestion associated with Mallory-Weiss lacerations.”

Nordal, A. et al. (1966) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 20: 1431–1432. “Non-volatile acids of succulent plants exhibiting a marked diurnal oscillation in the acid content. II. Demonstration of piscidic acid as one of the predominating acids in Opuntia ficus-indica.” (Arnold Nordal, Jørgen Gether & Guri Haustveit)

Norquist, D.G. & J.L. McLaughlin (1970) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 59 (12): 1840–1841. “Cactus alkaloids. VIII. Isolation of N-methyl-3,4-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamine from Ariocarpus fissuratus var. fissuratus

Norton, Stata and Tamburro, Jean (1958) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 122: 57A. “Effects of Hallucinogens on Spontaneous Behavior Patterns of Animals.” [Abstract of paper presented to American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Abel Centennial Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, Sept. 4–7, 1957.] [Reported that mescaline increased excitement and hostility.]

Noteboom, L. (1932) Nederlandsch Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde, 76 (1): 517–518 / 76 (2): 2860-2862. [CA (1933) 27: 1399.] [“Experimental catatonia by means of synthetic derivatives of mescaline and adrenaline.”]

Noteboom, L. (1934) Proc. Acad. Exp. Amsterdam. (in the literature) See as Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam

Noteboom, L. (1934) Proceedings of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Amsterdam, 37: 562–574. “Experimental catatonia by means of derivatives of mescaline and adrenaline.”

Novelli, Armando & Orfeo O. Orazi (1950) Revista Farmacéutica (Buenos Aires), 92: 109–118. “Alcaloides aislados de la República Argentina.”

Nyazema, N.Z. (1984) Central African Journal of Medicine, 30: 80–83. “Poisoning due to traditional remedies.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Nyffeler, Reto (2002) American Journal of Botany, 89 (2): 312–326. “Phylogenetic relationships in the cactus family (Cactaceae) based on evidence from trnK/matK and trnL-trnF sequences.”

Nyffeler, Reto (2007) American Journal of Botany, 94: 89–101. “The closest relatives of cacti: Insights from phylogenetic analyses of chloroplast and mitochondrial sequences with special emphasis on relationships in the tribe Anacampseroteae.”

Oberman, Z. et al. (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 29: 391.

Ochoterena, Isaac (1922) Las Cacáceas de México (Lophophora: pp 96–110)

Ochoterena, Isaac (1926) Revista Mexicana de Biología, 6: 95. “Nota acercala identificación botanica de algunas de las plants conocidas vulgarmente con el nombre de Peyotl.”

O’Donovan, Daniel G. & Edward Barry (1974) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkin Transactions I. 1974: 2528–2529. “Biosynthesis of Lophocerine in Lophocereus schottii.”

O’Donovan, D.G. & H. Horan (1968) Journal of the Chemical Society, (C) 1968: 2791-2795. “The Biosynthesis of Lophocereine.”

O’Donovan, D.G. & H. Horan (1969) Journal of the Chemical Society, (C) 1969: 1737–1739. “Oxidative Coupling of Phenols. The Biosynthesis of Pilocereine.”

O’Donovan, D.G. et al. (1971) Journal of the Chemical Society, (C) 1971: 2398–2399. “The Biosynthesis of Pilocereine. Part II. Lophocereine & Pilocereine in Lophocereus schottii.” (D.G. O’Donovan, E. Barry & H. Horan)

O’Gorman, L.P. et al. (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 29: 111. (L.P. O’Gorman, O. Borud, I.A. Khan and L.R. Gjessing)

Ogunbedede, Olabode (2009) Master’s thesis: Sul Ross State University. “Alkaloid content in ethnobotany of Trichocereus pachanoi & related taxa.”

Ogunbodede, O.O. et al. (2010) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 131 (3): 356–362. “New mescaline concentrations from 14 taxa/cultivars of Echinopsis spp. (Cactaceae) (“San Pedro”) and their relevance to shamanic practice.” [Olabode Olunfumilayo Ogunbodede, Douglas McCombs, Keeper Trout, Paul Daley & Martin Terry]

Oh, Y.H. et al. (1967) Biochemical Pharmacology, 16: 849–861. “Binding of Biologically Active Amines to Plasma Protein Fractions.” (Yang H. Oh, William E. Leitch, Seymour Axelrod, S. Mouchly Small, Richard J. Winzler & Benjamin E. Sanders)

O’Hanlon et al. (1970) Anal. Biochem. 34: 568. (J.F. O’Hanlon Jr., H.C. Campuzano and S.M. Horvath)

Ohno, S. & M. Komatsu (1957) Ann. Rep. Itsuu Lab. 8: 31 [CA (1957) 51: 14984] [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Okazaki, S. et al. (2007) Journal of Natural Medicine, 61: 24–29. “New triterpene saponins from Stenocereus eruca (Cactaceae).” (S. Okazaki, K. Kinoshita, K. Koyama, K. Takahashi & H. Yuasa)

Okazaki, S. et al. (2011) Phytochemistry, 72 (1): 136–146. “Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).” (Sachie Okazaki, Kaoru Kinoshita, Satoru Ito, Kiyotaka Koyama, Hiroshi Yuasa & Kunio Takahashi)

Olds et al. (1957) “Effects of tranquilizers on self-stimulation of the brain.” pp. 235–243, in Garattini & Ghetti (eds.) Psychotropic Drugs.

Oliva, Anello (1895) Historia del Reino y Provincias del Perú, pp. 115–124. [Lima: Imprenta y Librería de San Pedro.] (first edition in 1631)

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Olney, R.K. (1972) Texas Medicine, 68 (7): 80–82. “Mescaline.” [A brief review. Olney’s references were not included. Said by publisher to be available upon request.]

O’Neal, C.L. et al. (2000) Forensic Science International, 109: 189 –201. “Validation of twelve chemical spot tests for the detection of drugs of abuse” [Carol L. O’Neal, Dennis J. Crouch, Alim A. Fatah]

O’Neill, Patrick J. & Ralf G. Rahwan (1977)a The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 200 (2): 306–313. “Absence of Formation of Brain Salsolinol in Ethanol-Dependent Mice.”

O’Neill, Patrick J. & Ralf G. Rahwan (1977)b Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences., 66: 893–895, “Modified electron-capture GLC assay for salsolinol in brain tissue.”

Oon, M.C.H. et al. (1977) Psychopharmacology, 54: 171–175. “Factors affecting the urinary excretion of endogenously formed dimethyltryptamine in normal human subjects.” (M.C.H. Oon, R.M. Murray, R. Rodnight, M. Murphy & J.L.T. Birley)

Ootani, Shunji & Toshihiko Hagiwara (1969) Japanese Journal of Genetics, 44 (2): 65–79. “Inheritance of Flower Colors and Related Chymochromic Pigments in F1 Hybrids of Common Portulaca, Portulaca grandiflora.”

Opler, Morris E. (1938) American Anthropologist, 40 (2): 271-285. “The Use of Peyote by the Carrizo and Lipan Apache Tribes.”

Opler, Morris E. (1939) American Anthropologist, 41 (3): 433–439. “A description of a Tonkawa peyote meeting held in 1902.”

Opler, Morris E. (1940) American Anthropologist, 42: 271-285. “The Character and History of the Southern Ute Peyote Rite.”

Opler, Marvin K. (1940) American Anthropologist, 42: 667–669. “Book Review of Gusinde, Martin (1939) Der Peyote-Kult: Entsehung und Verbreitung.”

Opler, Marvin K. (1941) American Anthropologist, 43 (3) part 1: 463–474. 

