References: A through D

References A-D used for Sacred Cacti 4th edition.

This references list is still in progress and will continue to be modified during the editing process. If anything new has not been added yet and you need to know it now; drop me an email.

[Brackets around a title indicates it is an English translation of the actual title. ]

Incomplete citations or the use of the qualifier “From” usually indicates that the paper listed was a second-hand reference. This means that this work was unavailable to us and was the reference that was cited by our information source.

References as a single listing

E through J

K through O

P through S

T through Z

 

 

Aardvark, David (ed.) (1998) Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) 7 (3): 70–71 & 7 (4): 99–100. [Aardvark: editor; beginning with Volume 7 (1998)] ISSN 1066-1913.]

Aardvark, David (ed.) (1999) Entheogen Review (The Journal of Unauthorized Research on Visionary Plants and Drugs.) 8 (1): 22–24 [Ott & Aardvark’s MAOI-less jurema bioassays]

Aardvark, David (2006) Entheogen Review, 15 (3): 95-96.
Epiphyllum oxypetalum and Checking Citations.”

Abdel-Kader, M.S. et al. (2003) Natural Product Sciences, 9 (2): 1–4. “Two Alkaloids from Ephedra aphylla growing in Egypt.” (Maged S. Abdel-Kader, Fahima F. Kassem & Rokia M. Abdallah)

Abdel-Rahman, M.O. et al. (1968) J. Chem. UAR 11: 401–?. “An improved method for the synthesis of mescaline.”

Abel, J.J. & D.I. Macht (1911–1912) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 3: 319. [From Deulofeu & Rúveda 1971] 

Aberle, David F. (1966) Peyote Religion among the Navaho. University of Chicago Press. 454 pages. ISBN 0-226-00082-6 (hardcover.)/ 0-226-00083-4 (paperback)

Aberle, David F. (1982) Peyote Religion among the Navaho. Second Edition. University of Oklahoma Press. 503 pages. ISBN 0-8061-2382-6.

Abou-Donia, A. et al. (1978) Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1078–1079. “X-Ray Crystal and Molecular Structure of Channaine, an Unusual Alkaloid, Probably an Artefact from Sceletium strictum.” (Amina Abou-Donia, Peter W. Jeffs, Andrew T. McPhail & Richard W. Miller) 

Aboul-Einen, Hassan Y. (1973) American Journal of
Pharmacology
, 145 (4): 125–128. “Mescaline: A Pharmacological Profile.” 

Aboul-Enein, N. Nabil & Attait I. Eid (1979) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 16: 267–270. “A novel route for the synthesis of mescaline.” 

Abramovitch, R.A. et al. (1968) Planta Medica, 16 (2): 147–157. “Identification of constituents of Opuntia fragilis.” (R.A. Abramovitch, R.T. Coutts & E.E. Knaus)

Abramson, H.A & A. Rollo (1967) “Comparison of LSD with methysergide and psilocybin on test subjects.” pp. 53–73 in Abramson (ed.) The Use of LSD in Psychotherapy and Alcoholism. Bobbs Merrill, New York.

Abramson, H.A. (ed.) (1956) Neuropharmacology. Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation [According to Ott 1993 this was a phony research foundation front for the CIA]

Abramson, H.A. et al. (1960) Journal of Psychology, 49: 151–154. “Production of cross-tolerance to psychosis-producing doses of lysergic acid diethylamide and psilocybin.” (H.A. Abramson, A. Rolo, B. Sklarofsky & J. Stache)

Abramson, Harold A. (1960) Journal of Psychology, 49: 57–65, “Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD-25): XXX. The Questionaire Technique with Notes on its Use.”

Achari et al. (1980) Planta Med. Suppl. 5–7

Achiwa (1977) Heterocycles, 8: 247

Ackermann, D. et al. (1924) Zeitschrift fuer Biologie (Munich), 82: 278–284. “The occurrence of methyladenine, dimethylhistamine, guanidine, betaine, and elodinine in Geodia gigas.” (D. Ackermann, F. Holtz & H. Reimwein)

Acosta, P. José de (1590) Historia Natural y Moral de las Indias. J. de León: Seville. 535 pages [from Yacovleff & Herrera 1935 & Guerra 1967]

Acosta, José (1954) Historia natural y moral de las Indias (1590) in Obras, Madrid, Biblioteca de Autores Españoles.

Adams, Herman R. & Bennie J. Camp (1966) Toxicon, 4: 85–90. “The Isolation and Identification of Three Alkaloids From Acacia berlandieri.”

Adavasio, J.M. & G.F. Fry (1976) Economic Botany, 30: 94–96. “Prehistoric psychotropic drug use in northeastern Mexico and Trans-Pecos Texas.” 

Adler, A. & O. Poetzl (1936) Jahrbuch für Psychiatrie und Neurologie, 53: 13–34. “Ueber eine eigenartige Reaktion auf Meskalin bei einer Kranken mit doppelseitigen Herden in der Sehsphäre.” (coworkers in Boston Psychopathic Hospital Report)

Adrian, E.D. & Matthews, B.H.C. (1934) Brain, 57: 355–384. “The Berger Rhythm; potential changes from the occipital lobes in man.”

Aghajanian, George K. (1970) “LSD and mescaline: Comparison of effects on single units in the mid-brain raphe.” pp. 165–176 in D.H. Efron (ed.) Psychotomimetic Drugs. Raven Press.

Aghajanian, George K. (1980) Brain Research, 186 (2): 492–498. “Mescaline and LSD facilitate the activation of locus coeruleus neurons by peripheral stimuli.” 

Aghajanian, George K. (1994) Psychiatric Annals, 24 (3): 137–141. “Serotonin and the Action of LSD in the Brain.”

Aghajanian, George K. & G.J. Marek (1999) Neuropsychopharmacology, 21 (2S): 16S-23S. “Serotonin and Hallucinogens.”

Aghajanian, George K. et al. (1968) Science, 161: 706–708. “Lysergic acid diethylamide: sensitive neuronal units in the midbrain raphe.” (G.K. Aghajanian, W.E. Foote & M.H. Sheard)

Aghajanian, George K. et al. (1970) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 171 (2): 178–187. “Action of Psychotogenic Drugs on Single Midbrain Raphe Neurons.” (G.K. Aghajanian, W.E. Foote & M.H. Sheard) [Found that while LSD inhibits all raphe units, mescaline only inhibits raphe units located in the ventral portion of the dorsal raphe.]

Ågren, H. (1983) p. 297, in J. Angst (ed.) The Origins of Depression: Current Concepts and Approaches. Springer, Berlin.

Aguas de Silva, M.T. et al. (1968) (in the literature) See as Silva 1968 

Aguerre, A.M. et al. (1973) Relaciones. Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia (Buenos Aires) (new series), 8: 197–231. “Hallazgo de un sitio aceramico en la Quebrada de Inca Cueva (Provincia de Jujuy).” (A.M. Aguerre, A. Fernandez Distel & C.A. Aschero) 

Aguerre, A.M. et al. (1975) Relaciones. Sociedad Argentina de Antropologia (Buenos Aires) (new series), 9: 211–214. “Comentarios sobre nuevas fechas en la cronologia aqueologica preceramica de la Provincia de Jujuy.” (A.M. Aguerre, A. Fernandez Distel & C.A. Aschero)

Agurell, Stig (1969) Experientia, 25: 1132. “Cactaceae alkaloids. VIII. N-Methyl-4-methoxy-phenethylamine from LepidoCoryphantha runyonii (Br. & R.)” [This actually should be (1969)a but, due to their use by ourselves and others in works concerning only mescaline producing cacti, it was felt that changing the other two to b and c, respectively, would create more confusion than it would alleviate.]

Agurell, Stig (1969)a Lloydia, 32 (1): 40–45. “Identification of Alkaloid Intermediates by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. I. Potential Mescaline Precursors in Trichocereus Species.”

Agurell, Stig (1969)b Lloydia, 32 (2): 206–216. “Cactaceae Alkaloids I.”

Agurell, Stig & Jan Lundström (1968) Journal of the Chemical Society, D. Chemical Communications, 1968: 1638–1639. “Apparent intermediates in the biosynthesis of mescaline and related tetrahydroisoquinolines.” 

Agurell, S. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, (26): 2433–2435. “Biosynthesis of Mescaline in Peyote.”

Agurell, S. et al. (1969) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 58 (11): 1413–1414. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. VII. Alkaloids of Echinocereus merkeri.” (Stig Agurell, Jan Lundström & A. Masoud)

Agurell, S. et al. (1971)a Abh. Deut. Akad. Wiss. Berlin (in press) [From Lundstrom 1983; ILLS has been unable to locate this.]

Agurell, S. et al. (1971)b Lloydia, 34 (2): 183–187. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. X. Alkaloids of Trichocereus species and some other cacti.” (Stig Agurell, Jan G. Bruhn, Jan Lundström & Ulla Svensson)

Ahmad, A. et al. (1996) Antiviral Research, 30 (2-3): 75–85. “Antiviral properties of extract of Opuntia streptacantha.” (A. Ahmad, J. Davies, S. Randall & G.R. Skinner)

Ahmed, M.S. et al. (2005) Phytotherapy Research, 19 (9): 807–809. “Antiinflammatory flavonoids from Opuntia dillenii (Ker-Gawl) Haw. flowers growing in Egypt.” (M.S. Ahmed, N.D. El Tanbouly, W.T. Islam, A.A. Sleem & A.S. El Senousy)

Ainslie, J.R. (1937) A List of Plants Used in Native Medicine in Nigeria. Imperial Forestry Institute, Oxford. Institute Paper No. 7. 109 pages. [From Watt 1967]

Aires, V. et al. (2004) Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 260 (1-2): 103–110. “Modulation of intracellular calcium concentrations and T cell activation by prickly pear polyphenols.” (V. Aires, S. Adote, A. Hichami, K. Moutairou, E.S. Boustani & N.A. Khan)

Aizawa, Y., & K. Yamada (1969) Jap. J. Pharm. 19: 474. 

Alarcon-Aguilar, A.F. et al. (2003) Proceedings of the Western Pharmacological Society (46): 139–142. “Hypoglycemic activity of two polysaccharides isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica and O. streptacantha.” (Francisco Javier Alarcon-Aguilar, Argelia Valdes-Arzate, Santiago Xolalpa-Molina, Tania Banderas-Dorantes, Manuel Jimenez-Estrada, Erica Hernandez-Galicia & Ruben Roman-Ramos)

Albaugh, Bernard J. & Philip O. Anderson (1974) American Journal of Psychiatry, 131: 1247–1250. “Peyote in the Treatment of Alcoholism Among American Indians.”

Albers, Patricia & Seymour Parker (1971) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology 27 (3): 203–233. “The Plains Vision Experience: a Study of Power and Privilege.”

Albesiano, Sofía (2012) Haseltonia 18: 119–142. “Taxonomic revision of the genus Trichocereus (Cactaceae) in Chile.” 

Albesiano, Sofía & Roberto Kiesling (2012) Haseltonia, 17: 24–34. “Identity and neotypification of Cereus macrogonus, the Type of the generic name Trichocereus (Cactaceae).”

Albesiano, Sofía & Teresa Terrazas (2012) Haseltonia, 17: 3–23. “Cladistic Analysis Of Trichocereus (Cactaceae: Cactoideae: Trichocereeae) Based On Morphological DATA And Chloroplast DNA Sequences.”

Albónico, S.M. et al. (1967) Journal of the Chemical Society, C: Organic, 1327–1328. “Tembamide from Fagara hyemalis (St. Hill.) Engler.” (S. M. Albónico, A. M. Kuck & V. Deulofeu)

Aldunate, Carlos et al. (1981) Boletín del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile, 38: 183–223. “Estudio etnobotanico en una communidad precordillerana de Antofagasta: Toconce.” 

Aldunate, Carlos et al. (1983) Economic Botany, 37 (1): 120–135. “Ethnobotany of Pre-Altiplanic Commnity in the Andes of Northern Chile” 

Aleksandrovskii, A.B. et al. (1936) Arkhiv Biologischeskikh Nauk, 42: 147–173. [“Local parabiotic changes in the brain produced by mescaline poisoning.”] (A.B. Aleksandrovskii, E.B. Babskii & V. Kryazhev)

Alles, Gordon A. (1957) “Some Relations between Chemical Structure and Physiological Action of Mescaline and Related Compounds.” pp. 181–267 in Harold Alexander Abramson (ed.) Neuropharmacology, New York: Macy Foundation 1957. [According to Ott 1993 the Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation was a research foundation front for the CIA.]

Alles, Gordon A. & Erik V. Heegard (1943) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 147: 487–503. “Substrate Specificity of Amine Oxidase.”

Altamirano, Fernando (1900) Gaceta Médica de México, 36: 59–64. “Anhalonium Lewinii: Cacteas.”

Altamirano, Fernando (1905) Anales. Instituto Medico Nacional México, 7: 389–423. “Memoria acerca de una excursion botánica al Estado de Querétaro.” 

Altschul, Siri Von Reis (1973) Drugs and foods from
little-known plants
. Harvard University Press

Ammassari et al. (1986) Pharmacological Research Communications 18 (12): 1169–1178 Ammassari et al. (1988) Physiology and Behavior 42 (3): 281–285. 

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1971) Dynamische Psychiatrie 23–45. “Ergebnisse früher Meskalin-Forschung.”

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1974)a Psichiatria Dinamica, 1: 17–32. “I risultati dei primi studi sulla mescalina.”

Ammon, Gunter & Gotte, Jurgen (1974)b Psichiatria Dinamica, 1: 33–48. “Peyote: due diverse esperienze dell’Io.”

Amos, D. (1964) The Australasian Journal of Pharmacy, 45 (529) Suppl. 13: S8–S10. “The preparation of mescaline from eucalypt lignin.” (Listed in the On-Line catalog as The Australian Journal of Pharmacy)

Andersen, A.M. 1975 Acta Chem Scand., Ser. B, 29: 871 

Anderson, B. (2004a) “Antidepressant Effects of Ethanolic Plant Extracts on Mice,” Ethnobiology, Cost Rica. Organization for Tropical Study Abroad Program.  [from Aardvark 2006]

Anderson, B. (2004b) “Searching in the Dark Jungle for Answers to Dark Times: An Ethnobiological Investigation into Therapies for Mental Illness,” Ethnobiology, Cost Rica. Organization for Tropical Study Abroad Program.  [from Aardvark 2006]

Andersen, F. et al. (1999) Allergy, 54 (5): 511–516. “Immediate allergic and nonallergic reactions to Christmas and Easter cacti.” Erratum in: (1999) Allergy 54 (8): 891. (F. Andersen, C. Bindslev-Jensen, P. Stahl Skov, E. Paulsen & K.E. Andersen)

Anderson, E. et al. (1925) American Journal of Pharmacy 97: 589–592. “Some Plant Gums of the Southwestern United States.” (Ernest Anderson, Lila Sands & Nelson Sturgis) Anderson, Edward F. (1961) PhD Dissertation; Claremont College. “A taxonomic revision of Ariocarpus, Lophophora, Pelecyphora, and Obregonia.”

Anderson, Edward F. (1962) American Journal of Botany, 49 (6): 615–622. “A revision of Ariocarpus (Cactaceae). II. The status of the proposed genus Neogomesia

Anderson, Edward F. (1966) Brittonia, 21: 299–310 : “The biography, ecology and taxonomy of Lophophora (Cactaceae).”

Anderson, Edward F. (1967) American Journal of Botany, 54 (7): 897–903. “A Study of the Proposed genus Obregonia (Cactaceae).”

Anderson, Edward F. (1980) Peyote. The Divine Cactus. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson. ISBN 0-8165-0680-9 / 0-8165-0613–2 (pbk.) 248 pages. Second edition in 1997. ISBN 0-8165-1653-7 (hardcover)/ 0-8165-1654-5 (paperback). 

Anderson, Edward F. (1995) Cactus and Succulent Journal, 67: 67–73. “The “Peyote Gardens” of South Texas: A Conservation Crisis.”

Anderson, Edward F. (1996) Jahrbuch für Transkulturelle Medizin und Psychotherapie, 6 (1995): 369–379. “Peyote and its derivatives as Medicine.”

Anderson, Edward F. (2001) The Cactus Family. Timber Press; Portland, Cambridge. 776 pages. ISBN 0-88192-498-9.

Anderson, Edward F. & Margaret S. Stone (1969) Cactus and Succulent Journal, (US) 43 (2): 77–82. “A Pollen Analysis of Lophophora (Cactaceae).” 

Anderson, Edward F. & W.A. Fitz Maurice (1997) Haseltonia, 5: 1–20. “Ariocarpus Revisited” (comment on page 19) See the full text at www.livingrocks.com/anderson.htm

Anderson, Miles (1998) The Ultimate Book of Cacti & Succulents. Lorenz Books/ Anness Publishing, London. 256 pages. ISBN 1 859667 460 7. Loads of color photos & cultivation tips but sparse details on the plants theselves.

Andritzky, Walter (1989) Schamanismus und rituelles Heilen im Alten Peru. Band 2: Viracocha, Heiland der Anden. 

Angeloni, A.S. et al. (1977) Gazz. Chim. Ital. 107: 421.

Anggard, E. & Sedvall, G. (1969) Anal. Chem. 41: 1250–1256.

Anjaneyule, B. et al. (1965) Indian J. Chem. 3 (5): 2378 in the literature meant Anjaneyulu et al. (1965) Indian Journal of Chemistry, 3 (5): 237–238

Anjaneyulu, B. et al. (1965) Indian Journal of Chemistry, 3 (5): 237–238. “Chemical Investigation of Some Indian Plants.” (B. Anjaneyulu, V. Babu Rao, A.K. Ganguly, T.R. Govindachari, B.S. Joshi, V.W. Kamat, A.H. Manmade, P.A. Mohamed, A.D. Rahimtula, A.K. Saksena, D.S. Varde & N. Viswanathan)

Anonymous (1895) Medical Record, (October 19) 558. “Mescal buttons.” 

Anonymous (1896) The British Medical Journal, (July 4) page 3. “Pellotine”

Anonymous (1896) Universal Medical Journal (n.s), 4: 229–230. “Pellotine, a new hypnotic.”

Anonymous (1959) Bulletin on Narcotics, 11 (2): 16–20. “Peyotl.”

Anonymous (1948-1976) The Wealth of India raw materials. 11 volumes. Publications and Information Directorate, CSIR, New Delhi.

Anonymous (1999) The Economist (April 3): 27. “A field full of buttons.” 

Anonymous (other than above) indicates correspondence or reports from workers who requested anonymity.

Anonymous 1998 Entheogen Review 7 (3): 70–71. 

Anonymous 1998 Entheogen Review 7 (4): 99–100. 

Antkiewicz-Michaluk, Lucyna & Hans Rommelspacher (2012) Isoquinolines and beta-carbolines as neurotoxins and
neuroprotectants: new vistas in Parkinson’s disease therapy
. Springer, New York.

Anton, A.H. & D.F. Sayre (1968) European Journal of Pharmacology, 4 (4): 435–440. “Possible sources of error in solvent extraction procedures for catecholamines.”

Appel, W. & E. Werle (1959) Arzneimittel-Forschung, 9 (1): 22–26. “Identification of histamine, N,N-dimethylhistamine, N-acetyl-histamine, and acetylcholine in Spinacia oleracea.”

Appel, J.B. & D.X. Freedman (1968) Psychopharmacologia, 13: 267–274. “Tolerance and Cross-Tolerance among Psychotomimetic Drugs.”

Appel, J.B. & P.M. Callahan (1989) European Journal of Pharmacology,  159 (1): 41–46. “Involvement of 5-HT receptor subtypes in the discriminative stimulus properties of mescaline.”

Appelt, G.D. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (3): 527–528. “Effect of Mescaline on Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide Synthesis in the Central Nervous System.” (Glenn D. Appelt, Norman O. Walker & Robert G. Brown)

Applewhite, P.B. (1973) Phytochemistry, 12 (1): 191–192. “Serotonin and norepinephrine in plant tissues.”

Apter, J.T. (1957)a American Journal of Ophthalmology, 46: 238–246, “Changes in spontaneous and evoked potentials in the eyes of cats induced by drugs.” 

Apter, J.T. (1957)b Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66: 508–516, “The effect of the hallucinogenic drugs LSD-25 and mescaline on the electroretinogram.” 

Aragane, M. et al. (2011) Journal Natural Medicine, 65: 103–110. “Peyote identification on the basis of differences in morphology, mescaline content, and trnL/trnF sequence between Lophophora Williamsii and L. diffusa.” (Masako Aragane, Yohei Sasaki, Jun’ichi Nakajima, Nobutaka Fukumori, Masao Yoshizawa, Yukiko Suzuki, Shigemi Kitagawa, Ken’ichiro Mori, Shuzo Ogino, Ichiro Yasuda & Seiji Nagumo) [This paper oddly ignores their supplier’s clear identification assignment and, incredibly, based on simple morphology and their comparison to Anderson theydecided that their L. fricii was really L. decipiens so published this as evidence that not all L. williamsii contains mescaline.]

Aragão, T.C. et al. (200) Brazilian Journal of Medical & Biological Research, 33 (8): 897–903. “Characterization of a methionine-rich protein from the seeds of Cereus jamacaru Mill. (Cactaceae).” (T.C. Aragão, P.A. Souza, A.F. Uchôa, I.R. Costa, C. Bloch Jr & F.A. Campos)

Arcoleo, A. (1961) Ann. Chim. (Rome), 51: 751–758. “Flavonoid pigments from Opuntia. I. Isorhamnetin from the flowers of Opuntia ficus-indica.” (Antonino Arcoleo, Michele Ruccia & Sigismondo Cusmano) [From 1962 CA 56: 10578h-i] 

Arcoleo, A. (1966) Atti. Accad. Sci., Lettere Arti Palermo Pt. 1. (1964–1965) 25: 323–332. “β-Sitosterol from flowers of Opuntia ficus-indica (Cactaceae).” (Antonino Arcoleo, Michele Ruccia & Maria Concetta Natoli) [From 1966 CA 65: 14092] 

Ardi, J.A. & P. McKellar (1956) Journal of Mental Science, 102: 22–29. “Hypnogogic Imagery and Mescaline.”

Arendt, Paul (1891–1892) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde 1: 92–94. “Anhalonium Lewinii, Hennings”

Arizona Republic (1956) Feb. 20. “24 Nabbed Sniffing Cactus-Button Drug.”

Armendaris, Eduardo (1900) Anales del Instituto Medico Nacional, 4: 18–20. “Secíon tercera”

Armstrong, M.D. et al. (1956) J. Biol. Chem. 218: 293.

Arndt, R.R. & P.E.J. Kruger (1970) Tetrahedron Letters, 37: 3257–3240. “Alkaloids from Sceletium Joubertii L. Bol. The Structure of Joubertiamine, Dihydrojoubertiamine, and Dehydrojoubertiamine.”

Arnold, Eugene L. (1972) The Analysis of L-3-Hyroxytyrosin (l-Dopa) and its Metabolites. Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory, AMRL-TR-71-128 (ADØ745944).

Arnold, E.L. & R. Ford (1973) Analytical Chemistry, 45: 85–89. “Determination of catechol-containing compounds in tissue samples bygas-liquid chromatography.”

Artaud, Antonin (1966) Al Paese dei Tarahumara e altri scritti. Adelphi: Milano.

Artaud, Antonin (1975) Die Tarahumaras. Rogner & Bernhard: Hamburg 

Artaud, Antonin (1976) The Peyote Dance (tr. Helen Weaver) Farrar, Strauss & Giroux: New York 

Asberg & Träskman (1981) Adv. Exp. med. Biol. 133: 739 

Aschero, C. & H. Yacobaccio (1994) Revista del Museo de Historia Natural de San Rafael (Mendoza) 13 (1/4): 116–119. “20 años después: Inca Cueva 7 revistado. Actas y Memorias del XI Congreso de Argueología.”

Askar, A. et al. (1972) Chem. Mikrobiol. Technol. Lebens. 1: 187.

Åström, A. & U. Samelius (1957) British Journal of Pharmacology, and Chemotherapy, 12: 410–414. “The Action of 5-Hydroxytryptamine and Some of its Antagonists on the Umbilical Vessels of the Human Placenta.”

Aures, D. et al. (1968a) Journal of Chromatography, 33: 480–493. “Separation and detection of biogenic amines by thin layer chromatography.“ (D. Aures, R. Fleming & R. Håkanson)

Aures, D. et al. (1968b) Zeit. Anal. Chem. 243: 483. (D. Aures, R. Hakanson and L. Spolter)

Austin American Statesman (1998) page A12 in Sunday, November 22 edition.

Author? (1977) Pacific Information Service on Street Drugs, 5 [I have been unable to obtain a copy. From Sax 1984]

Avakian, O.V. & J.S. Gillespie (1968) British Journal of Pharmacology, and Chemotherapy, 32: 168–184. “Uptake of noradrenaline by adrenergicnerves, smooth muscle and connective tissue in isolated perfused arteries and its correlation with the vasoconstrictor response.”

Ávila, Francisco de (1966) Dioses y Hombres en Huarochirí. (first published ~1598) Museo Nacional de Historia, Lima.

Axelrod, Julius (1961) Science, 134 (3475): 343. “Enzymatic Formation of Psychotomimetics from Normally Occurring Compounds.” 

Axelrod, Julius (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 138: 28–33. “The Enzymatic N-Methylation of Serotonin and Other Amines.”

Axelrod, Julius & I.J. Kopin (1969) “The uptake, storage, release and metabolism of noradrenaline in sympathetic nerves.” pp. 21–32 in K. Akert & P.G. Waser, (eds.) Progress in Brain Research, Vol. 31, Mechanisms of SynapticTransmission, Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Axelrod, Julius & Juan M. Saavedra (1977) Nature, 265: 501–504. “Octopamine.”

Axelrod, Julius & Thomas Tomchick (1958) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 233 (3): 702–705. “Enzymatic O-Methylation of Epinephrine and other Catechols.” 

Axelrod, Julius & Herbert Weissbach (1961) The Journal of Biological Chemistry, 236 (1): 211–213. “Purification and Properties of Hydroxyindole-O-methyl transferase.”

Axelrod, Julius et al. (1958) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 233: 697–701. “O-Methylation of catecholamines in vivo.“ (J. Axelrod, S. Senoh & B. Witkop)

Axelrod, J. et al. (1959) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 127: 251–256. “The physiological disposition of H3[sic]-epinephrine and its metabolite metanephrine.” (J. Axelrod, H. Weil-Malherbe & R. Tomchick)

Azevedo, L. Warren (1995) Lo spirito del peyote. Racconti dei Washoe. in Roberto Fedelli (ed.) Psichedelica. Stampa Alternativa: Rome.

Bach, Dan (1981) Desert Plants, 3 (1): 3–8. “The Double-Cut Technique For Grafting Cacti to Trichocereus pachanoi Rootstock.”

Bächtold, H. & A. Pletscher (1957) Experientia, 13 (4): 163–165. “Einfluss von Isonikotinsäurehydraziden aufden Verlauf der Körpertemperatur nach Reserpin, Monoaminen und Chlorpromazin.” 

Backeberg, Curt (& Erich Werdermann) (1931) Neue Kakteen. Jagden, Arten, Kultur. Frankfurt/Berlin.

Backeberg, Curt (1935) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 4: 4. “Lophophora (Anhalonium) williamsii v. crist.”

 6: 2 Strombocactus pseudomacrochele Bckbg. n. sp.”

Backeberg, Curt (1936) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 1: 4 “Strombocactus macrochele (Werd.) Bckbg.”

Backeberg, Curt (1937) Blätter für Kakteenforschung; Bulletin of Cactus Research; Publicaties Voor Cactusstudie; Feuilles Pour L’Etudes Des Cactaées,

 4: 2 “Ariocarpus retusus Scheidw., 1838”

 5: 5. “Coryphantha Scolymoides (Scheidw.) Berg.”

 6: 3. “Trichocereus Werdermannianus Bckbg.”

 6:4. “Trichocereus cephalomacrostibas Bckbg.”

 9: 6. “Trichocereus peruvianus Br. & R. (1920).”

Backeberg, Curt (1941) Kakteenkunde, 16–20. “Seltene Cereen des Westandinen Suedamerica.” [On page 20 Backeberg shows the same photo appearing in Backeberg 1937 but this time declares it to be Trichocereus macrogonus he found in the wild.]

Backeberg, Curt (1956) “Descriptiones Cactarearum Novarum. (Erstbeschreibungen neuer Kakteen)” page 20. Veb Gustav Fischer Verlag – Jena. [This work was soundly blasted by Myron Kimnach in a 1957 review. “The work will probably always be regarded as a curiosity of botanical literature, for here the customary low quality of Backeberg’s work sinks to a grotesque level. Indeed, it could well be used as a classroom example of what the conscientious taxonomist should avoid in his own work.” Among Kimnach’s criticisms was questioning its ethics of being released as a means of enabling Rauh to scoop Johnson, Ritter & Aker’s newly discovered species that Backeberg knew were in the process of being prepared for publication, accompanied by shoddy and inadequate descriptions including many minor variants being described as new species. Backberg’s sputtering defense, in a letter to Cyril Parr, included the wonderful comment “I must require that my special and unusual method is consented”.]

Backeberg, Curt (1957) Monatsschrift der Deutschen Kakteen-Gesellschaft, 8 (7): 106–107. “Ein rosa blühender Trichocereus aus Peru.”

Backeberg, Curt (1957/1958) Schöne Kakteen für den Liebhaber. Berlin.

Backeberg, Curt (1958–1962) Die Cactaceae. Handbuch der Kakteenkunde. Backeberg (1958) “Einleitung und Beschreibung der Peireskioideae und Opuntioideae.” Vol. I: pages 1–638, plates 1–35.