Opler, Marvin K. (1942) American Anthropologist, 44: 151–159. “Fact and fancy in Ute peyotism.”

Opler, Morris E. (1945) El Palacio, 52 (10): 210-212. “A Mescalero Apache Account of the Origin of the Peyote Ceremony.”.

Ordaz, C. et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, 22 (9): 2101-2102. “Dehydroheliamine, A Trace Alkaloid From the Saguaro, Carnegiea gigantea (Cactaceae).” (Candido Ordaz, Nelson R. Ferrigni & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Orechoff, A. & N. Proskurnina (1933) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 66 (6): 841–843. “Über die Alkalodie von Salsola Richteri.”

Orechoff, A. & N. Proskurnina (1934) Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 67 (5): 878–884. “Über die Alkaloide von Salsola Richteri, II. Mitteil.: Die Konstitution des Salsolins.”

Ortega, José de (1751) [Reprinted in 1887] Historia del Nayarit, Sonora, Sinaloa, y mabas California.

Osmond, H. (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66: 418–434. “Review of the chemical effects of psychotomimetic agents.”

Osmond, H. & J. Smythies (1952) Journal of Mental Science, 98: 309–315. “Schizophrenia: a new approach.”

Östlund, E. (1954) Acta Physiol. Scand. 31, Suppl. 112, 167. [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Ostolaza, Carlos (1984) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 56: 102–104. “Trichocereus Pachanoi Br. & R.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1987) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 59 (1): 13–15. “Browningia Candelaris (Meyen) Br. & R. A New Habitat for an Old Cactus Species.” [Header for this issue was misprinted as volume 58]

Ostolaza, Carlos (1995) Quepo, 9: 73–82. “Etnobotanica II. El Período Formativo.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1996) Quepo, 10: 42–49. “Etnobotanica III. La Cultura Paracas.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1997) Quepo, 11: 79–86. “Etnobotanica IV. La Cultura Nazca.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1998) Quepo, 12: 62–68. “Etnobotanica V. La Cultura Moche.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (1999) Quepo, 13: 32–37. “Etnobotánica VI. Culturas Wari y Chimu.”

Ostolaza, Carlos (2000) Quepo, 14: 18–23. “Etnobotánica VII. El Imperio de los Incas.”

Ott, Jonathan (1993) Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic Drugs, their Plant Sources and History. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 639 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-2-0 (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-3-9 (paperback) See also Ott 1996. [Pages 81–115; Chapter One: “Mescaline, Péyotl, San Pedro, Artificial Phenethylamines” Same pages in Ott 1996]

Ott, Jonathan (1994) Ayahuasca Analogues. Pangaean Entheogens. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 127 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-4-7 (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-5-5 (paperback)

Ott, Jonathan (1995) The Age of Entheogens & The Angels’ Dictionary. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 159 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-6-3 (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-7-1 (paperback)

Ott, Jonathan (1996) Pharmacotheon. Entheogenic Drugs, their Plant Sources and History. Second Edition Densified Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 639 pp. ISBN 0-9614234-8-X (Hardcover)/ 0-9614234-9-8 (paperback) [Same page numbering as in 1993.]

Ott, Jonathan (1997) Pharmacophilia or the Natural Paradises. Natural Products Co., Kennewick, Wa. 1995. 191 pp. ISBN 1-888755-01-6.

Oviedo, Gonzalo Fernadez de (1851–1855) Historia Natural y General de las Indias. – Primera parte, Madrid, 1535 y segunda parte, Madrid, 1851–1855. [from Yacovleff & Herrrera 1935]

Okazaki, S. et al. (2007) Journal of Natural Medicine, 61:24–29. “New triterpene saponins from Stenocereus eruca (Cactaceae)” (Sachie Okazaki, Kaoru Kinoshita, Kiyotaka Koyama, Kunio Takahashi & Hiroshi Yuasa)

Okazaki, S. et al. (2011) Phytochemistry, 72 (1): 136–146. “Triterpenoid saponins from Echinopsis macrogona (Cactaceae).” (Sachie Okazaki, Kaoru Kinoshita, S. Ito, Kiyotaka Koyama, Hiroshi Yuasa & KunioTakahashi)

Özcan, M.M. & F.Y. Al Juhaimi (2011) International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition, 62 (5): 533–536. “Nutritive value and chemical composition of prickly pear seeds (Opuntia ficus indica L.) growing in Turkey.”

References: P through S

References P-S used for Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.

[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

As a single listing

A through D

E through J

K through O

T through Z

 

 

 

Pálenícek T et al. (2008) Psychopharmacology (Berl). 196 (1): 51–62. “Mescaline effects on rat behavior and its time profile in serum and brain tissue after a single subcutaneous dose.” (T. Pálenícek, M. Balíková, V. Bubeníková-Valesová & J. Horácek)

Palmieri, V.M. (1942) Rassegna Clinica Scientifica, 20. “La mescalina e l’ebbrezza peyotilica nell’uomo.”

Palmieri, V.M. & G. Lacroix (1941) Atti Congresso de medicina legale, 8 (1940): 540–549. “Ulteriori ricerche sull’intossicazione da mescalina.”

Palomino Yamamoto, Manuel (1972) Doctoral Thesis. Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (UNMSM), Lima. “Farmacoquimica de Cactaceae(sic) peruana.” This noncirculating work exists as a single copy in the Library of the Instituto Nacional de Salud, Av. Salaverry, Lima. The whole thesis is devoted to the biochemical study of Trichocereus santaensis Rauh et Backeberg. Photocopying is not permitted so Dr. Carlos Ostolaza graciously read it on my behalf and provided information on its contents.]

Pang, Hildegard [Hilda] Delgado (1992) Pre-Columbian Art. Investigations and Insights. University of Oklahoma Press. 330 pages. ISBN-10: 0806123796; ISBN-13: 978-0806123790. (first edition)

Panico, A.M. et al. (2007) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 111 (2): 315–321. “Effect of hyaluronic acid and polysaccharides from Opuntia ficus indica (L.) cladodes on the metabolism of human chondrocyte cultures.” (A.M. Panico, V. Cardile, F. Garufi, C. Puglia, F. Bonina & S. Ronsisvalle)

Pap, Z. (1936)b Zeitschrift für die gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 155: 655–664. “Einwirkung des Meskalinrausches auf die post-hypnotischen Sinnestäuschungen.” [See also (1936)a Orvosi hetilap, 80: 75–78.]

Pardanani, J.H. et al. (1977) Lloydia, 40 (6): 585–590 “Cactus Alkaloids. XXXVI. Mescaline and related compounds from Trichocereus peruvianus.” (J.H. Pardanani, J.L. McLaughlin, R.W. Kondrat & R.G. Cooks.)

Pardanani, J.H. et al. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (3): 286–288 “Cactus Alkaloids. XXXVII. Mescaline and Related Compounds from Opuntia spinosior.” (J.H. Pardanani, B.N. Meyer, J.L. McLaughlin, W.H. Earle & R.G. Engard )

Parikh, V.M. & J.K.N. Jones (1966) Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 44: 327–333. “Cholla Gum. I. Structure of the Degraded Cholla Gum.”

Paris, René (1951) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 233: 90–92. “Sur un flavonoside des fleurs d’Opuntia vulgaris Miller.”

Paris, René & Hélène Moyse-Mignon (1949) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 229: 86–88. “Étude chimique et pharmacodynamique préliminaire d’une Loganiacée du Gabon: Mostuea stimulans A.Chev.”

Park, E.-H. et al. (2001) Fitoterapia,72: 288–290. “An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus.”

Park, E.-H. et al. (1998) Archives of Pharmacal Research, 21 (1998) 30–34. “Studies on the pharmacological actions of cactus: identification of its anti-inflammatory effect.” (E.-H. Park, J.H. Kahng & E.-A. Paek)

Parmentier (1838) L’Horticulteur Belge, 5: 66 [Cereus terscheckii] [From Britton & Rose] See also Pfeiffer 1837

Pascarosa, Paul & Futterman, Sanford (1976) Journal of Psychedelic Drugs, 8 (3): 215–221. “Ethnopsychedelic Therapy for Alcoholics: Observations in the Peyote Ritual of the Native American Church.”

Passie, Torsen (1994) Jahrbuch des Europäischen Collegiums für Bewußtseinsstudien, 1993/1994: 103–111. “Ausrichtungen, Methoden und Ergebnisse früher Meskalinforschungen im deutschsprachigen Raum (bis 1950)”

Patel, A.R. (1968) Fortschritte der Arzneimittelforschung (i.e. Progress in Drug Research), 11: 11–47. (E. Jucker, ed.) “Mescaline and Related Compounds.” [Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel und Stuttgart.]

Patterson, Alex (1992) Rock Art Symbols of the Greater Southwest. Johnson Books: Boulder, Colorado.

Patton, Mark (1990) Current Anthropology 31 (5): 554–558 “On Entoptic Images in Context: Art, Monuments and Society in Neolithic Brittany.”

Patton, Mark (1993) Statements in Stone. Routledge: London.

Patzig, B. & W. Block (1953) Naturwissenschaften, 40: 13–17. “Zur Auffassung des schizophrenen Prozessgeschehens nach Tierversuchen mit 14C-radioaktivem Meskalin.”

Paul, A.G. (1973) Lloydia, 36 (1): 36–45. “Biosynthesis of the peyote alkaloids.”

Paul, A.G. et al. (1969)a The Chemical Society, London. Chemical Communications, [Journal of the Chemical Society, D.] 14: 838. “Biosynthesis of Peyote Alkaloids.” (A.G. Paul, K.L. Khanna, H. Rosenberg & M. Takido)

Paul, A.G. et al. (1969)b Lloydia, 32 (1): 36–39. “The Roles of 3,4,5-Trihydroxyphenethylamine and 3,4-Dimethoxyphenethylamine in the Biosynthesis of Mescaline.” (A.G. Paul, H. Rosenberg & K.L. Khanna)

Paulson, James C. & William O. McClure (1973) Molecular Pharmacology, 9 (1): 41–50. “Inhibition of Axoplasmic Transport by Mescaline and Other Trimethoxyphenylalkylamines.” [Mescaline is a reversible inhibitor of axoplasmic transport.]

Pawar, R.S. et al. (2014) Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, 88: 457–466. “Determination of selected biogenic amines in Acacia rigidula plant materials and dietary supplements using LC–MS/MS methods.” (Rahul S. Pawar, Erich Grundel, Ali Reza Fardin-Kia & Jeanne I. Rader)

Payne (1961) Industrial Chemist, 37: 523.

Pearl, Irwin S. (1948) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 70 (5): 1746–1748. “Synthesis of Syringaldehyde.”

Pechánek, J. (1969) Kaktusy, 69: 76–81 & 109–113. “Lophophora Coult.” [L. lewinii Rusby & L. jourdaniana Krzgr] [Habermann 1975 gives as “69, 4, ; 76 and 69, 5, p. 103–113.”]

Pechánek, J. (1983) Kaktusy,19: 50–53. “Lophophora Williamsii var. decipiens Croizat.”

Pekkarinen, A. & M.-E. Pitkanen (1955) Scand. J. Clin. Lab. Inves. 7: 1 [from Usdin & Efron 1979]

Pellerin, J. et al. (1958) Revue Canadienne de Biologie,  17 (3): 267–298. “Biogenesis and Metabolism of Catecholamines.” (J. Pellerin, J. Leduc and A. D’Iorio)

Pemberton, I.J. et al. (1993) Journal of Animal Sciences, 71:467–470. “Technical note: an improved method for extraction and quantification of toxic phenethylamines from Acacia berlandieri.” (I.J. Pemberton, G.R. Smith, T.D.A Forbes & C.M. Hensarling)

Pennes, Harry H. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 119 (2): 95–112. “Clinical reactions of schizophrenics to Sodium Amytal, Pervitin Hydrochloride, Mescaline Sulfate, and D-Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25).”

Pennington, Campbell W. (1963) The Tarahumar of Mexico. Univ. Utah Press (Reprinted 1974: ISBN-10 0874800935; ISBN-13 9780874800937) 267 pages. (Also reprinted in 1996 by Editorial Agata, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico, with 33 b/w & 12 full-colour photographs (found only in this edition) & 4 fold out maps in a back pocket)

Penington, N.J. & R.J. Reiffenstein (1986) European Journal of Pharmacology, 122 (3): 373–377. “Direct comparison of hallucinogenic phenethylamines and D-amphetamine on dorsal raphe neurons.”

Pepper, J.M. & J.A. MacDonald (1953) Canadian Journal of Chemistry, 31: 476–483. “The Synthesis of Syringaldehyde from Vanillin.”

Pereira, N.A. & D.S. de Oliveira (1961) Rev. Brasil Farm., 42: 13 [CA (1962) 56: 6486] [From Deulofeu & Ruveda 1971]

Perfumi, M. & R. Tacconi (1996) International Journal of Pharmacognosy, 34: 41–47. “Antihyperglycemic Effect of Fresh Opuntia dillenii Fruit from Tenerife (Canary Islands).”

Perry et al. (1965) “Studies of amines in normal and schizophrenic subjects.”from Amines Schizophrenia, Pap. Symp, Atlantic City. 1965: 31 [CA 68: 37621] (from Crosby & McLaughlin 1973)

Perry, S.Y. et al. (1991) Molecular Biotherapy, 3: 79–87. “Decreased mortality of normal murine sarcoma in mice treated with the immunomodulator, Acemannan.”

Petershofer-Halbmeyer, H. et al. (1982) Scientia pharmaceutica, 50: 29–34. “Isolierung von Hordenin (“Cactin”) aus Selenicereus grandiflorus (L.) Britt. & Rose und Selenicereus pteranthus (Link & Otto) Britt. & Rose” (H. Petershofer-Halbmayer, O. Kubelka, J. Jurenitsch & W. Kubelka)

Petrullo, Vincenzo (1934) The Diabolic Root. A Study of Peyotism, the New Indian Religion Among the Delaware. University of Pennsylvania Press, The University Museum. [Still a good book today.]

Peyote Foundation 1998 Press release re: 11,200 living peyote plants. Peyote Foundation: POBox 778, Kearny, AZ 85237.

Pfeiffer, Louis Georg(e) Karl (1837) Alg. Gartenz. 5: 370 [Cereus terscheckii Parmentier] [From Britton & Rose]

Piattelli, Maurio (1981) “The Betalains: Structure, Biosynthesis, and Chemical Taxonomy.” pp. 557–575, in: E.E. Conn (editor) The Biochemistry of Plants: A Comprehensive Treatise. Volume 7: Secondary Plant Products. Academic Press. ISBN 0-12-67507-1.

Piattelli, Maurio & F. Imperato (1969) Phytochemistry, 8: 1503–1507. “Betacyanins of the Family Cactaceae.”

Piattelli, Maurio & Luigi Minale (1964)a Phytochemistry, 3: 307–311. “Pigments of Centrospermae – II. Distribution of Betacyanins.”

Piattelli, Maurio & Luigi Minale (1964)b Phytochemistry, 3: 547–557. “Pigments of Centrospermae – I. Betacyanins from Phyllocactus Hybridus Hort. and Opuntia ficus-indica Mill.”