Backeberg (1959) “Cereoideae (Hylocereeae-Cereeae [Austrocereinae])” Vol. II: pages 639–1360, plates 36–107. Backeberg (1960) “Cereoideae (Boreocereeae)” Vol. IV: pages 1927–2629, plates 161–211.

Backeberg (1961) “Cereoideae (Boreocactinae)” Vol. V: pages 2631–3543, plates 212–255.

Backeberg (1962) “Nachträge und Index.” Vol. VI: pages 3545–4041.

Backeberg, Curt (1966) Das Kakteenlexikon. Enumeratio diagnostica cactacearum. Gustav Fischer Jena. 741 pages. First edition.

Backeberg, Curt (1970) Kakteenlexikon. Second edition.

Backeberg, Curt (1976) Kakteenlexikon. Third edition with Appendix by W. Haage.

Backeberg, Curt (1977) Cactus Lexicon. Enumeratio diagnostica Cactacearum. Fourth edition. (translated from German by Lois Glass) Blandford Press; Dorset ISBN 0 7137 0840 9. [1978 by Sterling Publishing. 828 pages.]

Backeberg, C. & F.M. Knuth (Knuthenborg) (“1935”/1936) Kaktus A B C. en Haandbog for Fagvolk og Amatoerer. Gyldendalske Boghandel – Nordisk Forlag- København. [Published in 1936 but dated 1935. The deliberate misdating is believed to have occurred in order for Backeberg to get a scoop on Kreuzinger 1935.]

Badger, G.M. et al. (1963) Australian Journal of Chemistry, 16: 734.

Bahnholzer, K. et al. (1952) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 35: 1577–1581: “Notiz über eine neue Synthese von Mezcalin, N-Methyl und N-Dimethylmezcalin.” (K. Bahnholzer, Tod W. Campbell & H. Schmid)

Bailey et al. (1975) Can. J. Pharm. Sci. 10: 31.

Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1963) How Plants Get Their Names. Dover: New York (First published by Macmillan Co 1933) 181 pages. 

Bailey, Liberty Hyde & Ethel Zoe Bailey (1976) Hortus Third. A Concise Dictionary of Plants Cultivated in the United States and Canada. Revised and expanded by the staff of the L.H. Bailey Hortorium, Cornell University. Macmillan Publishing Co, 1976. 1290 pages.

Bain (1955) is unpublished laboratory results; cited in Bain 1957.

Bain, James A. (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 66 (3): 459–467. “A Review of the Biochemical Effects In Vitro of Certain Psychotomimetic Agents.”

Baird-Lambert & Cohen (1975) J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 27: 958–961. “Effects of several catecholamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinolines on the hypogastric nerve-vas deferens preparation of the rat.”

Balabanova, S. et al. (1992) Naturwissenschaften, 79: 358. “First Identification of Drugs in Egyptian Mummies.” (S. Balabanova, F. Parsche & W. Pirsig)

Balen, B. et al. (2003) Journal of Plant Physiology, 160 (11): 1401–1406. “Isoenzymes of peroxidase and esterase related to morphogenesis in Mammillaria gracilis Pfeiff. tissue culture.” (B. Balen, M. Krsnik-Rasol & V. Simeon-Rudolf)

Balen, B. et al. (2006) Journal of Proteome Research, 5 (7): 1658–1666. “Glycoproteomic survey of Mammillaria gracilis tissues grown in vitro.” (B. Balen, M. Krsnik-Rasol, A.D. Zamfir, J. Milosević, S.Y. Vakhrushev & J. Peter-Katalinić)

Balestrieri, A. (1960) Psychopharmacologia, 1: 257–259, 

Balestrieri, Antonio (1957) p. 581 in Garattini & Ghetti 

Balestrieri, Antonio & Diego Fontanari (1959a) Archives of General Psychiatry, 1: 279–282. “Acquired and Crossed Tolerance to Mescaline, LSD-25 and BOL-148.”

Balestrieri, Antonio & Diego Fontanari (1959b) “Acquired and Crossed Tolerance to Mescaline, LSD-25 and BOL-148.” page 438, in: Bradley, P.B. et al. (eds.) Neuropsychopharmacology. Proceedings of the First International Congress of Neuro-psychopharmacology. (Rome, September 1958). 

Bamford, F. (1951) Poisons, Their Isolation and Identification. 3rd. Edition. Churchill: London.

Ban, T.A. et al. (1961) Journal of the Canadian Psychiatric Association, 6: 150–157. “Observations on the action of Sernyl- a new psychotropic drug.” (T.A. Ban, J.J. Lohrenz & H.E. Lehmann)

Banholzer, K. et al. (1952) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 35: 1577–1581: “Notiz über eine neue Synthese von Mezcalin, N-Methyl und N-Dimethylmezcalin.” (K. Bahnholzer, Tod W. Campbell and H. Schmid) 

Barca et al. (1959) Anales real soc. españ. fis. y quim. Ser. B. (Madrid) CA 54: 14289g 

Barceloux, Donald G. (2008) Medical Toxicology of Natural Substances: Foods, Fungi, Medicinal Herbs, Plants, and Venomous Animals, ISBN-10: 047172761X; ISBN-13: 978-0471727613. Wiley. 1200 pages. (pp. 837–840 “Cactus”)

Barceloux, Donald G. (with Robert B. Palmer as editor & contributor) (2012) Medical Toxicology of Drugs Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants, John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471727601, 9780471727606, 1041 pages (Barceloux’s problematic Coryphantha macromeris comment is on page 63.) 

Barchas, J.D. & Daniel X. Freedman (1963) Biochemical Pharmacology, 12: 1225–1235. “Brain Amines: response to physiological stress.”

Bard, l.L. (1941) Revista Médica Latino-America (Buenos Aires) 26: 471–487. “ “El peyote,” algunas observaciones clinicas sobre sus efectos.”

Barfknecht, C.F. & David E. Nichols (1975) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 18 (2): 208–210. “Correlation of psychotomimetic activity of phenethylamines and amphetamines with 1-octacosanol-water partition coefficients.”

Barger, George (1909)a Journal of the Chemical Society, (London), Transactions 95: 1123–1128. “Isolation and Synthesis of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine, an Active principle of Ergot soluble in water.” [Synthesis pages 1127–1128.] 

Barger, George (1909)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London), Proceedings, 25: 289 and (1909)c Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 95: 2193–2197. “Synthesis of Hordenine, the Alkaloid from Barley” 

Barger, G. & H.H. Dale (1910) Journal of Physiology, 41: 19–59. “Chemical Structure and Sympathomimetic Action of Amines.”

Barger, George & Arthur James Ewins (1911)a J. Chem. Soc. (London), Proc. 26: 248 and (1911)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 97: 2253–2261. “Phenolic Derivatives of p-Phenylethylamine.” 

Barger, George & George Stanley Walpole (1909)a Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Proceedings 25: 229 and (1909)b Journal of the Chemical Society, (London) Transactions, 95: 1720–1724. “Further Synthesis of p-Hydroxyphenylethylamine.”

Barnes, C.D. & L.G. Eltherington (1965) Drug Dosages in Laboratory Animals – A Handbook. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Barrera-Díaz, C. et al. (2005) Environmental Technology, 26 (7): 821–829. “Cd(II) and Pb(II) separation from aqueous solution using clinoptilolite and Opuntia ectodermis.” (C. Barrera-Díaz, C. Almaraz-Calderón, M.T. Olguín-Gutiérrez, M. Romero-Romo & M. Palomar-Pardavé)

Barrera, H et al. (2006) Journal of Hazardous Materials, 136 (3): 846–853. “Removal of chromium and toxic ions present in mine drainage by Ectodermis of Opuntia.” (H. Barrera, F. Ureña-Núñez, B. Bilyeu & C. Barrera-Díaz)

Barrett (1947) Anesth. and Analg. 26: 74 and 105 

Barron et al. (1964) Scientific American, 210: 29–37. “The Hallucinogenic Drugs.” (Barron, Jarvik & Bunnell)

Baruk, H. et al. (1956) Revue Neurologique, 95: 62.

Bashyal, B.P. et al. (2007) New Zealand Grassland
Association; Endophyte Symposium
, 211–214. “Discovery of Small Molecule Bioactive Agents from Endophytic Fungi of the Sonoran Desert.” (B.P. Bashyal, A.M. Burns,
M.X. Liu, P.A. Paranagama, C.J. Seliga, T.J. Turbyville,
E.M.K. Wijeratne, J. Zhan, M.K. Gunatilaka, A.E. Arnold, S.H. Faeth, L. Whitesell & A.A.L. Gunatilaka)

Basmadjian, Garabed P. & Ara G. Paul (1971) Lloydia, 34 (1): 91–93. “The Isolation of an O-Methyltransferase From Peyote and its Role in the Biosynthesis of Mescaline.”

Basmadjian, G. et al. (1978) Lloydia, 41 (4): 375–380. “Biosynthetic relationships between phenylethylamine and tet rahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in peyote.” (G.P. Basmadjian, S. F. Hussain & A. G. Paul)

Bastos, Milton Lesso (1956) Boletim. Instituto de Quimica Agricola (Rio de Janeiro), 45: 7–16 (English Summary). “Applications of a modified chromic acid reagent in toxicological chemistry.” [also see CA (1958) 52: 156b ]

Batis, A. & M. Rojas (2002) Biodiversitas, 40:12–17. “El peyote y otros cactos alucinógenos de México.“

Batiste, L.M. et al. (1999) Pharmaceutical Biology, 37 (1): 50–53. “Isolation and identification of putative hallucinogenic constituents from the roots of Mimosa ophthalmocentra.” (L.M. Batista, R.N. Almeida, E.V.L da-Cunha, M.S. da-Silva and J.M. Barbosa-Filho) [DMT: 1.6%; MMT: 0.0012%; Hordenine: 0.0065% in dried roots]

Batov, Sergei [1999 e-mail forwarded by M.S. Smith]. 

Battersby, A.R. & T.P. Edwards (1960) Journal of the Chemical Society, 1214–1221. “Chemical Correlation of the Absolute Configuration of Salsolidine, Salsoline and Calycotomine with the Amino acids”

Battersby, A.R. et al. (1967) Tetrahedron Letters, 6: 563–565. “Biosynthesis of Cactus Alkaloids.” (A.R. Battersby, R. Binks & R. Huxtable)

Battersby, A.R. et al. (1968) Tetrahedron Letters, 58: 6111–6115. “Biosynthesis of Pellotine.” (A.R. Battersby, R. Binks & R. Huxtable)

Bauer (1907) Monatsschr. Kakteenk 17: 55 [Cereus hempelianus.] [From Britton & Rose] This is actually a reference to Fobe 1907.

Baxter, Claire & Michael Slaytor (1972) Phytochemistry, 11:2763–2766. “Partial Purification and Some Properties of Tryptophan Decarboxylase from Phalaris tuberosa.”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1968) Revue de Mycologie, 33 (1): 94–95. “Toiles d’araignées et champignons hallucinogènes.”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1969) Revue de Mycologie, 34 (2-3): 243–248. “Toiles d’araignées et champignons hallucinogènes. (Suite)”

Bazanté, Gabrielle (1971) Revue de Mycologie, 36 (1): 25–46. “Action de la Psilocybine, substance hallucinogène extraite de champignons du Mexique, sur l’édification des toiles d’araignées.”

Beccari, E. (1936)a Archivio di farmacológia sperimentale e scienze affini, 61, 96. “Farmacognosia del Peyotl. Farmacognosia botanica. Parte I.”

Beccari, E. (1936)b Archivio di farmacológia sperimentale e scienze affini, 161. “Parte II. Farmacognosia Microscopica Chimica.”

Becker, Harald (1985) Pharmazie in Unserer Zeit, 14 (5): 129–137. “Inhaltsstoffe der Kaktee Lophophora Williamsii.” [Constituents of the cactus Lophophora Williamsii.]

Beifuss, Will (1996) Psychedelic Sourcebook. Rosetta. 

Beilstein’s Handbuch der Organischen Chemie. (Friedrich Konrad Beilstein) 4th edition (1998) is 503 volumes.

Bell, C.E. & A.R. Somerville (1966) Biochemical Journal, 98: 1C–3C. “A New Fluorescence Method for Detection and Possible Quantitative Assay of some Catecholamine and Tryptamine Derivatives on Paper.”

Bellman, Sander W. (1968) Journal of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists, 51 (1): 164–175. “Mass Spectral Identification of Some Hallucinogenic Drugs.”

Bellman, S.W. et al. (1970) Journal of Forensic Sciences, 15 (2): 261–286. “Spectrometric Forensic Chemistry of Hallucinogenic Drugs.” (Sander W. Bellman, John W. Turczan & Theodore C. Kram) [See also (1970) CA 73:75110b]

Below, L.E. et al. (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (3): 515–516. “Macromerine from Coryphantha runyonii” (L.E. Below, A.Y. Leung, J.L. McLaughlin & A.G. Paul)

Beltrami, L. (1941) Archivo Farmaceutico Sperimentale Scienze Affini, 71: 1. “La lignificazione dei peli di Peyotl studiata dal punto di vista farmacognistico, chimico e botanico.”

Bembenek, M.E. et al. (1990) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 33 (1): 147–152. “Inhibition of monoamine oxidases A and B by simple isoquinoline alkaloids: racemic and optically active 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-, 3,4-dihydro-, and fully aromatic isoquinolines.” (M.E. Bembenek, C.W. Abell, L.A. Chrisey, M.D. Rozwadowska, W. Gessner & A. Brossi) 

Bender, L. & D.V.S. Sankar (1968) Science, 159 (letter) “Chromosome damage not found in leukocytes of children treated with LSD-25.” [Concluded that LSD does not cause damage.]

Benington, Fred & Richard D. Morin (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 1353. “An improved synthesis of mescaline.”

Benington, F. et al. (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 5555–5556. “Synthesis of 4-Hydroxy- and 4-Ethoxy-3,5-dimethoxy-β-phenethylamines.” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benington, F. et al. (1955) J. Org. Chem, 20: 1292–1296. “Mescaline Analogs. III. 2,4,6-Trialkyl- and 3,4-Dihydroxy-5-Methoxy-β-phenethylamines” From Patel 1968 Article stolen from library; could not confirm.

Benington, F. et al. (1957) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 22: 227–228. “New Synthesis of Trichocereine” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benington, F. et al. (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24 (7): 917–919. “Synthesis of 5,6,7-Trimethoxy-2,3-dihydroindole and 6,7-Dimethoxyindole.” (Fred Benington, Richard D. Morin & Leland C. Clark, Jr.)

Benitez, Fernando (1961) La Tierra Magica del Peyote. Biblioteca Era: Altos, Mexico

Benitez, Fernando (1972) Peyoteros. Viaggio nella terra magica della droga. Il Saggiatore: Milano.