Piccinelli, D. (1955) Boll. Soc. Eustachiana e Ist. Sci. Univ. Camerino, 48: 105. [CA 53: 8372a] [From Smith 1977]

Piattelli, M. et al. (1964)a Rend. Accad. Sci. Fis. Mat. (Soc. Naz. Sci., Napoli), 31: 39–41. “Isolation and Structure of Indicaxanthine, a β-Xanthine from Opuntia ficus-indica.” (Mario Piattelli, Luigi Minale & Giuseppe Prota) [From 1966 CA 64: 5037a]

Piattelli, M. et al. (1964)b Tetrahedron, 20: 2325–2329. “Isolation, Structure and Absolute Configuration of Indicaxanthin.” (Mario Piattelli, Luigi Minale & Giuseppe Prota)

Piattelli, M. et al. (1965) Phytochemistry, 4: 121–125. “Pigments of Centrospermae – II. Betaxanthins from Beta vulgaris L..” (Mario Piattelli, Luigi Minale & Giuseppe Prota) [Mentions isolation from Opuntia ficus-indica]

Pictet et al. 1911 Ber 44: 2036

Pinkley, Homer V. (1969) Lloydia, 32 (3): 305–314. “Plant Admixtures to Ayahuasca, the South American Hallucinogenic Drink.” [Epiphyllum]

Pinkson, Tom Soloway (1995) Flowers of Wiricuta: A Gringo’s Journey To Shamanic Power. Wakan Press 0-9647542-0-7. 302 pages.

Pinschmidt, N.W. et al. (1945) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 83: 45 -52. “Studies on the Antagonism of Sodium Succinate to Barbiturate Depression.” (N.W. Pinschimdt, Helen Ramsey & H.B. Haag)

Pittier, H. (1926) Manual de las Plantas Usuales de Venezuela. Litografia del Comercio, Caracas.

Pizzetti, Mariella (1985) Simon and Schuster’s Guide to Cacti and Succulents. ISBN: 0-671-55846-3/ 0-671-60231–4 (paperback) [Originally published in Italian as “Piante grasse” by Arnoldo Mondadori Editore S.p.A. Milan, 1985.]

Platonova, T.F. et al. (1958) Journal of General Chemistry of the USSR, 28: 3159- 3161. “Alkaloïds of Chenopodiaceæ: Arthrophytum leptocladum Popov.”

Plotkin, Mark (1994) Tales of a Shaman’s Apprentice. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-012991-X.

Plotnikoff, N.P. & H. Washington (1958) Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 98 (3): 660–662. “Bioassay of Ataraxics Against Lethal Action of Mescaline in Mice.”

Pohorecky, L.A. et al. (1969) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 165 (2): 190–195. “Enzymatic conversion of norepinephrine to epinephrine by the brain.” (L.A. Pohorecky, M. Zigmond, H. Karten & R.J. Wurtman)

Poisson, Jacques (1960) Annales Pharmaceutiques Françaises, 18: 764–765. “Présence de mescaline dans une Cactacée péruvienne.”

Poisson, Jacques (1961) Chemical Abstracts 55: 8448 [Abstracts Poisson 1960]

Polache, Ana & Luis Granero (2013) Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience, 7: 74. “Salsolinol and ethanol-derived excitation of dopamine mesolimbic neurons: new insights.”

Polia, Mario (1990) Quaderni di Avallon 23: 59–69. “Alcune riflessioni sull’uso delle droghe rituali nello sciamenesimo amerindio.”

Polia, Mario (1993) Altrove 1: 77–92. “L’uso del cactus mescalinico Trichocereus pachanoi nella medicina tradizionale andina.”

Polia, Mario (1997) Il Sangue Del Condor; Sciamani Delle Ande. Xenia Edizioni, Milano; 281 pages. ISBN 88-7273–203–4.

Pollard, J.C. et al. (1960) Comprehensive Psychiatry,  1: 377–380, “Controlled sensory input: a note on the technique of drug evaluation with a preliminary report on a comparative study of Sernyl, psilocybin and LSD.” (J.C. Pollard, C. Bakker, L. Uhr & D.F. Feurfile)

Poloni, A. (1956) Cervello 32: 400.

Polono, A. & G. Maffezzoni (1952) Sistema nervoso, 4: 578–581. “Le variazione dell’ attività colinergica del tessuto cerebrale per effetto della bulbocapnina, della mescalina e della dietilamide dell’ acido lisergico.”

Popelak, A. & G. Lettenbauer (1967) “The mesembrine alkaloids.” pp. 467–482 in Manske & Holmes (eds.) The Alkaloids. Vol. 9.

Popelak, A. et al. (1960)a Naturwissenschaften, 47: 156. “Zur Konstitution des Mesembrins.” (A. Popelak, E. Haack, G. Lettenbauer & H. Spingler) [From DeSmet 1996]

Popelak, A. et al. (1960)b Naturwissenschaften, 47: 231–232. “Die Strukture des Mesembrins und Mesembrenins.” (A. Popelak, G. Lettenbauer, E. Haack & H. Spingler) [From DeSmet 1996]

Popelak, A. et al. (1960)c Naturwissenschaften, 47: 241

Pophof, B. et al. (2005) Chemical Senses, 30 (1): 51–68. “Volatile organic compounds as signals in a plant-herbivore system: electrophysiological responses in olfactory sensilla of the moth Cactoblastis cactorum.”

Popoff, E.I. (1897) Vrach (St. Petersburg) 28: 1361. “K farmakologii pellotina.”

Porsch, Otto (1938) Cactaceae. Jahrbücher der Deutschen Kakteen-Gesellschaft. Entire May issue. “Das Bestäubungsleben der Kakteenblüte I.”

Post, R.M. et al. (1980) p. 685, in: Wood, J.M. (ed.) Neurobiology of Cerebralspinal Fluid. Vol. One., Plenum Press, New York.

Powell, A Michael & James F. Weedin (2004) Cacti of the Trans-Pecos & Adjacent Areas. Texas Tech University Press. ISBN 0-89672-531-6, 510 pages + 313 plates. This is quite possibly the best book that has ever been written about cacti.

Powell, C.E. & K.K. Chen (1956) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition, 45 (8): 559–561. “Pilocereine, a Cactus Alkaloid.”

Prajer, Z. (1968)a Informator Polskiego Towartzstwa Miƚosników Kaktusów, pp. 22–29, 111–129. “Peyotl-Bog-Diabeƚ-czy tylko zwykƚy kaktus?”

Prajer, Z. (1968)b Informator Polskiego Towartzstwa Miƚosników Kaktusów, pp. 120–129. “Peyotl-przez ‘mędrca skieƚko’.”

Prajer, Z. (1969) Swiat Kaktusów, 2: 35–43. “Peyotl-przez ‘mędrca skieƚko’.”

Pratesi et al. 1959 J. Chem Soc. 4062

Prentiss, D.W. & Francis P. Morgan (1895) Therapeutic Gazette, 19: 577–585. “Anhalonium Lewinii (Mescal Buttons). A Study of the Drug with Special Reference to its Physiological Action upon Man.”

Prentiss, D.W. & Francis P. Morgan (1896) Medical Record, (August 22) 258–266. “Mescal Buttons. Anhalonium Lewinii — Hennings (Lophophora Williamsii Lewinii — Coulter).”

Prentiss, D.W. & Francis P. Morgan (1896) Therapeutic Gazette, 20: 4–7. “Therapeutic Uses of Mescal-Buttons.”