Benitez, Fernando (1975) In the Magic Land of Peyote. 238 pp. & 32 photographs. University Of Texas Press ISBN # 0-446-89306-4 

Bennett, Wendell Clark & Robert Mowry Zingg (1935) The Tarahumara, an Indian tribe of northern Mexico. Chicago, Ill: University of Chicago Press. 412 pages, 48 leaves of plates. ISBN 0873801326 (Reprinted in 1976 by Rio Grande Press, Glorietta, N.M.) 

Bennington (in the literature) See as Benington

Benson, Elizabeth P. (1972) The Mochica. A culture of Peru. Prager Publishers; New York. Washington

Benson, Lyman (1982) Cacti of the United States and Canada. Stanford University Press 1982. Peyote pp. 680–683, ISBN 0-8047-0863-0. 1044 pages Bentley, Kenneth W. (1997) Natural Product Reports, 387–411. “β-Phenylethylamines and the isoquinoline alkaloids” 

Benvento, Fr. Toribo de (1848) “Ritos Antiquos” in Lord Kingsborough’s Antiquities of Mexico 9: 153 [From LaBarre 1975] 

Benzi, M. (1969) Hygiene Mentale 3: 61–97. “Visions des Huicholes sous l’effet du peyiotl.” 

Benzi, Mario (1972) Les derniers Adorateurs du Peyotl. Gallimard: Paris

Benzi, Mario (1998) Wirárika. Gli sciamani della Sierra Madre. Celleno (VT), La Piccola Editrice.

Berecek Kh., B.M. & M.J. Brody (1982) American Journal of Physiology, 242 (4): H593–H601. “Evidence for a neurotransmitter role for epinephrine derived from the adrenal medulla”.

Berger, Alwin (1904) Monatsschrift für Kakteenkunde, 190. “Cereus macrogonus S.-D.”

Berger, Alwin (1905) Missouri Botanical Garden. Sixteenth Annual Report, “XII. Trichocereus A. Berg.” (73–86 in “Revision of the Genus Cereus Mill.” 57–86) 

Berger, Alwin (1929) Kakteen. [Nice image of a macrogonus being used for grafting in figure 5.]

Berger, J.M. et al. (2007) Chemical Biodiversity, 4 (7): 1525–1532. “The effect of ultraviolet-depleted light on the flavonol contents of the cactus species Opuntia wilcoxii and Opuntia violacea.” (J.M. Berger, Y. Itagaki & K. Nakanishi)

Bergman, Robert (1971) American Journal of Psychiatry, 128: 695–699. “Navajo Peyote Use: Its Apparent Safety.”

Bergström, G.A. (1934) Kungl. Fysiograf. Sällskapets i Lund Förhand, 4: 235 “Further Note on the Occurrence of Citrate in Succulent Plants.” [From Hegnauer 1964]

Beringer, Kurt (1920) Zeitschrifte für die Gesamte Neurologie und Psychiatrie, Volume 24. “Experimentelle Psychosen durch Meskalin.” [Also 1922 Vortrag auf der südwestdeutshen Psychiater-Versammlung in Erlangen]

Beringer, Kurt (1927) Der Mezcalinrausch, seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise. Springer, Berlin. (Reti 1950 commented that Beringer has a good bibliography of early works on the subject.) [Anderson & also LaBarre give as “Der Mezcalinrausch, seine Geschichte und Erscheinungsweise.” (1927) Monographien aus dem Gesamtegebiete der Neurologie und Psychiatrie, 49: 35–89, 119–315.] [Beringer 1927 was reprinted in 1969 by Springer-Verlag, New York.] 

Beringer, Kurt (1928) Archivo Argentino de Neurologia, 2: 145–154. “Intoxication due to alkaloids from mescaline: Resulting mental and physical phenomena.”

Berlin, Louis et al. (1955) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 487–491. “Studies in Human Cerebral Function: The Effects of Mescaline and Lysergic Acid on Cerebral Processes Pertinent to Creative Activity.” (Louis Berlin, Thomas Guthrie, Arthur Weider, Helen Goodell & Harold G. Wolff)

Bernabai, A. (1966) Annales della Sanitá Pubblica, 27 (Nov-Dec.) : 1265–1296. “Plante magiche Americana (Psilocybe-Stropharia-Anhalonium).”

Bernheim, Frederick & Mary L.C. Bernheim (1938) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 123: 317–326. “The Oxidation of Mescaline and Certain Other Amines.”

Bernstein, Dennis & Howard Levin (1994) The Texas Observer. (June 17): 14–15. “Ollie Takes a Powder: A Texas DEA Agent Once Tracked Oliver North’s Contra Drug Deals.” [A darkly amusing article about the problems a DEA agent ran into while trying to unravel a cocaine ring he uncovered]

Berrin, Kathleen (1978) Art of the Huichol Indians. The Fine Arts Museum: San Francisco.

Bertani et al. (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 30: (L.M. Bertani, S.W. Dziedzic, D.D. Clarke & S.E. Gitlow)

Bertler, A., et al.(1958) Acta Physiol. Scand. 44: 273–292. (A. Bertler, A. Carlsson & E. Rosengren)

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963) Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1491–1494. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. IV. Synthesis of O-Methylisopilocereine.”

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963)a Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1495–1499. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. V. Synthesis of O-Methylisopilocereine. (2).”

Bessho, Kiyoshi (1963)c Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 11 (12): 1504–1507. “Studies on Pilocereine and Related Compounds. VII. Cleavage of O-Methylisopilocereine by Metallic Potassium in Liquid Ammonia.”

Betanzos, Juan de (1880) Suma y narración de los Incas que los indios llaman Capaccuna, que fueron señores de la ciudad del Cuzco y de todo lo a ello subjecto. Madrid [from Yacovleff & Herrera 1935]

Beyer, Karl & Albert R. Latven (1944) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 81: 203. “An evaluation of the influence of succinate and malonate on barbiturate hypnosis.” 

Bezerra, J.D.P. et al. (2013) Symbiosis, 60: 53–63. Fungal endophytes from cactus Cereus jamacaru in Brazilian tropical dry forest: a first study.” (Jadson D. P. Bezerra, Marília G. S. Santos, Renan N. Barbosa, Virgínia M. Svedese, Débora M. M. Lima, Maria José S. Fernandes, Bruno S. Gomes, Laura M. Paiva, Jarcilene S. Almeida-Cortez & Cristina M. Souza-Motta)

Bianchi, Antonio (1991) Annali dei Musei Civici-Rovereto, 6: 147–152. “Psicofisiologia dei rituali allucinatori dello sciamanesimo nord-peruviano.” Discusses the role of the ritual context in producing a religious experience.

Bianchi, Antonio & Giorgio Samorini (1993) “Plants in Association with Ayahuasca.” pp. 21–42 in Christian Rätsch & John R. Baker (eds.) Jahrbuch für Ethnomedicine and the Study of Consciousness. Issue 2. [Epiphyllum] 

Bianchi, Antonio & Mario Polia (1991) Integration: Zeitschrift fur Geistbewegende Pflanzen und Kultur, 1: 65–70. “Ethnological evidence and cultural patterns of use of Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose among Peruvian curanderos.” Published in Italian (1990) Annali dei Musei Civici-Roverto, 6: 139–146. “Dati etnofarmacologici e modelli culturali dell’uso del Trichocereus pachanoi Britton & Rose tra I curanderos peruviani.”

Biel, J.H. et al. (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 3149–3153. “Bronchodilators, N-substituted derivatives of 1-(3’,4’-dihydroxyphenyI)- 2-aminoethanol (Artenerol).” (J.H. Biel, E.G. Schwarz, E. P. Sprengeler, H.A. Leiser & H.L. Friedman)

Bigdeli, M.G. & M.A. Collins (1975) Biochem. Med. 12: 55–65. “Tissue catecholamines and potential tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid metabolites: A gas chromatographic assay method with electron capture detection.” 

Bird, H.L., Jr. (1974) PhD dissertation; University of
Arizona at Tucson
. “Sterols and Fatty Acids of Organ Pipe
Cactus (Lemaireocereus thurberii).” [From Gibson & Horak; also Kircher & Bird 1982]

Bisset, N.G. (1985) Agricultural University Wageningen Papers, 85 Number 3: 115–122. “Uses of Voacanga species.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Björnstad, K. et al. (2008) Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 32 (4): 227–231. “Development and Clinical Application of an LC-MS-MS Method for Mescaline in Urine” (Kristian Björnstad, Anders Helander & Olof Beck)

Blair, Thomas S. (1921) Journal of the American Medical Association, 76 (15): 1033–1034. “Habit indulgence in certain cactaceous plants among the Indians’ 

Blanco Labra, Victor (1992) Wirikuta: La tierra sagrada de los huicholes. Daimon: Mexico.

Bland, D.E. et al. (1950) Australian Journal of Scientific Research, 3A: 642–?. [Extraction of syringaldehyde from E. diversicolor, E. obliqua or Eucalyptus regnans sawdust.]

Blaschko, H. (1944–1945) Journal of Physiology, 103: (Proc.) 13–14 P. “Enzymatic oxidation of mescalin in the rabbit’s liver.”

Blaschko, H. (1952) Pharmacological Reviews, 4 (4): 415–458. “Amine oxidase and amine metabolism.“

Blatt, A.H. (ed.) (1943) Organic Synthesis. Collective Volume 2. John Wiley and Sons, NY. 1943. Page 619

Block, Wolfram (1953) Z. Physiol. Chem. 294: 1–10 in the literature should read Block 1954.

Block, Wolfram (1953a) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 294: 1–12. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. I. Mitteilung. Der enzymatische Vorgang.” 

Block, Wolfram (1953b) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 294: 49–56. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. II. Mitteilung. Einflüss der Aminooxydase.”

Block, Wolfram (1953c) Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 8b: 8 : 440–444. Zur Physiologie des 14C-radioactiven Mescalins in Tierversuch, IV. Vergleichende Untersuchungen mit 14C-Mescaline und 14C-β-Phenyl-äthylamine.” 

Block, Wolfram (1954a) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 296: 1–10. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. III. Mitteilung.” 

Block, Wolfram (1954b) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 296: 108–121. “In-vitro-Versuche zum Einbau von 14C-Mescalin und 14C-β-phenyl-äthylamin in Proteine. IV. Mitteilung. Einbau versuche in Zellkerne, Mitochondrien, Mikrosomen und Cytoplasma.” 

Block, Wolfram (1958) “Pharmacological aspects of mescaline.” pp. 108–119 in M. Rinkel & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) Chemical Aspects of Psychosis NewYork: McDowell.

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)a Angewandte Chemie 64 (6): 166–167. “Tierversuche mit 14C-radioaktivem Mescaline und sein Einbau in das Eiweiß der Leber.” 

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)b Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft, 85: 1009–1012. “Synthese von 14C-radioaktivem Mescalin.” 

Block, Wolfram & Katharina Block (1952)c Congrès International de Biochimie, Résumés de Communications, 2nd, Paris, July 21-27 1952. p. 429. “La distribution de la méscaline marquée (14C-radioactif) dans l’organisme animal et son association avec les protéines du foie.” [CA (1954) 48: 8966d-e.] [“The distribution of mescaline (labeled with radioactive carbon14 ) in the animal organism and its association with the proteins of the liver.”] [Should be written 14carbon] 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)a Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 290: 160–168. “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. I. Mitteilung. Fermentsuche und Ausscheidungsproduckte.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)b Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 290: 230–236 “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. II. Mitteilung. Verteilung der Radioaktivität in den Organen in Abhangigkeit von der Zeit.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Block, Wolfram et al. (1952)c Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift für physiologische Chemie, 291: 119–128. “Zur physiologie des 14C-radioaktiven Mescalins im Tierversuche. III. Mitteilung. Mescaline in bau in Leberprotein.” (Wolfram Block, Katarina Block & Bernh. Patzig) 

Blofeld, John (1966) Psychedelic Review, 7: 27–32. “A High Yogic Experience Achieved with Mescalin.”

Bloom, A.D. et al. (1970) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 66 (3): 920–927. “Chromosome Aberrations among the Yanamama Indians.” (Arthur D. Bloom, James V. Neel, Kyoo W. Choi, Shozo Iida & Napoleon Chagnon)

Bloom et al. (1973) Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics, 12: 175–186

Bloom et al. (1982) Beta-carbolines and Tetrahydroisoquinolines. Proceedings of a workshop held at the Salk Institute, La Jolla, California, December 12 and 13, 1981. Alan R. Liss, NY (Floyd Bloom, Jack Barchas, Merton Sandler & Earl Usdin)

Blossfeld, Harry (1946) Cactus & Succulent Journal, of America 18 (10): 153–155. “Field list of Blossfeld collections.”

Blum, K. et al. (1978) Alcoholism: Clin. Exp. Res. 2: 113–120. “Putative role of isoquinoline alkaloids in alcoholism: A link to opiates.” (K. Blum, M.G. Hamilton, M. Hirst & J.E. Wallace) 

Blum, K. (1980) “Alcohol and opiates: a review of common mechanisms.” pp. 71–90 in L. Manzo (ed.) Advances in Neurotoxicology, Pergamon, London.

Bobbitt, J.M. & C.P. Dutta (1969) J. Org. Chem. 34: 2001.

Bobbitt, J.M. & Tsu-Teh Chou (1959) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 24: 1106–1108. “Synthesis of Isoquinoline Alkaloids. I. Lophocerine.” 

Bobbitt et al. (1965) J. Org Chem 20: 2247 (synth)

Böchtold (in the literature) See as Bächtold

Bödecker (1928) Zeitscrift für Sukkulentenkunde, 3(11):229–230. [as Echinocactus schmiedickeanus]

Bodendorf, K. & P. Kloss (1961) Archiv der Pharmazie, 66: 654–661. “Über Abbau und Biogenese der Alkaloide Mesembrin und Mesembrenin.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Bodendorf, K. & W. Krieger (1957) Archiv der Pharmazie, 62: 441–448. “Über die Alkaloide von Mesembryanthemum tortuosum L.” See also Krieger 1956

Böhm, Hartmut (2008) Journal of the Professional Association for Cactus Development, 148–170. “ “Opuntia dillenii” – An Interesting and Promising Cactaceae Taxon.”

Boire, Richard Glen (ed.) The Entheogen Law Reporter. 

Boit, Hans G. (1961) Ergebnisse der Chemie bis 1960. Akademie-Verlag, Berlin

Boke, Norman H. & Edward F. Anderson (1970) American Journal of Botany, 57 (5): 569–578; “Structure, Development and Taxonomy in the Genus Lophophora.”

Bolland, A. (1911) Monatshefte für Chemie, 32: 117–131. “Mikrochemische Studien.” 

Bollhart, Thomas Benno (1985) “Nearika: Visionen der Huichol.” pp. 9–75 in Umgarnte Mythen. Völkerkundemuseum Freiburg.

Borch, R. & A.I. Hassid (1972) Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37: 1673–1674. “New method for the methylation of amines.”

Borg, John (1937) Cacti. A Gardener’s Handbook for Their Identification and Cultivation. First Edition. MacMillan and Co.: London.

Borg, John (1976) Cacti. A Gardener’s Handbook for Their Identification and Cultivation. Fourth Edition. Blandford Press. ISBN 0-7137-0132-3. [3rd ed. (enlarged) was in 1959.]

Borsy, J. et al. (1961) Acta Physiol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 19: 27–32.

Borsy, J. et al. (1964) International Journal of Neuropharmacology, 2 (6): 273–277. “Antimescaline properties of some lysergic acid derivatives.” (J. Borsy, Zs. Huszti & M. Fekete)

Borud, O. & L.R. Gjessing (1970) Clin. Chim. Acta, 27: 552

Bost, J. et al. (1965) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, (Société de Biologie Lyon. Séances des 21 Décembre 1964 et 18 Janvier 1965.] 159 (2): 403–406. “Influence de la réserpine sur l’action centrale de la mescaline: Potentialisation de l’excitation motrice chez la Souris.” (J. Bost, Y. Ruckebusch & M. Roche)

Bouerget, S. (1990) Boletín del Instituto Françés de Estudios Andinos. 19 (2): 45–58. “Caracoles sagrados en la iconografía Moche.”. (from Ott 1993)

Bouma, Marcel (1994) Kaktusy, 30 (2): 59–60. “Lophophora sp. nova od Rio Verde.”

Bourn, W.M. et al. (1978) Life Sciences, 23 (11): 1175–1184. “Psychoactivity of Normacromerine in animals”

Bovet, D. & F. Bovet-Nitti (1948) Médicaments du Système Nerveux Végétatif, p. 102. Bale: Karger [from Erspamer & Glässer 1960]

Boyd, Carolyn E. & J. Philip Deering (1996) Texas Archaic. Antiquity, 70: 256–275. “Medicinal and hallucinogenic plants identified in the sediments and pictographs of the Lower Pecos.” 

Boyer, L.B. et al. (1968) Shamanism and Peyote Use Among the Apaches of the Mescalero Indian Reservation. Paper presented at the Hallucinogens and Shamanism symposium at the annual meeting of the American Anthropological Association. (L. Bryce Boyer, Ruth M. Boyer & Harry W. Basehart) Published as pages 53–66, in Michael J. Harner (ed.) (1973) Hallucinogens and Shamanism. ISBN 0-19-501649-1. 

Braacca, Andrea B.J. & Teodoro S. Kaufman (2004) Tetrahedron 60 (47): 10575–10610. “Synthetic approaches to carnegine, a simple tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid.”

Bradley, C.A. et al. (1961) Journal of Neuropsychiatry 2: 175. 

Bradley, Richard (1989) Current Anthropology, 30 (1): 68–75. “Deaths and Entrances: A Contexual Analysis of Megalithic art.” 

Braga, D.L. & J.L. McLaughlin (1969) Planta Medica, 17 (1): 87–94. “Cactus alcaloids.[sic] V. Isolation of hordenine and N-methyltyramine from Ariocarpus retusus 

Braga, R. (1976) Plantas do Nordeste, Especialmente do Ceará. Escola Superior de Agricultura de Mossoró. Pages 210–211. [from da Silva & Parente 2002]

Brako, Lois & J. Zarrucchi (1993) Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru 

Brant, Charles S. (1950) Southwestern Journal of Anthropology Vol. 6. “Peyotism among Kiowa, Apache and Neighboring Tribes.”

Braun, U. et al. (1978) “Mescaline Analogs: Substitutions at the 4-Position.” (Ulrich Braun, Gisela Braun, Peyton Jacob III, David E. Nichols & Alexander T. Shulgin) pp. 27–37 in G. Barnett, M. Trsic, & R. Willette, (eds.) ‘QuaSAR’ Research Monograph 22, National Institute on Drug Abuse.

Bravo H., Helia (1931) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 2 (2): 117–126. “Cactaceas del Valle de Oaxaca.”

Bravo H., Helia (1932) Anales del Instituto de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional de México, 3 (1): 15–18. “Contribucion al Conocimiento de las Cactaceas de Mexico. Myrtillocactus grandiareolatus, sp. nov.”

Bravo Hollis, Helia (1937) Las Cactáceas de México. UNAM. Imprenta Universitaria. México. 755 pages. [First edition]

Bravo, H. (1967) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 12: 8–17. “Una revision del genero Lophophora.”

Bravo-Hollis, Helia (1978) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 1. (in collaboration with Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R.) [Second edition.]

Bravo, Helia & Don K. Cox (1958) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 3: 3–12. “Estudios Cactalógicos. Heliabravoa chende (Goss.) Backeberg”

Bravo-Hollis, Helia & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R. (1991a) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 2 

Bravo-Hollis, Helia & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada R. (1991b) Las Cactáceas de México. Volume 3 

Breese, G.V. et al. (1969) J. Pharm. Exptl. Ther. 165: 9–13. (G.V. Breese, T.N. Chase & I.J. Kopin)

Brenneisen, Rudolf & Hans-Jörg Helmlin 1993 “Lophophora” in Hager’s Handbuch der pharmazeutischen Praxis (5. Aufl.), Bd. 5: 707–712. Springer: Berlin.

Brickell, Christopher & Judith D. Zuk (eds.) (1996) The American Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, DK Publishing, Inc. ISBN 0-7894-1943-2.

Bridger, W.H. & I.J. Mandel (1967) Life Sciences, 6: 775–781. “The effect of dimethoxyphenylethylamine and mescaline on classical conditioning in rats as measured by the potentiated startle response”

Bridger, Wagner H. & W. Horsley Gantt (1956) American Journal of Psychiatry, 113 (4): 352–360. “The effect of mescaline on differentiated conditional reflexes.”

Brien, J.F. et al. (1983) Canadian Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology, 61 (6): 632–640. “Gas-liquid chromatographic determination of salsolinol in the striatum of rat brain during the calcium carbimide–ethanol interaction.” (J.F. Brien, P.J. Andrews, C.W. Loomis & J.A. Page)

Briggs, J.R. (1887) Medical Register, 1: 276–277. “Muscale buttons – Physiological action – Personal experiences.” 

Brimblecombe, Roger W. & Roger M. Pinder (1975) Hallucinogenic Agents. Bristol: Wright Scientific.

Brito, Silverster J. (1989) The Way of a Peyote Roadman. Peter Lang: New York.

Britton, H.T.S. & R.A. Robinson (1932) The Hydrogen Ion. Chapman and Hall, London.

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1913) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16: 239–242. “Studies in Cactaceae.”

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1913) Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 16 (9): 255-. “The genus Epiphyllum and its Allies.”

Britton, Nathaniel Lord & Joseph Nelson Rose (1919–1923) The Cactaceae. Descriptions and Illustrations of Plants of the Cactus Family. [The Carnegie Institute of Washington, Publication No. 248, Washington.]

Reprinted many times. Our information came from the 1937 reprint by Scott E. Haselton, Abbey San Encino Press, Pasadena, California. Also reprinted in 1977, with the four volumes bound as two volumes, by Dover, New York.

[1919:Vol. One; 1920: Vol. Two; 1922: Vol. Three; 1923: Vol. Four.]

Brock, Thomas D. & Michael T. Madigan’s (1991) Biology of Microorganisms, Sixth Edition. Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-083817-9.

Bromberg, W. & C.L. Tranter (1943) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 97: 518–527. “Peyote intoxication: some psychological aspects of peyote rite.”

Brooke, F.K. (1914) Report of the Thirty-Second Annual Lake Mohonk Conference on the Indian and Other Dependent Peoples 72–75. “Cooperation of State and Federal Authorities.”

Brossi, A. et al. (1964) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 47 (7): 2089–2098. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe Neue Synthesen der Kaktusalkaloide Anhalamin, Anhalidin, rac. Anhalonidin und rac. Pellotin” (A. Brossi, F. Schenker and W. Leimgruber)

Brossi, A. et al. (1965) Monatshefte für Chemie, 96: 25–36. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe: Zur Ätherspaltung 6,7,8-trimethoxy-substituierter Isochinol verbindungen mit wässeriger Salzsäure” (A. Brossi, M. Baumann and R. Borer)

Brossi, A. et al. (1966) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 49 (44): 403–411. “Synthesen in der Isochinolinreihe. Zur Darstellung 6,7,8,-Hydroxy-dimethoxy-substituierter 1,2,3,4-Tetrahydroisochinoline aus 3-Benzyloxy-4,5-dimethoxy-phenäthylamin und Bericht über die Resultate der pharmakologischen prüfung von Anhalamin, Anhalidin, rac. Anhalonidin und rac. Pellotin” (A. Brossi, F. Schenker, R. Schmidt, R. Banziger & W. Leimgruber)

Brossi, A. et al. (1971) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 93 (23): 6248-6252. “New Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Cactus Alkaloids” (Arnold Brossi, John F. Blount, Jay O’Brien and Sidney Teitel”

Broughton, I.B. & W.T. Hardy (1941) 54th Ann. Rep., Texas Agric. Exper. Stat. p. 1159. [from Clement et al. 1998).

Brown, F. et al. (1949) Journal of the Chemical Society (London), 1761–1766. “Cholla Gum.” (F. Brown, E.L. Hirst & J.K.N. Jones)

Brown, Joel H. (1996–1997) MAPS 7(1): 28–34. “Drug education and democracy [in]action.”

Brown, J.K. et al. (1972) Journal of Chromatography, 64: 129–133 “A Rapid Screening Procedure for some Street Drugs by TLC.” (J.K. Brown, L. Shapazian & G.D. Griffin)

Brown, John Kennedy & Marvin H. Malone (1978) Clinical Toxicology 12 (1): 1–31. “ “Legal Highs”- Constituents, Activity, Toxicology and Folklore.”

Brown, Robert E. (1968) (1975-4th edition) Guide to Preparation of the Eucharist. In a few of its many guises. (Linga Sharira Incense Company)

Brown, S.D. et al. (1968) Phytochemistry, 7 (11): 2031–2036. “Cactus Alkaloids.” (Stanley D. Brown, John L. Massingill, Jr. & Joe E. Hodgkins) 

Brown, S.D. et al. (1972)a Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37 (5): 773–775. “The isolation, structure, synthesis and absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid macromerine” (Stanley D. Brown, Joe E. Hodgkins & Manfred G. Reineke) 

Brown, S.D. et al. (1972)b Journal of Organic Chemistry, 37 (11): 1825–1828. “The isolation, structure, synthesis and absolute configuration of the cactus alkaloid gigantine” (Stanley D. Brown, J.E. Hodgkins, J.L. Massingil, Jr. & M.G. Reinecke)

Bruh & also Bruhh in the literature both refer to JG Bruhn 

Bruhn & Bruhn 1971, given in the literature, refers to Bruhn 1971a

Bruhn, Jan G. (1978) Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 23 (2): 27–35. “Tres Hombres y Una Droga: Investigaciones sobre el peyote en los Años 90.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1971)a Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas, 16 (3): 51–58, English summary 68–70. “Alcaloides en las Cactáceas.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1971)b Economic Botany, 25 (3): 320–329. “Carnegiea gigantea: The Saguaro and its Uses”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1973)a Cactáceas y Suculentas Mexicanas, 18 (1): 8–11, English summary 11–13. “Búsqueda Etnobotánica de Cactáceas Alucinógenas”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1973)b Planta Medica, 24 (4): 315–319. “Ethnobotanical Search for Hallucinogenic Cacti”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975) Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 3–38. See as Bruhn 1975a.

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975)a Doctoral thesis: Uppsala University. “Pharmacognistic studies of peyote and related psychoactive cacti.” ISBN 91-0554-0335-2. 38 pages. This document appears to be missing the contents of Bruhn’s actual doctoral thesis.  It is misleading if being presented as his doctoral thesis which actually includes the work that was published in several other papers.

Bruhn, Jan G. (1975)b Phytochemistry, 14: 2509–2510. “Phenethylamines of Ariocarpus scapharostrus.”

Bruhn, Jan G. (1976) Cactus and Succulent Society Journal 48: 115–118: “Early Records of Lophophora diffusa.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1974) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 63 (4): 574–576. “Cactaceae alkaloids. XVIII. Two new alkaloids from Coryphantha calipensis H. Bravo” 

Bruhn, Jan G. & Stig Agurell (1975) Phytochemistry, 14: 1442–1443. “O-Methylpellotine, a new peyote alkaloid from Lophophora diffusa.” 

Bruhn, Jan G. & Catarina Bruhn (1973) Economic Botany, 27 (2): 241-251 “Alkaloids and Ethnobotany of Mexican Peyote Cacti and Related Species.” [Nice anthropological review of other sacred cacti. Their chemical analysis did not include any quaternary or neutral compounds. This work is commonly mistakenly presented as providing evidence for the psychoactivity of N-Me-DMPEA.]

Bruhn, Jan G. & Peter A.G.M. DeSmet (2003) HerbalGram 58: 30–33. “Ceremonial Peyote Use and its Antiquity in the Southern United States.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Bo Holmstedt (1974) Economic Botany, 28 (4): 353–390. “Early Peyote Research. An Interdisciplinary Study.”

Bruhn, J. G. & J. Lindgren (1976) Lloydia, 39 (1-2):175–177. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. XXIII. Alkaloids of Pachycereus pecten-aboriginum and Cereus jamacaru.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Jan Lundström (1976)a American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 40: 159–160. “A Student Experiment in Pharmacognosy: Biosynthesis of Mescaline in the Cactus Trichocereus pachanoi.”

Bruhn, Jan G. & Jan Lundström (1976)b Lloydia, 39 (4): 197–203. “Alkaloids of Carnegiea gigantea. Arizonine,
a New Tetrahydroisoquinoline Alkaloid.”
Concerning our math-work for Bruhn & Lundström 1976b: 15 kg of fresh cactus yielded 32 grams of alkaloids. 80% was nonphenolic and 20% was phenolic. When purifying these fractions they only used 1 gram of the nonphenolic and 0.5 grams of the phenolic fractions. The amounts listed in their account is what was obtained from these aliquots rather than totals. For all compounds except dopamine the yields were calculated, by kt, as if they had used all of their product and then recalculated them in terms of their free bases (Alkaloids were obtained as the hydrochloride salts in all cases except for Arizonine)

Bruhn, Jan G. & Hernando Sánchez-Mejorada (1977) Phytochemistry, 16: 622–623. “Phenethylamines From Echinocereus cinerascens and Pilocereus chrysacanthus

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1970) Acta Chemica Scandinavica, 24 (10): 3775–3777. “Biosynthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines in Carnegiea gigantea Br. and R.” (Jan G. Bruhn, Ulla Svensson & Stig Agurell)

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1975) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 12 (2): 199–204. “Cactaceae Alkaloids. XXI. Phenethylamine Alkaloids of Coryphantha Species” (Jan G. Bruhn, Stig Agurell & Jan-Erik Lindgren)

Bruhn et al. (1976) Lloydia, 39: 175 in the literature refers to Bruhn & Lindgren 1976.

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (1978) Science, 199: 1437–1438. “Peyote alkaloids: Identification in a Prehistoric Specimen of Lophophora from Coahuila, Mexico.”