Price, D.A. & W.T. Hardy (1953) J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc., 26, 223

Prieto, Alejandro (1873) Historia, Geografia y Estadistica del Estado De Tamaulipas. Mexico Tip. Escalerillas Num. 13.

Proskurnina & Orekhov (1937) J. Gen. Chem. USSR, 7: 1999 check and insert all a or b

Proskurnina & Orekhov 1937 Bull Soc. Chim. Fr. 4: 1265 check and insert all a or b

Proskurnina & Orekhov 1939 Bull Soc. Chim. Fr. 6: 144.

Proskurnina et al. (1937) Bull Soc. Chim. Fr. 4: 1265 CHECK IF Et al. OR NOT

Psotta, K. et al. (1979) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkins Transactions I. 1063–1065. “Joubertinamine: A Novel seco-Mesembrane Alkaloid.” (Klaus Psotta, Franz Strelow & Adrian Wiechers)

Pugh, Caecilia Elisabeth Mary & Juda Hirsch Quastel (1937) Biochemical Journal, 31: 2306–2321. “CCLXXXIII. Oxidation of Amines by Animal Tissues.”

Pulse, T.L. & Elizabeth Uhlig (1990) Journal of Advancement in Medicine, 3: 4. “A significant improvement in a clinical pilot study utilizing nutritional supplements, essential fatty acids and stabilized Aloe vera juice in 29 HIV seropositive, ARC and AIDS patients.”

Pummangura & McLaughlin 1982 in the literature meant Pummangura et al. 1982a

Pummangura, S. & J.L. McLaughlin (1981) Journal of Natural Products, 44 (4): 498–499. “Cactus alkaloids. XLVI. 3-Methoxytyramine and Lemaireocereine from Backebergia militaris

Pummangura, S. et al. (1977) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 66 (10): 1485–1487. “Cactus alkaloids. XXXIII. β-Phenethylamines from the Guatemalan cactus Pilocereus maxonii” (S. Pummangura, D.E. Nichols & J.L. McLaughlin)

Pummangura et al. 1981 JNP 44: 498 in the literature See as Pummangura & McLaughlin 1981

Pummangura, S. et al. (1981) Journal of Natural Products, 44 (5): 614–616. “Cactus Alkaloids. XLVII. β-Phenethylamines from the “Missouri Pincushion”, Coryphantha (Neobessya) missouriensis” (S. Pummangura, J.L. McLaughlin & R.C. Schifferdecker)

Pummangura, S. et al. (1982)a Journal of Natural Products, 45 (2): 224–225. “Cactus Alkaloids. LI. Lack of Mescaline Translocation in Grafted Trichocereus” (S. Pummangura, J.L. McLaughlin & R.C. Schifferdecker)

Pummangura, S. et al. (1982)b Phytochemistry, 21 (9): 2375–2377. “Two Simple Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloid N-oxides from Cacti.” (S. Pummangura, Y.A.H. Mohamed, C.-J. Chang & J.L. McLaughlin)

Pummangura, S. et al. (1982)c Journal of Natural Products, 45: 277–282. “Cactus Alkaloids. XLIX. New Trace Alkaloids (Dehydrosalsolidine and Heliamine) from the Saguaro,
Carnegiea gigantea, and Confirmation by MIKES (MS/MS).” (S. Pummangura, J.L. McLaughlin*, D.V. Davis & R.G. Cooks)

Pummangura et al. (1983) Phytochemistry, “in press” (in the literature) meant Pummangura et al. 1982b.

Pummangura et al. (1983) Journal of Natural Products, (In Press). [S. Pummangura, J.L. McLaughlin, D.V. Davis & R.G. Cooks) [from Lundström 1983: This is not in either the 1983 or 1984 author index under any name listed. Probably 1982c?]

Pummangura, S. et al. (1983)b Phytochemistry, (In Press). (S. Pummangura, Y.A.H. Mohamed, C.-J. Chang & J.L. McLaughlin) (in the literature) meant Pummangura et al. 1982b

Pyne et al. (1986) Chem Soc. Chem. Comm. 1686

Qin, S. et al. (2006).Chin. Tradit. Herb. Drugs, 37, 917–921. “Inhibitory activity of endophytic fungi from three plants of Opuntia Mill.” (S. Qin, K. Xing, S.H. Wu, Q. Zhang, & Y.W. Chen) [from Wu et al. 2008]

Qin, W. et al. (2004) Food Sci./Shipin Kexue 25: 64–66. [Studies on characteristics and inhibition of
polyphenoloxidase (PPO) in Opuntia dillenii] in Chinese with English Abstract. (W. Qin, S. Qian, & R. Zhou) [from Qiu et al. 2007]

Qiu, Y., Yoshikawa, M., Li, Y., Dou, D., Pei, Y., Chen, Y. (2000) J. Shenyang Pharm. Univ./ Shenyang Yaoke Daxue Xuebao 17: 267–268. [A study of chemical constituents of the stems of Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gaw.) Haw.] in Chinese with English Abstract. (= Chemical Abstracts, 134, 136510j, 2000). [from Qiu et al. 2007]

Qiu, Y. et al. (2002) Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 50 (11): 1507–1510. “Constituents with Radical Scavenging Effect from Opuntia dillenii: Structures of New α-Pyrones and Flavonol Glycoside.” (Yingkiun Qiu, Yingjie Chen, Yupin Pei, Hisashi Matsuda & Masayuki Yoshikawa)

Qiu, Y., Chen, Y., Pei, Y., Matsuda, H., Yoshikawa, M. (2003a) J. Chin. Pharm. Sci. 12: 1–5. “New Constituents from the Fresh Stems of Opuntia dillenii.” [from Qiu et al. 2007]

Qiu, Y. et al. (2003b) Yao Xue Xue Bao, 38 (7): 523–525. [The isolation and identification of a new alpha-pyrone from Opuntia dillenii,] Article is in Chinese. (Y.K. Qiu, D.Q. Dou, Y.P. Pei, M. Yoshikawa, H. Matsuda & Y.J. Chen) [from PubMed]

Qiu, Y.K. et al. (2005) Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi, 30 (23): 1824–1826. [Study on chemical constituents from Opuntia dillenii.] Article is in Chinese. (Y.K. Qiu, D.Q. Dou, Y.P. Pei, M. Yoshikawa, H. Matsuda & Y.J. Chen) [from PubMed]

Qiu, Y.K. et al. (2007) Archives of Pharmacal Research, 30 (6): 665–669. “Two New α-Pyrones and Other Components from the Cladodes of Opuntia dillenii.” (Ying Kun Qiu, Yan Yan Zhao, De Qiang Dou, Bi Xia Xu & Ke Liu)

Quertemont, E. et al. (2005) Progress in Neurobiology, 75 (4): 247–274. “The role of acetaldehyde in the neurobehavioral effects of ethanol: a comprehensive review of animal studies.” (E. Quertemont, S. Tambour & E. Tirelli)

Quastel, Juda Hirsch & Arnold Herbert Maurice Wheatley (1933) Biochemical Journal, 27: 1609–1613. “CCXIX. The Effects of Amines on Oxidations of the Brain.”

Quereshi, M.Y. et al.(1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 477–479. “The Neurolathryogen, α-Amino-β-oxalylaminopropionic Acid in Legume Seeds.” (M. Yasin Quereshi, David J. Pilbeam, Christine S. Evans & E. Arthur Bell)

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Rabusic, Emil & Miroslav Gregor (1967) Spisy Prirodovedecke Fakulty University J.E. Purkkyne v. Brne. 480: 85–92 [from CA (1968) 68: 86944.] “Aminoalkylation of phenol ethers.”