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (2002) Lancet (correspondence) 359 (9320): 1866–1866. “Mescaline use for 5700 years.” (Jan G Bruhn, Peter A G M De Smet, Hesham R El-Seedi & Olof Beck) [Amazingly neither Bruhn nor any of his coworkers spotted the fact that their material was a manufactured effigy of a peyote crown and not a dried peyote button. See Terry et al. 2006 for details and images]

Bruhn, Jan G. et al. (2008) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 40 (2 ): 219–222. “Ecstacy analogues found in cacti.” (Jan G. Bruhn, Hesham R. El-Seedi, Nikolai Stephanson, Olof Beck & Alexander T. Shulgin) [In a personal conversation in 2009, Sasha expressed his extreme embarassment to have been included as an author for such poor quality work.]

Buchanan, Douglas N. (1929) British Journal of Medical Psychology, 9: 67–88, with discussion pp. 89–92. “Meskalinrausch.” 

Buchanan, Douglas N. (1931) Medical Annual, 1931: 12.

Buck, J. S. (1930) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 52: 4119–4122. “Synthesis of iodal and epinine.”

Buck, J.S. (1933)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 55: 2593–2597. “Catalytic Reduction of Mandelonitriles.”

Buck, J.S. (1933)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 55: 3388–3390. “Reduction of Hydroxymandelonitriles. A New Synthesis of Tyramine.”

Buck, J.S. (1934) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 56: 1769–1771. “Some substituted tetrahydroisoquinoline hydrochlorides.”

Buckholtz, N.S. et al. (1990) Neuropsychopharmacology, 3(2): 137–148. “Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) administration selectively downregulates serotonin2 receptors inthe rat brain.” (N.S. Buckholtz, D.F. Zhou, D.X. Freedman & W.Z. Potter)

Buelow, D.W. & O. Gisvold (1944) J. Am. Pharm. Ass. 33: 270.

Bullis, Ronald K. (1990) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 22 (3): 325–332. Swallowing the Scroll: Legal Implications of the Recent Supreme Court Peyote Cases”

Burke, J.C. & A.R. McIntyre (1938) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 64: 465.

Burkill, J.D. (1966) A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Art Printing Works. [from Aardvark 2006 and Duke]

Burt-Davy, J. (1913) Agricultural Journal of the Union of South Africa 6: 66. (From Watt 1967)

Buscaino, V. (1949) Gazzetta Sanitaria, 20: 417. [From Turner & Heyman]

Bussmann, Rainer W. & Douglas Sharon (2006) Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 44-55? “Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador.” (The available copy online of this 11 page article does not include the actual page numbers.)

Bussmann, Rainer W. & Douglas Sharon (2006) Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2: 47-65? “Traditional medicinal plant use in Northern Peru: tracking two thousand years of healing culture.” [The available online copy of this 18 page article does not include the actual page numbers.)

Butera, D. et al. (2002) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 50 (23): 6895–6901. “Antioxidant activities of sicilian prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin.” (Daniela Butera, Luisa Tesoriere, Francesca Di Gaudio, Antonino Bongiorno, Mario Allegra, Anna Maria Pintaudi, Rohn Kohen & Maria A. Livrea)

Butler, George F. (1908) The American Journal of Clinical Medicine, 15: 1043–1056. “A Study of Cactus grandiflorus. A demonstration of the fact that theoretical pharmacology and practical clinical experience do not always agree. A presentation of the case for the latter.”

Bwititi, P.T. et al. (2001) Renal Failure, 23 (2): 149–158. “Effects of Opuntia megacantha leaves extract on renal electrolyte and fluid handling in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats.” (P.T. Bwititi, T. Machakaire, C.B. Nhachi, & C.T. Musabayane)

Bwititi, P. et al. (2000) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 69: 247–252. “Effects of Opuntia megacantha on blood glucose and kidney functions in streptozotocin diabetic rats.” (P. Bwititi, C.T. Musabayane & C.F.B. Nhachi)

Byarlay, Patricia (ed.) The Peyote Awareness Journal later as Peyote: A Medicine Journal.

Bye, Robert A., Jr. (1979) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 1: 28–48. “Hallucinogenic Plants of the Tarahumara”

Bygdeman, S. (1960) Ark. Kemi. 16: 247.

Cacti_etc archives: http://www2.labs.agilent.com/bot/cactus_home. Early references on Selenicereus from the 1800s onward can be found in CACTI_ETC Digest 4521.

Cai, Y.Z. et al. (2006) Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 54 (18): 6520–6526. “Rapid identification of betacyanins from Amaranthus tricolor, Gomphrena globosa, and Hylocereus polyrhizus by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-QIT-TOF MS).” (Y.Z. Cai, J. Xing, M. Sun & H. Corke)

Calderón, Eduardo & Douglas Sharon (1978) Terapia de la Curanderia. Edigraf-Trujillo. (Discusses modern use in healing and philosophy. Discusses other herbs pp. 59–67.)

Calderón, Eduardo et al. (1982) Eduardo el Curandero: The words of a Peruvian Healer. North Atlantic Books & Society for the Study of Native Arts & Sciences, Richmond, CA.

Caldwell, Roger Lee (1966) PhD Dissertation; University of Arizona. “A Biochemical Investigation of Callus Tissue in the Saguaro Cactus (Carnegiea Gigantea (Engelm.) Britt. & Rose).”

Callaway, Jace C. (1995) Eleusis, 1: 4–10. “Ayahuasca, Now and Then.”

Camilla, Giberto (1998) “Cactus Mescalinici.” pages 83–91 in Altrove #5. [Very general overview of mescaline containing and other psychoactive cacti.]

Camino, Alejandro (1992) Takiwasi 1 (1): 99–109. “El Peyote: Derecho histórico de los pueblos indios.”

Camisaca, L. (1949) Oto-rino-laringologia italiana 18: 90–107. “L’azione della mescalina sull’-apparato vestibolare.”

Camp, Bennie J. & Carl M. Lyman (1956) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition 45 (11): 719–721. “The Isolation of N-Methyl beta-Phenethylamine from Acacia berlandieri.”

Camp, Bennie J. & Carl M. Lyman (1957) The Southwestern Veterinarian 10: 133. [Have not yet obtained a copy.]

Camp, Bennie J. & Michael J. Norvell (1966) Economic Botany, 20 (3): 274–278. “The Phenethylamine Alkaloids of Native Range Plants.”

Camp, Bennie J. and Joan A. Moore (1960) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, Scientific Edition. 49 (3): 158–160. “A Quantitative Method for the Alkaloid of Acacia berlandieri.”

Camp, B.J. et al.(1964) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 111 (2): 744–750. (Bennie J. Camp, Ray Adams and J.W. Dollahite) “The Chemistry of the Toxic Constituents of Acacia berlandieri.”

Campbell, Carolyn E. & Henry W. Kircher (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2777–2779. “Senita Cactus: A Plant With Interrupted Sterol Biosynthetic Pathways.”

Campbell, C.J. et al. (1946) Federation Proceedings, 5: 15. “Sodium succinates as an analeptic in man.” [Paper presenteed to the American Physiological Society, 55th annual meeting Atlantic City, NJ, Mar. 11–15, 1946.] (C.J. Campbell, J.P. Males & R.H. Bennet)

Campbell, Thomas N. (1947) The Texas Journal of Science, 9: 7–25. “The Fields shelter: an archeological site in Edwards County, Texas.”

Campbell, Thomas N. (1958) American Anthropologist, 60 (1): 156–160. “Origin of the Mescal Bean Cult.”

Camus, L. (1906)a Archives internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 16: 43. “Étude physiologique du sulfate d’hordénine” (from Kapadia & Fayez 1970)

Camus (1906)b Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 110–113. “L’hordénine, son degré de toxicité, symptômes de l’intoxication”

Camus (1906)c Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 237–239. “Action du sulfate d’hordénine sur la circulation”

Camus (1906)d Comptes Rendus Hebdomaries des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences, 142: 350–352. “Action du sulfate d’hordénine sur les ferments solubles et sur les microbes.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1983) Boletín de Lima, 5 (26): 13–28. “El Obelisco Tello de Chavin.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1985) Boletín de Lima, 7 (37): 38–44. “Problemas Arqueológicos e Iconográficos-Enfoques Nuevos.”

Cané, Ralph E. (1988) Boletín de Lima, 10 (56): 35–40. “Alucinógenos utilizados en la región andina prehispánica.”

Canestrini, D. (1993) Airone, 144: 66–77. “Un peyote, e poi perdeersi fra mille colori.”

Cannell, Richard J.P. (ed.) (1998) Natural Products Isolation (Methods in Biotechnology 4) Humana Press: Totowa, NJ 473 pages ISBN 0-89603–362-7

Capps, T.M. et al. (1977) Journal of the Chemical Society, Perkins Transactions II, 8: 1098–1104. “Sceletium Alkaloids. Part 7. Structure and Absolute Stereochemistry of (-)-Mesembrane and 3’-Methoxy-4’-O-methyljoubertiamine, Two Minor Bases from S. Namaquense L. Bolus: X-Ray Analysis of (-)-Mesembrane Hydrochloride Monohydrate.” (Thomas M. Capps, Karl D. Hargrave, Peter W. Jeffs & Andrew T. McPhail)

Cárdenas, Martín (1953) Revista de Agricultura (Cochabamba) 11 (8): 15–19 (plus three unnumbered pages with illustrations and/or photographs). “Notas Cactológicas de Bolivia. Dos Trichocereus Nuevos.”

Cardinale, G.J. (1987) Life Sciences 40: 301–306. “Morphine and Codeine are Endogenous Components of Human Cerebrospinal Fluid.” (George J. Cardinale, Josef Donnerer, A. Donald Finck, Joel D. Kantrowitz, Kazuhiro Oka & Sydney Spector)

Carling, C. & F. Sandberg (1970) Acta Pharmaceutica Suecica, 7 (3): 285–288. “Alkaloids of Haloxylon articulatum.” [See also 1970 CA 73: 63154f,]

Carlini, E.A. et al. (1965) Experientia, 21 (2): 72–73. “Potentiation of Histamine and Inhibition of Diamine Oxidase by Mescaline.” (E.A. Carlini, M. Santos & M.R.P. Sampaio)

Carlini, E.A. et al. (1967) Med. Pharmacol. Exp. 17: 534–542. “Effects of chronic administration of β-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine and β-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine on the climbing rope performance of rats.” (E.A. Carlini, M.T.A. Silva, L.C. Cesare & R.M. Endo) 

Carlsson, A. & M. Lindquist (1962) Acta Physiol. Scand. 54: 83.

Cashaw, J.L. et al. (1974) Journal of Chromatography, 99: 567–573. “Identification of catecholamine-derived alkaloids in mammals by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.” (J.L. Cashaw, K.D. McMurtry, H. Brown & V.E. Davis)

Casillas Romo, Armando (1990) Nosologia mítica de un pueblo: Medicina tradicional huichola. Editorial Universidad de Guadalajara: Guadalajara.

Castellanos-Santiago E & E.M. Yahia (2008) Journal of
Agricultural & Food Chemistry
, 56 (14): 5758–5764.
“Identification and quantification of betalains from the fruits of 10 mexican prickly pear cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.”

Castellar, R. et al. (2003) Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51 (9): 2772–2776. “Color Properties and Stability of Betacyanins from Opuntia Fruits.” (Rosario Castellar, José M. Obón, Mercedes Alacid & José A. Fernández-López)

Castellar, R. et al. (2006) Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 86: 122–128. “The isolation and properties of a concentrated red-purple betacyanin food colourant from Opuntia stricta fruits.” (R. Castellar, J.M. Obón & J.A. Fernández-López)

Castetter, Edward F. (1935) The University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biological Series, 4 (1): 160–220. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest I. Uncultivated Native Plants Used as Sources of Food.”

Castetter, Edward P. & Morris Edward Opler (1936) University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biological Series. 297: 85–88. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest. III. The Ethnobiology of the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache. A. The Use of Plants for Foods, Beverages and Narcotics.” [In Castetter, Edward P. & Morris E. Opler (1936) The University of New Mexico Bulletin, 297: 85–155. “The Ethnobiology of the Chiricahua and Mescalero Apache.”]

Castetter, Edward F. & Ruth Underhill (1935) University of New Mexico Bulletin. Biology Series, 4 (5): 3–84. “Ethnobiological Studies in the American Southwest. II. The Ethnobiology of the Papago Indians.”

Castrillón, José A. (1950) Thesis, Buenos Aires University. [from Reti 1954]

Castrillón, José A (1952) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 74: 558–559. “Cactus Alkaloids. I. Condensation of Mescaline with Formaldehyde by the Eschweiler-Clarke Reaction.” [An interesting reaction in a failed attempt to produce trichocereine.]

Cattell, James P. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 119 (3): 233–244. “Influence of Mescaline on Psychodynamic Material.”

Caycho Jimenez, Abraham (1977) Folklore Americana, 23: 89–100. “Folklore médico y fitoalucinismo en el Perú.”

Caycho Jimenez, Abraham (1979) Folklore Americana, 28: 159–161. “Sistemática nosográfica del folklore médico en el Perú.”

Ceroni, Luigi (1932) Rivista Sperimentale Freniatria, 56: 42–104. “L’intossicazione mescalinica (Autoesperienze).”

CESAR (University of Maryland Center for Substance Abuse Research.) (2006) Peyote.

Céspedes, C.L. et al. (2005) Phytochemistry, 66 (20): 2481-2493. “Insect growth regulatory effects of some extracts and sterols from Myrtillocactus geometrizans (Cactaceae) against Spodoptera frugiperda and Tenebrio molitor.” (Carlos L. Céspedes, J. Rodrigo Salazar, Mariano Martínez & Eduardo Aranda)

Chachoyan, A.A. et al. (1973) Biol. Zh. Arm. 25: 102. [Chemical Abstracts (1973) 78:52538m] (A.A. Chacoyan, B.T. Garibdzhanyan & E.Z. Markaryan) [from Strombom & Bruhn 1978]

Chalet, Jean Marc (1980)a Cactaceas y Succulentas Mexicanas, 25: 75–92. “Los Alcaloides de las Cactáceas.”

Chang Po-tuan (translated by Thomas Cleary) (1987) Understanding Reality. A Taoist Alchemical Classic. With a Concise Commentary by Liu I-Ming [A translation of the Chinese 12th century classic; Wu Chen P’ien] University of Hawaii Press: Honolulu. ISBN 0-8248-1139-7.

Chang, C. et al. (1974) Phytochemistry, 13: 2771-2775. “Biogenesis of Betalamic Acid.” (Christina Chang, Linda Kimler & Tom. J. Mabry)

Chang, C.-S. et al. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4081–4084. “A new synthesis of hordenine and other p-dialkylaminoethylphenols and some of their derivatives.”