Raffauf, Robert F. (1970) The Handbook of Alkaloids and Alkaloid Bearing Plants. Wiley Inter-Science.

Rahmat A. (2004) Daun jarum tujuh bilah untuk barah, sakit kepala. Malaysia: Utusan Melayu (M) Bhd; 5 December 2004. [from Sim et al. 2010]

Rahwan, Ralf G. (1974) Life Sciences. 15: 617–633. “Speculations on the biochemical pharmacology of ethanol.”

Rahwan, Ralf G. (1975) Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology.

34: 3–27. “Toxic effects of ethanol: Possible role ofacetaldehyde, tetrahydroisoquinolines, and tetrahydro-β-carbolines.”

Rahwan, Ralf G. & Patrick J. O’Neill (1976) Pharmacologist 18: 190. “Absence of formation of brain salsolinol during chronic ethanol administration to mice.”

Rahwan, R.G. et al. (1974) Life Sciences, 14: 1927–1938. “Differential secretion of catecholamines and tetrahydroisoquinolines from the bovine adrenal medulla.” (R.G. Rahwan, P.J. O’Neill & D.D. Miller)

Raiford, L.Chas. & Donald E. Fox (1944) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 9: 170–174. “Condensation of Vanillin Substitution Products With Nitromethane.”

Rajan, K.S. et al. 1976 Bioinorg. Chem 6: 93

Rajotte, P. et al. (1961) Society of Biological Psychiatry, 278–287. “Studies on Mescaline. XII: Effects of prior administration of various psychotropic drugs.” (Paul Rajotte, Herman C.B. Denber, and Dorothy Kauffman)

Ramirez, Fausto A. & Alfred Burger (1950) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72: 2781–2782. “The reduction of Phenolic β-Nitrostyrenes by Lithium Aluminum Hydride.”

Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1975a) Journal of Chromatography, 111: 234–237. “Cactus alkaloids. XXVII. Use of fluorescamine as a thin-layer chromatographic visualization reagent for alkaloids.”

Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1975b) Lloydia, 38 (6): 537 (Proceedings.) “Cactus alkaloids XXVIII. β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines from
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Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1976) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 41 (2): 319–323. “β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids from the Mexican Cactus Dolichothele longimamma.

Ranieri, Richard L. & Jerry L. McLaughlin (1977) Lloydia, 40 (2): 173–177. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXXI. β-Phenethylamines and Tetrahydroisiquinolines from the Mexican Cactus
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Ranieri, R.L. et al. (1976) Lloydia, 39 (2-3): 172–174. “Cactus
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Rao, G. Subba (1970) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology,
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Raoul, Yves (1936) Thèse Sciences, Paris. “Contribution à l’étude biochimique de l’hordénine.” [From Raoul 1937b]

Raoul, Yves (1937)a Bull. Soc. Chim. biol. (Paris) 19: 675–685. “Sur la formation de l’hordénine par un processus d’allure biologique.”

Raoul, Yves (1937)b Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 204: 74–76. “Nouvelle synthèse de l’hordénine.” [from tyrosine]

Rasmussen, Kurt & George K. Aghajanian (1986) Brain Research, 385: 395–400, “Effect of hallucinogens on spontaneous and sensory-evoked locus coeruleus unit activity in the rat: reversal by selective 5-HT2 antagonists.”

Rasmussen, Kurt & George K. Aghajanian (1988) Neuropsychopharmacology, 1: 101–107, “Potency of antipsychotics in reversing the effects of a hallucinogenic drug on locus coeruleus neurons correlates with 5-HT2 binding affinity.”

Ratcliffe, J. & P. Smith (1959) Chemistry and Industry, 925. “Metabolism of Mescaline.”

Rathbun, Richard (1912-1916) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16. “Systematic Investigations of Phanaerogams, Ferns and Mosses.”

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Rätsch, Christian & John R. Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedizin und Bewußtseinsforschung [Yearbook for Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness] Issue #4. VWB: Berlin. ISBN 3-86135-031-9.

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Rauh, Werner (1978) Schöne Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten.

Rauh, Werner & Curt Backeberg 1956 see as Backeberg 1956

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Raymond-Hamet, M. (1931) Bulletin de l’Academie Nationale de Médecine (Paris), 105: 46–54. [CA (1932) 26: 1347–1348.] [“The Physiological action of mezcaline, principle alkaloid of Peyotl.”]

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1933)a Archiv für experimentelle Pathologie
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Raymond-Hamet, M. (1933)b Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 113: 386–387. “Action de l’hordenine sur le rein à vaisseaux sectionnés puis anastomosés à ceux du cou”

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1933)c Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 113: 875–877. “Sur les effets cardiaques de l’hordénine”

Raymond-Hamet 1936 Comptes Rendus, 209: 67 in the literature referred to Raymond-Hamet 1939

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1936) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 121: 112–115. “Sur une propriété physiologique encore inconnue de l’hordénine”

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1939) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 209: 67–69. “L’action nicotinique de l’hordénine n’est pas supprimée par l’introduction dans la molécule d’un second oxyhydrile phénolique, celui-ci en position méta.” 

Raymond-Hamet, M. (1940) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie et de ses Filiales Associées, 133: 570–572. “L’oxytyramine doit-elle être tenue pour une amine véritablement sympathomimétique?”

Read, J. & I.G.M. Campbell (1930) J. Chem. Soc. 2682.

Rebut, [Pierre] catalog (nd) Rebut Catalogue de Cactées et Plantes Grasses Diverses. [As cited in Lewin 1894 & Schultes 1940] (1894 page 5; according to Grym 1997) [Anhalonium jourdanianum Rebut or Anhalonium jourdanianum Hort.?]

Rebut, Pierre (1905) Monatschr. f. Kakteenk. 15: 122 [Echinocactus jourdanianus (Rebut) Rebut ] [From Schultes 1940] [Grym 1997 gives this citation as C.A. Maass 1905]

Reggiani, A. et al. (1980) Substance and Alcohol Actions/Misuse, 1: 151–158. “Role of dopaminergic-enkephalinergic interactions in the neurochemical effects of ethanol.” (Reggiani, M.L. Barbaccia, P.F Spano & M. Trabucchi)

Reich (1991) Horticulture 69 (1): 58–59. “Grafting.”

Reichel-Dolmatoff, G. (1978)a Beyond the Milky Way: Hallucinatory Images of the Tukano Indians. Latin American Studies No. 42.

Reichel-Dolmatoff, Gerardo (1978)b “Drug Induced optical Sensations and Their Relationship to Applied Art among Some Colombian Indians.” 289–304, in Michael Greenhalgh & Vincent McGraw (eds.) Art and Society. Duckworth: London.

Reichert, Benno (1936) German Patent 629,313 April 30 1936; [CA (1936) 30: 4875]

Reidlinger, Thomas J. (ed.) (1997) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker. Tributes to R. Gordon Wasson. Park Street Press. ISBN 0-89281-338–5. [1990 by Timber Press]

Reinberg, P. (1921) Journal de la Société des Américanistes Paris, 13: 25–54, 197–216. “Contributión a l’étude des biossons toxiques des indiens du nord-ouest de l’Amazone: l’ayahuasca, le yagé, le huánto. Étude comparative toxico-physiologique d’une experience personelle.”

Reko, Blas Pablo (1928) Memorias y Revista de la Sociedad Cientifica”Antonio Alzeta”. (Mexico), 49: 379. “Alcaloide y Glucosidos en Plantas Mexicanas.”

Reko, Blas Pablo (1928) Mem. Soc. Cient. “Antonio Alzate” 49: 380. [From Neal et al. 1972]

Ressler, Bob R. (2000) Cactus & Succulent Journal, (US) 72 (6): 309–312. “Trichocereus cuzcoensis – A hardy Peruvian columnar cactus.”

Retamozo, Bióloga Edith (2000) Quepo, 16: 28–32. “Formas Polinicas de Cactáceae en Arequipa.”

Reti, Ladislao (1933)a Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 114: 811–814. [(1933) Rev. Soc. Argentina Biol. 9: 344] “Sur les alcaloïdes de la cactacée Trichocereus candicans (Br et Rose)”

Reti, Ladislao (1939) Atti. X. Congr. int. Chim. Roma, 5: 396–405. “Nuovi alcaloidi di cactacee argentine” (Paper presenting his preliminary report on T. terscheckii.)

Reti, Ladislao (1947) Ciencia e Investigación. Revista Patrocinada por la Asociación Argentina, October: 405–411. “Alcaloides de las cactáceas y substancias naturales relacionadas.”

Reti, Ladislao (1950) Forstschritte der Chemie Organischer Naturstoffe (Progress in the Chemistry of Organic Natural Products.) 6: 242–289. “Cactus Alkaloids and Some Related Compounds”

Reti, Ladislao (1953) “β-Phenethylamines.” pp. 313–348, (Chapter 22) in: R.H.F. Manske & H.L. Holmes (eds.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Physiology. Volume III.

Reti, Ladislao (1954)a “Simple Isoquinoline Alkaloids”, p. 7–21, (Chapter 26), in: R.H.F. Manske & H.L. Holmes (eds.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Physiology. Vol 4.

Reti, Ladislao (1954)b “Cactus Alkaloids” pp. 23–28, (Chapter 27), in: R.H.F. Manske & H.L. Holmes (eds.) The Alkaloids. Chemistry and Physiology. Vol 4.

Reti, L & R.L. Arnolt (1935) Actas y trabajo del V. Congr. Nac. de Medicina, Rosario, 3: 39. “Alcaloids del Trichocereus lamprochlorus (Lem.) Britton and Rose”

Reti, Ladislao & Juan A. Castrillón (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73 (4): 1767–1769. “Cactus alkaloids. I. Trichocereus tersheckii (Parmentier) Britton and Rose”

Reti, L. et al. (1935) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, (Société de Biologie de Rosario 25 Octobre 1934) 118: 591–593. [(1934) Rev. Soc. Argentina biol. 10: 437] “Sur un alcaloïde du Cereus coryne Salm. (1850)” (L. Reti, R.I. Arnolt & F.P. Ludueña)

Reutter, L. (1924) Schweizerische Apotheker-Zeitung, 62: 441–443. “Du Peyolt [sic], comme drogue sensorielle.”

Revel, Jean-François (1977) The Totalitarian Temptation. [Hardcover; Doubleday: NY/ Paperback; Penguin: NY (Again in 1978] 311 pages.

Reyna Pinedo, Víctor & Flores Garcés, José (2001) Quepo, 15: 28–37. “El uso del “San Pedro” (Echinopsis pachanoi) en medicina tradicional peruana.”

Reynolds, P.C. & E.J. Jindrich (1985) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 9: 183–184. “A mescaline associated fatality.”

Rhodes, Willard (1958) Journal of the International Folk Music Council, 10: 42–49. “A study of musical diffusion based on the wandering of the opening peyote song.”

Riccobono, Vincenzo (1909) Bollettino delle R[eale] Orto Botanico di Palermo, 8: 215–266. “Studii sulle Cattee del R. Orto Botanico di Palermo.”

 Aporocactus flagelliformis 260–261

 Cereus grandiflorus 249–250

 Eriocereus jusberti 240

 Eriocereus tephracanthus 244–245

 Myrtillocactus geometrizans 224–225

 Pilocereus euphorbioides 254–255

 Piptanthocereus beneckei 226–227

 Piptathocereus jamacaru 229–230

 Piptanthocereus peruvianus 232–233

 Stenocereus stellatus 253–254

 Trichocereus macrogonus 236–237

 Trichocereus spachianus 237–238

Riccobono, Vincenzo (1909) Bollettino delle R[eale] Orto Botanico di Palermo, 8: 244 -245. “Sp. 8. ° Eriocereus tephracanthus (BERG. l. c. p. 74).”

Riccobono, Vincenzo (1909) Bollettino delle R[eale] Orto Botanico di Palermo, 8: 236–237. [i.e. Bollettino del R. Orto Botanico e Giardino Coloniale] “Sp. 1. ° Trichocereus macrogonus (BERG. 1. c, p. 83).”

Rice, W.B. & J.D. McColl (1960) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 127: 249–259. “Antagonism of psychotomimetic agents in the conscious cat.“

Richardson, A.B. et al. (1891) Cincinnati Lancet and Clinic 27: 829. “Cactus grandiflorus as a Heart Tonic.” (A.B. Richardson, J.C. Oliver & L.C. Colter)

Richardson, A.B. et al. (1891) Cincinnati Lancet and Clinic, 27: 828–829. “Cactina, a New Cardiac Tonic.” (A.B. Richardson, J.C. Oliver & L.C. Colter)

Richardson, D.A. (1896) The Denver Times, 16 (6): 214–217. “Anhalonium Lewinii – Mescale Button – A Report of Five Cases in Which the Tinture was Exhibited in Four-Drop Doses Daily.”

Richardson, Mick (1978) Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 6: 283–286. “Flavonols and C-Glycosylflavonoids of the Caryophyllales.”

Richter, Derek (1938) Biochemical Journal, 32: 1763–1769. “CCXXIX. Elimination of Amines in Man.”

Rico-Bobadilla, A.C. et al. (2001) XXXII Congreso Nacional de Microbiología. Guanajuato, Guanajuato. México. Abril 3–5. “Efecto antimicrobiano del extracto liofillizado de músaro (Lophocereus schottii).” (AC Rico-Bobadilla, OLE Gassós & FA Félix) [from Garza Padrón 2010]

Riedlinger, Thomas (ed.) (1990) The Sacred Mushroom Seeker. Tributes to R. Gordon Wasson. Park Street Press: Rochester. ISBN 0-89281-338-5.

Rietschel, Hans G. (1937)a Naunyn-Schmiedebergs Arch. exp. Path. Pharmakol. 186: 387–408. “Zur Pharmakologie des Hordenins.”

Rietschel, Hans G. (1937)b Klinische Wochenschrift 16 (20): 714–715. “Zur Pharmakologie des Hordenins.”

Rigal-Cellier, Bernadette (2004) The Peyote Way Church of God: Native Americans v. New Religions v. the Law.

Riggins, R.M. & P.T. Kissinger (1976) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 24: 900. “Identification of salsolinol as a phenolic component in powdered cocoa and cocoa-based products.”

Riggin, Ralph M. & Peter T. Kissinger (1977) Analytical Chemistry, 49 (4): 530-.533 “Determination of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloids in Biological Materials with High Performance Liquid Chromatography.”

Riggin, R. M. et al. (1976) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 24: 189–191. “Identification of salsolinol as a major dopamine metabolite in the banana.” (R.M. Riggin, M.J. McCarty & P.T. Kissinger)

Říha, J. & R. Šubík (1979) Aztekia 1: 9–14. “Lophophora diffusa.

Ríha, J. & R. Šubík (1981) The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Cacti & Other Succulents. Artia, Prague. ISBN 0-7064-1492-6.