Chang, S.-F. et al. (2008) Food Chemistry, 106: 569–575. “The protective effect of Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit against low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and its active compounds.” (S.-F. Chang, C.-L. Hsieh & G.-C. Yen)

Chapman, N.B. et al. (1965) Proceedings of the Royal Society London, Ser. B, Biological Sciences, 163 (990): 116–135. “The synthesis, reactivity, and pharmacological properties of some substituted N N-dimethyl-2-halogeno-2-phenylethylamines, and related compounds.” (N.B. Chapman, K. Clarke & R.D. Strickland)

Charalampous, K.D. & L.W. Tansey (1967) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 155: 318–329. “Metabolic fate of beta-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)- ethylamine in man.“

Charalampous, K. D. et al. (1964) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 145 (2): 242–246. “Metabolic Fate of β-(3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenyl)-ethylamine (Mescaline) in Humans: Isolation and Identification of 3,4,5-Trimethoxyphenylacetic Acid.” (K.D. Charalampous, Antonio Orengo, K.E. Walker & John Kinross-Wright)

Charalampous, K. D. et al. (1966) Psychopharmacologia, 9: 48-63. “Metabolic Fate of Mescaline in Man.” (K.D. Charalampous, K.E. Walker & John Kinross-Wright)

Chatterjee, A. et al. (1976) Tetrahedron 32: 3051–3053. “Lewis Acid Catalyzed Rearrangement of Triterpenoids.” (A.S. Chatterjee, S. Mukhopadhyay & K. Chattopadhyay)

Chaumerliac & Roche (1948) Bulletin de la société d’ophtalmologie de Paris. 800–802. “Un vasodilateur inattendu, la mescaline.” [CA (1952) 46: 2191a] [“An unexpected vasodilator, mescaline.”]

Chen, C. et al. (1999) Zhong Yao Cai, 22 (11): 581–583. [Studies of Echinopsis multiplex on antineoplastic effects.] (Article is in Chinese. (C. Chen, R. Jin, Z. Sun & H. Zhang) (From PubMed)

Chen, C.R et al. (1974) Lloydia, 37 (3): 493–500. “A phytochemical study of Doryphora sassafras. II. Isolation of eleven crystalline alkaloids from the bark.“ (C.R. Chen, J.L. Beal, R.W. Doskotch, L.A. Mitscher & G.H. Svoboda)

Chen, K.K. & A.Ling Chen (1933) Journal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 49: 503–513. “The poisonous secretions of twelve species of toads.”

Chen, K.K. & A.Ling Chen (1933b) Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 22 (9): 813–819. “The pharmacological action of ten amines related to ephedrine and tryptamine.”

Chen, K.K. et al. (1931) J. Pharmacol. Exptl. Therap. 43: 13. (K.K. Chen, H. Jensen, and A.L. Chen) [From Deulofeu & Rúveda 1971]

Chen, F. et al. (2012) Proceedings of the National Academy of the Sciences U S A. 109 (5): 1772–1777. “A polymer of caffeyl alcohol in plant seeds.” (Fang Chen, Yuki Tobimatsu, Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Richard A. Dixon & John Ralph)

Chen, I.S. et al. (1995) Phytochemistry, 40 (3): 983–986. “Alkaloids from Hernandia sonora.” (Ih-Sheng Chen, Jih-Jung Chen and Ian-Lih Tsai) [Appears in PubMed as Ih-Sheng, C. et al.] 

Chen, J. et al. (2003) Journal of Chromatography, A, 1003: 127–132. “Determination of noradrenaline and dopamine in Chinese herbal extracts from Portulaca oleracea L. by high-performance liquid chromatography.” (Juan Chen, Yan-Ping Shi & Jing-Yan Liu)

Chen, S.-B. & H.-M. Meng (1997) Pharmacol. Clin. Chin. Mater. Med. 13: 36–37. [Study on Anti-Lipid Peroxidation of Opuntia dillenii Haw] in Chinese with English Abstr..

Chen, X.P. & X. Zhao (1998) Chin. J. Tradition. Med. Sci. Technol. 5: 335–336. [The progress on pharmacological action of Opuntia dillenii study] in Chinese

Cheng, C.-S. et al. (1951) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 73: 4081–4084. “A New Synthesis of Hordenine and Other p-Dialkylaminoethylphenols and Some of Their Derivatives” (Chao-Shing Cheng, Claus Ferber, Raymond I. Bashford, Jr. & Gerald F. Grillot)

Cherayil, George D. (1973) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 62 (12): 2054–2055. “N-dimethylation of β-phenylethylamine derivatives.”

Chevalier, A. (1946) Comptes Rendus de l’Academie des Sciences 223: 767–769. “Le Sata mbwanda racine stimulante et aphrodisiaque employée par les Noirs du Gabon et son identification botanique.”

Chevalier, A. (1947) Revue de Botanique Appliquée, 27: 104–109. “Les Mostuea africains et leurs propriétés stimulantes.” [From DeSmet 1996]

Chevon, G. (1931) Journal de la Sociétè des Africanistes, 1: 285–289. “Le Dyidé.”

Chin, K.C. et al. (1962) Sheng Li Hsueh Pao, 25 (3): 182–190. [CA (1963) 59: 13249g-h.] [“Pharmacologic actions of tetrahydroberberine on the central nervous system.”] (Kuo-Chang Chin, Hsin-Ying Chu, Hsi-Ts’an T’ang & Pin Hsu)

Cho, J.Y, et al. (2006) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 58 (1): 113–119. “Radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Opuntia humifusa Raf.” (J.Y. Cho, S.C. Park, T.W. Kim, K.S. Kim, J.C. Song, S.K. Kim, H.M. Lee, H.J. Sung, H.J. Park, Y.B. Song, E.S. Yoo, C.H. Lee & MH Rhee)

Cholden, L. (ed.) (1956) Lysergic acid diethylamide and Mescaline in Experimental Psychiatry. New York & London: Grune & Stratton, 1956.

Chomcheon, P. et al. (2005) Journal of Natural Products, 68: 1103–1105. “3-Nitropropionic Acid (3-NPA), a Potent Antimycobacterial Agent from Endophytic Fungi: Is 3-NPA in Some Plants Produced by Endophytes?” (Porntep Chomcheon, Suthep Wiyakrutta, Nongluksna Sriubolmas, Nattaya Ngamrojanavanich, Duangnate Isarangkul & Prasat Kittakoop)

Chopra, I.C. et al. (1960) “With Particular Reference to the Botanical Aspects” in: Medicinal Plants of the Arid Zones. Arid Zone Research Publication No. 13. Paris: UNESCO 1960. (p. 42) (I.C. Chopra, B.K. Abrol & K.L. Handa) [From Anderson 1980]

Choudhury, A.M. (1971) Chemistry and Industry, 578. “Total Synthesis of (±)-Gigantine and its O-Methyl Ether.”

Choulis, N.H. (1967) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences.. 56 (2): 196–199. “Separation and Quantitative Determination of Adrenaline using Thin-Layer Chromatography”

Chow, S.Y. et al. (1977) Taiwan Yi Xue Hui Za Zhi (Journal of the Formosan Medical Association), 76 (12): 916–925. . [Pharmacological studies of Chinese herbs (6): Pharmacological effects of Epiphyllum oxypetalum Haw.] (article is in Chinese) (S.Y. Chow, C.F. Chen & S.M. Chen) [from Aardvark 2006]

Christenson, James G. et al. (1972) Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 69 (2): 343–347. “On the Identity of DOPA Decarboxylase and 5-Hydroxytryptophan Decarboxylase.” [With Wallace Dairman and Sidney Udenfriend]

Christiansen, A. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 136: 31–37. “Changes in spider webs brought about by mescaline, psilocybin and an increase in body weight.” (Arnold Christiansen, Ricarda Baum & Peter N. Witt)

Church, A.C. et al. (1976) Psychopharmacology 47: 49–52. “Salsolinol differentially affects mice selected for sensitivity to alcohol.” (A.C. Church, J.L. Fuller & B.C. Dudek)

Church, A.C. et al. (1977) Drug & Alcohol Dependency, 2: 443–452. “Behavioral effects of salsolinol and ethanol on mice selected for sensitivity to alcohol-induced sleep time.” (A.C. Church, J.L. Fuller & B.C. Dudek)

Chweitzer, A. & E. Geblewicz (1938) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 128: 867–868. “L’action de la mescaline sur la coloration du Cyprin bronzé.”

Chweitzer, A. et al. (1936) L’Année psychologique (Paris) 37: 94–119. “Étude de l’Électroencéphalogramme Humain dans un cas D’Intoxication Mescalinique.” (A. Chweitzer, E. Geblewicz & W. Liberson)

Chweitzer, A. et al. (1937) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 124:1296–1299. “Action de la mescaline sur les ondes α (rythme de Berger) chez l’homme.” (A. Chweitzer, E. Geblewicz & W. Liberson)

Ciaranello, RD. et al. (1969) Nature, 221 (5178): 368–369.  “Enzymatic synthesis of adrenaline in mammalian brain.” (R.D. Ciaranello, R.E. Barchas, G.S. Byers, D.W. Stemmle & J.D. Barchas)

Cjuno. M. et al. (2007) Quepo,  21: 32–38. “Estudio del Echinopsis schoenii.” (Mijail Cjuno, Jorge Choquenaira & Carlos Serrano)

Cjuno, M. et al. (2009) Quepo,  23: 38–45. “El género Trichocereus, Ecología y Contenido Mescalínico.” (Mijail Cjuno, Jorge Choquenaira, Policarpo Quispe, Carlos Serrano & Ciro Tomaylla)

Clark, L.C. et al. (1954) Federation Proceedings. Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 13 (1): 27, entry # 87. “Effect of mescaline, lysergic acid diethylamide, and related compounds on respiratory enzyme activity of brain homogenates.” [Abstract of a paper presented to the American Physiological Society: 72nd meeting; Atlantic City, New Jersey, April 12–16, 1954.] (L.C. Clark, Jr., R.P. Fox, F. Benington and R. Morin.)

Clark, L.C. et al. (1964) Alabama Journal of Medical Sciences. 1: 417

Clark, L.C. et al. (1965) Journal of Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry, 8 (3): 353–355. “The Effects of Ring-Methoxyl Groups on Biological Deamination of Phenethylamines.” (Leland C. Clark Jr., Frederick Benington & Richard D. Morin)

Clark, W. Dennis & Bruce D. Parfitt (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 1856–1857. “Flower Flavonoids of Opuntia Series Opuntiae.”

Clark, W.D. et al. (1980) Phytochemistry, 19: 2042–2043. “Flower Flavonoids of Opuntia Subgenus Cylindropuntia.” (W. Dennis Clark, G.K. Brown & R.L. Mays)

Clarke, E.G.C. (1957) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 9 (3): 187–192. “Microchemical identification of some less common alkaloids.”

Clarke, E.G.C. (ed.) (1969) Isolation and Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Post-Mortem Materials. London: The Pharmaceutical Press.

Clarke’s Isolation and Identification of Drugs in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Post-Mortem Materials. Second Edition. London: The Pharmaceutical Press (1986) [Posthumous revision of Clarke’s classic.]

Clarke, E.C.G. & M. Williams (1955) Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 7: 255–262. “Microchemical Tests for the Identification of Alkaloids.”

Clarke, John Henry (1900) A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica, Volume 1, Homoeopathic Publishing Company.

Clarke, John Henry (2005) A Dictionary of Practical
Materia Medica
, Volumes 1-3, South Asia Books, ISBN-10 8131902617, ISBN-13 9788131902615, 2616 pages.
Also was reprinted in 1986 as: A Dictionary of Practical Materia Medica, 3 volumes. Jain Publishers. ISBN-10 8170210135, ISBN-13 9788170210139. 736 pages

Claude, Henri & Henri Ey (1934) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 115: 838–841. “La Mescaline, substance hallucinogène.”

Clavijero, Francisco Javier (1789) Historia de la antigua ó Baja California, Four Volumes. Venice. Reprinted in 1852 by Impr. de J.R. Navarro (México) and in 1970 by Miguel Leon-Portilla (México).

Clayson, David B. (1949) Journal of the Chemical Society, 2016–2019. “Reduction of cotarnine and certain derivatives thereof.”

Clement, B.A. et al. (1997) Phytochemistry, 46 (2): 249–254. “Toxic Amines and Alkaloids From Acacia berlandieri,” (Beverly A. Clement, Christina M. Goff & David A. Forbes) [Paper needs to be regarded with reservations until answers are forthcoming about problems concerning their purported reference standards.]

Clement, B.A. et al. (1998) Phytochemistry, 49 (5): 1377–1380. “Toxic Amines and Alkaloids from Acacia rigidula.” (Beverly A. Clement, Christina M. Goff & David A. Forbes) [Paper needs to be regarded with reservations until answers are forthcoming about problems concerning their purported reference standards.]

Clemente, Emmett & Vincent de Paul Lynch (1968) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 57 (1): 72–78. “In Vitro Action of Mescaline. Possible Mode of Action.”

Clerc, A. et al. (1935) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées 119: 828–830. “Etude expérimentale du chlorohydrate de peyotline.” (A. Clerc, M.-M. Janot & R. Paris)

Clerc, A. et al. (1936) Comptes Rendus Hebdomaires des Séances et Mémoires de la Sociéte de Biologie et de ses Filiales et Associées 121: 1300–1302. “Contribution à l’étude experimentale du sulfate de mescaline.” (A. Clerc, R. Paris & M.-M. Janot)

Cobo, Barnabé (1653) Historia del Nuevo Mundo 1 (Book 5): pages 450–451: Comments on Huachuma.

Cobo, Father Bernabe (1956) “ ‘Historia del Nuevo Mundo.’ Obras del. P. Bernabe Cobo”, Vols. 1 and 2, Edited by P. Francisco Mateo. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Vol. 91 and 92. [Vol. 91, Page 205] [Also in 1964 Madrid: Ediciones Atlas.] [From Sharon 1978 & Polia] Also 4 volumes published 1890–1893 Seville; [from LaBarre] Written 1653.

Cobo, Father Bernabe (1956) “ ‘Historia del Nuevo Mundo.’ Obras del. P. Bernabe Cobo”, Vols. 1 and 2, Edited by P. Francisco Mateo. Biblioteca de Autores Españoles, Vol. 91 and 92. [Vol. 91, Page 205] [Also in 1964 Madrid: Ediciones Atlas.] [From Sharon 1978 & Polia] Also 4 volumes published 1890–1893 Seville; [from LaBarre] Written in 1653.

Cobo, Fr. Bernabe (1891–1893) Historia del Nuevo Mundo. Seville [from Yacovleff & Herrrera 1935]

Coch Frugoni, Juan A. (1956? 1958?) Anales. Facultad de Química. [y farmacia (?)], Universidad de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, in press] [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [From CA (1959) 53: 1633c which gives as Anales fac. quím. y farm, Univ. rep. oriental Uruguay.] Given by Marini-Bettòlo and Coch-Frugoni (1956) as (1956) Anal. Fac. Chim. y Farm. (Montevideo) 5: (in press). [Also in CA (1958) 52: 653c as “in press”] Unable to locate the specifics of when this was published. J.A. Coch Frugoni published a handful of papers during the next few years (several in the Journal of Chromatography,) but this one has not been found anywhere (so far). [For those who wish to pursue this, CITES lists him as J.A.C. Frugoni.]