Říha, Jan (1996) Kaktusy, 32: 70–73. “Lophophora diffusa var. koehresii.“

Remington, J.P. et al. (eds.) (1918) The Dispensatory of the United States, 20th edition. (Joseph P. Remington, Horatio C. Wood, & others) [From the online version at The Southwest School of Botanical Medicine http://www.swsbm.com]

Rimington et al. (1938) J. Vet. Sci. Animal Ind. 9: 187. [CA (1938) 32: 42799]. [From Merck 9th] Also cited as Rimington, C. & G.C.S. Roets (1937) Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Industry 9: 187–191. “Notes upon the isolation of the alkaloidal constituent of the drug ‘channa’ or ‘kougoed’ (Mesembryanthemum anatomicum and Mesembryanthemum tortuosum).” [From Smith 1996] (Unable to obtain a copy.)

Rinaldi, Franco & H.E. Himwich (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 424–432. “The cerebral electroencephalographic changes induced by LSD and mescaline are corrected by frequel.”

Rinkel, Max (1956) “Biochemical Reflections on the Psychosis Problem.” in L. Cholden (ed.) Lysergic Acid and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry. New York: Grune and Stratton.]

Rinkel, Max (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 424–427. “Pharmacodynamics of LSD and Mescaline.”

Rinkel, Max (1965) The Presidential address: the LSD movement in America. (Paper read at Soc. Biol. Psychiat., New York City April-May, 1965.)

Rinkel, Max & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) (1958) Chemical Concepts of Psychosis. NewYork: McDowell.

Rinkel, Max, et al. (1952) American Journal of Psychiatry, 108: 572–578. “Experimental Schizophrenia-like symptoms.” (Max Rinkel, H.J. Deschon, R.W. Hyde & H.C. Solomon)

Rinne, U.K. & V. Sonninen (1967) Nature, (London) 216: 489.

Ritter, Friedrich (1958) “Die von Curt Backeberg in “ Descriptiones Cactacearum novarum “ veröffentlichten Diagnosen “ n e u e r “ peruanischer Kakteen nebst grundsätzlichen Erörterungen über taxonomische und nomenklatorische Fragen.” Friedrich Ritter Verlag, Hamburg.

Ritter, Friedrich (1962) Kakteen und andere Sukkulenten, 13 (10): 165–167. “Trichocereus fulvilanus Ritter spec. nov. “

Ritter, Friedrich (1966) Cactus (Paris). Organe de l’Association Française des Amateurs de Cactus et Plantes Grasses. Paris. 21 (87): 13–14. “Trichocereus crassicostatus Ritter spec. nov.”

Ritter, Friedrich (1966) Cactus (Paris). Organe de l’Association Française des Amateurs de Cactus et Plantes Grasses. Paris. 21(87): 14–15. “Trichocereus scopulicola Ritter spec. nov.” [Using the citation “Cactus, Paris, No. 87. Page 14” (obtained from the Index Kewensis CD-ROM), we were unsuccessful in locating this paper despite over 5 years of active effort and the help of numerous professionals. Interlibrary loan insisted repeatedly that no such journal existed. Our thanks to Dr. M. Terry for his help in finally obtaining a copy.]

Ritter, Friedrich (1980) Kakteen in Südamerika. Argentinien/Boliviens Vol. 2: 375–856. (Trichocereus: 437–456) F.Ritter/self-published

Ritter, Friedrich (1981) Kakteen in Sudamerika. Peru. Vol. 4: 1239–1692. (Trichocereus: 1324–1329) F.Ritter/self-published

Rivas, Augustin. “Canto Musica Ayahuasca en la Silva de Peru: Agustin Rivas.” Tape available through the Basement Shaman.

River, Liliana & Joseph Rael (1984) Beautiful Painted Arrow: A Medicine Story. Path-ways: Virginia Beach. [P.O.Box 4308/ 23454] No ISBN. 129 pages.

Rivier, Laurent & Jan-Erik Lindgren (1972) Economic Botany, 26: 101–129. “ “Ayahuasca”, the South American Hallucinogenic Drink: an Ethnobotanical and Chemical Investigation.” [Epiphyllum]

Rivier, Laurent & Paul-Émile Pilet (1971) L’Anneée Biologique 10 (3-4): 129–149. “Composés Hallucinogènes Indoliques Naturels.”

Robb, George L. (1957) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 17 (10): 265–316 “The Ordeal Poisons of Madagascar and Africa.”

Robert (Bob) Schick (2003) Echinopsis Revisited. PDF posted on Cactus etc (http://www2.labs.agilent.com/bot/cactus_home).

Roberti, C.E. & H. Heymann (1937) Rassegna di studi psichiatrici 26: 245, 353. “Dell’ allucinazioni.”

Robinson, G. (1954) in H.A. Abramson, (ed.) Problems of Consciousness, 5th Conference, 1954, Princeton. J. Macy, Jr. Foundation.

Robinson, John C, Jr., & H.R. Snyder (1955) “β-Phenethylamine (Phenethylamine)” pp. 720–722, in E.C. Horning (ed.) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume III.

Robiola, P.F. (1955) Minerva Medica, 46 (103): 1975–1976. [A New Drug Compound with Cereus grandiflorus Mill., a Mexican Cactus with Cardiotonic Action] (article is in Italian) [From Aardvark 2006]

Robles, Clemente & José Gomez Robleda (1931) Anales del Instituto de biologia de la Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México. 2 (1): 15–46. “Trabajo inicial acerca de la acción fisiológica del chlorhidrato de peyotina.”

Roca, Juan (1930) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 1 (3): 204. “Nota Preliminar Acerca del Estudio Quimico del Pachycereus Marginatus.

Roca, Juan (1931) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 2 (2): 133–137. “Estudio Quimico Preliminar del Pachycereus Marginatus.”

Roca, Juan (1932) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 3 (1): 19–23. “Analisis Quimico del Pachycereus Marginatus.”

Rodríguez, G.R.G, et al. (2008) VI Simposio Internacional sobre Flora Silvestre en Zonas Áridas. La Paz, B.C.S., Marzo 12–15. “Actividad biológica de Ariocarpus kotschoubeyanus (Lemaire), Ariocarpus retusus (Scheidweiler) y Fouquieria splendens (Engelmann).” (GRG Rodríguez, SMJ Verde, CA Oranday, RME Morales, MC Rivas, GMA Núñez & NJF Treviño) [from Garza Padrón 2010]

Rodriguez, Miguel Angel (2010) “Preparación necesaria para la Sanación con Híkuri o Peyote, Ayahuasca y San Pedro (Huachuma).” Paper from 2010 Congreso Internacional de medicina traditcional y salud pública. “El peyote, medicina tradicional o droga lúdica” 20–23 October, Toluca, México

Roitman, M.F. et al. (2002) Journal of Neuroscience, 22: 225-? “Induction of a Salt Appetite Alters Dendritic Morphology in Nucleus Accumbens and Sensitizes Rats to Amphetamine.” (Mitchell F. Roitman, Elisa Na, Gregory Anderson, Theresa A. Jones, & Ilene L. Bernstein) See also re: article in Journal of Neuroscience. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2002/06/020604073144.htm “Rats Depleted Of Salt Become Sensitized To Amphetamine, Show Unusual Growth Of Brain Cells.”

Rojas Aréchiga, Mariana (2008) Ciencias, 91: 44–49. “El Controvertido Peyote”

Romariz, I.C. (1946) Portugaliae Acta Biol. Ser. A. 1: 235–250. [“Unusual carotenoids in young leaves.”] [From 1949 CA 43: 1836i-1837a] See also 1947 Biological Abstracts, 21: 1511.

Romero, M.L. (1983) J. Chromatogr. 281: 245

Rose, Joseph Nelson (1899) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 5 (4): 209–259. “Notes on Useful Plants of Mexico.”

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