Coch Frugoni, Juan A. (1956?) Anales. Facultad de Química. [y farmacia (?)], Universidad de la Republica Oriental del Uruguay, in press] [“The influence of pH on the electrophoretic separation of alkaloids on paper.”] [From 1959 CA 53: 1633c which gives as Anales fac. quím. y farm, Univ. rep. oriental Uruguay. ] Given by Marini-Bettòlo & Coch-Frugoni 1956 as (1956) Anal. Fac. Chim. y Farm. (Montevideo) 5: (in press). [Also in 1958 CA 52: 653c as being “in press” ]

Cochin, J. et al. (1951) Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 101 (2): 205–209. “The absorption, distribution and urinary excretion of mescaline in the dog.” [J. Cochin, L.A. Woods and M.H. Seevers]

Cocolas, G.H. et al. (1971) Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 60 (11): 1749–1752. “Preparation and activity of -substituted acetylcholine iodides.” (G.H. Cocolas, E.L. Robinson, W.L. Dewey & T.C. Spaulding)

Coe, Michael D. & Gordon Whittaker (1982) Aztec Sorcerers in Seventeenth Century Mexico. The Treatise on Superstitions by Hernando Ruiz de Alarcón. “First Tract. Chapter 6. “Of the Superstition of the Ololiuqui.”

Cohen, G. & M.A. Collins (1970) Science, 167: 1749–1751. “Alkaloids from catecholamines in adrenal tissue: Possible role in alcoholism.”

Cohen, I. & W.H. Vogel (1970) Experientia, 26/11: 1231–1232. “An assay Procedure for Mescaline and its Determination in Rat Brain, Liver and Plasma.”

Cohen, M.M. et al. (1967) New England Journal of Medicine, 227: 1043. “In vivo and in vitro chromosomal damage induced by LSD-25.” (M.M. Cohen, K. Horshhorn & W.A. Frosch) [Claimed damage]

Cohen, M.M. et al. (1968) Science, 155: 1417. “Chromosomal
damage in human leukocytes induced by lysergic acid
diethylamide.” (M.M. Cohen, M. Marinello & N. Bach) [Claimed damage]

Cohen, S. et al. (eds.) (1985) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 17 (4): [Whole issue] “LSD in retrospect.” (S. Cohen, S. Krippner, E.L. Zerkin & J.H. Novey) [Social and clinical review]

Colasanti, B. & N. Khazan (1975) Psychopharmacologia, 43 (3): 201-205. “Electroencephalographic studies on the development of tolerance and cross tolerance to mescaline in the rat.”

Cole, D.T. (1995) Setswana – Animals and Plants. Botswana Society: Gaborone. [From Hargreaves 1998]

Cole, L.K. et al. (1975) Mycologia, 67: 701–708. “Antifungal properties of the insect alarm pheromones citral, 2-heptanone, and 4-methyl-3-heptanone.” (L.K. Cole, M.S. Blum & R.W. Roncadori) [from Schlumpberger et al. 2004]

Collier, Donald (1929) (US Congress) Senate Committe on Indian Affairs, 34: 18234–18255. “Peyote, A General Study of the Plant, the Cult and the Drug.”

Collins, A.C. et al. (1973) Biochemical Pharmacology, 22: 2337–2348. “Dopamine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids-inhibitors of neuroamine metabolism.” (A.C. Collins, J.L. Cashaw and V.E. Davis)

Collins, M. A. (1977) “Identification of isoquinolines alkaloids during alcohol intoxication.” pp. 155–166 in K. Blum (ed.), Alcohol and Opiates. Neurochemical and Behavioural Mechanisms, Academic Press, New York, NY.

Collins, Michael A. (1988) Recent Developments in Alcoholism, 387–403. “Acetaldehyde and Its Condensation Products as Markers in Alcoholism.”

Collins, Michael A. (1979) “Neuroamine condensation in human subjects.” in H. Begleiter (ed.) Alcohol Intoxication and Withdrawal: Experimental Studies.

Collins, M.A. & M.G. Bigdeli (1975) Life Sciences, 16: 585–601. “Tetrahydroisoquinolines in vivo. I. Rat brain formation of salsolinol, a condensation product of dopamine and acetaldehyde, under certain conditions during ethanol intoxication.”

Collins, M.A. & C.D. Weiner (1977) “Studies on the effects of tetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives of catecholamines and aldehydes on tyrosine hydroxylase.” 3: 511–519 in R.G. Thurman (ed.) Alcohol and Aldehyde Metabolizing Systems. Academic Press: NY.

Collins, M.A. et al. (1979) Science, 206: 1184–1186. “Dopamine-related Tetrahydroisoquinolines: Significant Urinary Excretion by Alcoholics after Alcohol Consumption.” (M.A. Collins, W.P. Nijim, G.F. Borge & G. Teas).

Colomb, D. (1939) Contribution à l’étude pharmacologique de la mescaline. Lyon. 80 pp.

Cook, L. & E. Weidley (1957) Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 66 (3): 740–752. “Behavioral effects of some psychopharmacological agents.”

Cooper, M. et al. (2013) Strength Testing and Material Characterization of Cactus Spines. Senior Project, Materials Engineering Department California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, 26 pages. (Mary Cooper, Jeff Goldstein, Tom Tarlton)

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1977) “Chavín art: Its shamanic/hallucinogenic origins.” In Alana Cordy-Collins & Jean Stearn (eds.) Pre-Columbian Art History: Selected Readings.” Peek Publications, pp. 353–362.

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1980) The Masterkey, 54: 84–93. “An artistic record of the Chavín hallucinatory experience.”

Cordy-Collins, Alana (1982) The Journal of Ethnobiology, 2 (2): 144–153. “Psychoactive painted Peruvian plants. The shamanism textile.”

Correa, M. et al. (2012) Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36 (1): 404–430. “Piecing together the puzzle of acetaldehyde as a neuroactive agent.” (M. Correa, J.D. Salamone, K.N. Segovia, M. Pardo, R. Longoni, L. Spina, A.T. Peana, S. Vinci& E. Acquas)

Correll, Donovan Stewart & Marshall Corning Johnson (1970) Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas Research Foundation; Renner, Texas

“Correspondent requesting anonymity” indicates people sharing bioassay information and/or analytical data but wisely requesting their identities be omitted due to the current state of illegality for both mescaline possession and usage. The Entheogen Review contains the published accounts; personal communications with the bioassayist(s) were the source for the others

Cortes, M. et al. (1972) Phytochemistry, 11: 849–850. “Cactaceae. Isolation of Candicine From Trichocereus chilensis.

Corti, Ulrich A. (1949) Helvetica Chimica Acta, 32 (3): 681–686. “Über Ergebnisse der Methylierung von Tyrosin mit Dimethylsulfat und einige Derivate des N-Methyltyramins.”

Costa, Erminio (1956)a Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 91 (1): 39–41. [Abstract; entry 22163] “Effects of Hallucinogenic and Tranquilizing Drugs on Serotonin Evoked Uterine Contractions.”

Costa, Erminio (1956)b Psychiatric Research Reports [Amer. Psychiatr. Ass.] 4: 11–13. [CA (1956) 50: 14120c-d.] “The effect of hallucinogenic and tranquilizing drugs on the serotonin-evoked uterine contractions.”

Coulter, John M. (1891) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 2 (1): 1–152. “Manual of the Plants of Western Texas.” [Peyote: page 129]

Coulter, John M. (1894) Contributions from the US National Herbarium, 3 (3): 91–132. “Preliminary revision of the North American species of Cactus, Anhalonium, and Lophophora.” [Peyote: pages 131–132]

Coutts, R.T. et al. (1980) Res. Commun. chem. Path. Pharmac. 28: 177–184. [from Clarke 1986]

Cowdry, R.W. & F.K. Goodwin (1978) p. 281, in: R.L. Spitzer & D.F. Klein (eds.) Clinical Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Raven Press, New York.

Cover, Kimberly (2005) Sustainability of the Sacrament: A study of perspectives. 26 page manuscript.

Cowdry, R.W. & F.K. Goodwin (1978) p. 281, in: R.L. Spitzer & D.F. Klein (eds.) Clinical Issues in Psychiatric Diagnosis. Raven Press, New York 1978.

Crawford, Albert C. & Walter K. Watanabe (1914) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 19: 303–304. “Parahydroxyphenethylamine, a pressor compound in an American mistletoe.” [from Durand et al. 1962]

Crawford, Albert C. & Walter K. Watanabe (1916) Journal of Biological Chemistry, 24: 169–172. “The occurrence of p-hydroxyphenylethylamine in various mistletoes.” [from Durand et al. 1962]

Crawford, T.B.B. & Celia M. Yates (1970) British Journal of Pharmacology, 38: 56–71. “A method for the estimation of the catecholamines and their metabolites in brain tissue.”

CRC (1980–1981) CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. 61st Edition. Weast (ed.) CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fl. ISBN 0-8493-0461-X.

Crema, A. (1953) Bolletino della società italiana di biologia sperimentale, 29: 1520–1522. “Valutazione quantitativa dell’azzione dei farmaci sulla funzionalità vestibolare, III. Neurotosicita della mescalina.”

Creutzberg, Ulrich (2010) Gymnocalycium Taxa 2010-01. (PDF: http://uc.privat.t-online.de/Taxa.pdf) At http://www.creutzburg-info.de/ along with much more information. Based on Ulrich Creutzburg  (2006) Gymnocalycium Taxa. extraction and update of Metzing, Meregall, Kiesling (1995) Allonia, 33: 181-228. “An annotated checklist of the genus Gymnocalycium Pfeiffer ex Mittler (Cactaceae).”

Creveling, C.R. et al. (1962) Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 64 (1): 125–134. “Substrates and Inhibitors of Dopamine-β-oxidase.” [Cyrus R. Creveling, John W. Daly, Bernhard Witkop and Sidney Udenfriend.]

Crichtly, M. (1931) British Journal of Inebriety, 28 (3): 99–108. “Some Forms of Drug Addiction: Mescalism.”

Crockett, Earl & Alexander T. (“Sasha”) Shulgin 1999 (Personal communication; unpublished findings)

Croizat, Leon (1943–1945) Desert Plant Life, 15: 116–120, 138–140, 152–154; 16: 7–10, 37–38, 43–44, 53–55, 90–93, 103–108, 118–122, 139–143, 150–156; 17: 11–16, 28–29. “A study of the genus Lophophora.”

Crosby, D.M. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973) Lloydia, 36 (4): 416–418. “Cactus Alkaloids. XIX. Crystallization of Mescaline HCl and 3-Methoxytyramine from Trichocereus pachanoi.”

Crosswhite, M. (1992) Ecology of the Arizona hedgehog cactus. (Unpublished manuscript prepared for Cedar Creek Associates, Inc. July 1992.) 16 pp. (cited by USFWS 2001)

Crout, R.J. (1961) Std. Method Clin. Chem. 3: 62.

Crout, J.R. et al. (1961) Journal of Phamacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 132: 269 “Norepinephrine metabolism in rat brain and heart.” (J.R. Crout, C.B. Creveling & S. Udenfriend) WHY IS THIS ENTRY NOT COMPLETE

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948) “Estudio Farmacologico de la Opuntia cylindrica.” PhD Thesis; Instituto de Farmacologia y Terapeutica Universidad Nacionale Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Peru. (Trichocereus pachanoi misidentified as Opuntia cylindrica) (pp. 10–36) 27 pages

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948)a Revista de la Farmacologia y Medicina Experimental, (Lima) 1 (2): 253–258. “Informe sobre las aplicaciones de la Cimora en el norte del Perú.” [also given as 253ff]

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1948)b Revista de la Farmacologia y Medicina Experimental, (Lima) 1: 143-?. “Farmacología de ‘Opuntia cylindrica’.” [From Gutiérrez-Noriega; also given elsewhere as 143ff]

Cruz Sánchez, Guillermo (1951) Revista de medicina experimental, 8 (1): 159–166. “Estudio Folklórico de Algunas Plantas Medicamentosas y Tóxicas de la Región Norte del Perú.”

Csokán (1942) Z. Anal. Chem. 124: 344

Cucchi, A. (1939) Rivista sperimentale di Freniatria, 63: 393–404. “Azione della mescalina sul profilo psicologico.”

Culbreth, David M.R. (1927 ) A Manual of Materia Medica and Pharmacology. 7th edition. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia.

Curtis 1847 See as Hooker 1847

Cybulski, T. (1935) Med. Dosw. Spoleczna, 20: 126 [CA (1936) 30: 30927]

Cymerman Craig, J. et al. (1977) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 99 (24): 7996–8002. “Chiroptical Properties of 1-Methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines. A Semi-empirical Quadrant Rule Based on One-Electron Theory.” (J. Cymerman Craig, S.-Y. Catharine Lee, Rosalind P.K. Chan and Irene Y.-F. Wang)

d’Azevedo, Warren (1978) Straight With the Medicine: Narratives of Washoe Followers of the Tipi Way. Heyday Books (Quick). ISBN 0-930588-19-3. 61 pages.

D’Harcourt, Raoul (1939) La Médicine dans l’Ancien Pérou. Librairie Maloine, Paris. (D’Harcourt 1939 also includes a very unmistakeable example of fellatio.)

da Silva, Bernadete & José P. Parente (2002) Planta Medica, 68 (1): 74–76. “Chemical properties and biological activity of a polysaccharide from Melocactus depressus.”

Daiker, F.H. (1914) Report of the Thirty-Second Annual Lake Mohonk Conference on the Indian and Other Dependent Peoples, 62–68. “Liquor and peyote a menace to the Indian”

Daly, John et al. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 37–43. “Methylation and Demethylation in Relation to the IN VITRO Metabolism of Mescaline.” (John Daly, Julius Axelrod and Bernhard Witkop)

Dammert Bellido, José (1974) Allpanchis Phuturinqa (Cusco) 9: 179–200. “Procesos por Supersticiones en la Provincia de Cajamarca en la Segunda Mitad del Siglo XVIII.” [From Sharon 1978]

Dandiya, P.C. & M.K. Menon (1965) Life Sciences. 4 (17): 1635–1641. “Interaction of Asarone with Mescaline, Amphetamine and Tremorine.” [Asarone appeared to antagonize all aspects of mescaline intoxication.]

Daniel, James (Jim) E. (1999) (Personal communication with J. Hanna during June)

Darth, Chewbacca (1977) The Whole Drug Manufacturers Catalog. (Prophet Press) [Primarily a complation of Irv Penkethman’s literature and anything else they could find]

Datta, R.K. & J.J. Ghosh (1970)a Biochemical Journal, 117: 961–968. “Mescaline-Induced Changes of Brain-Cortex Ribosomes. Effect of Mescaline on the Stability of Brain-Cortex Ribosomes.” [similar effects have also been noted with stimulant drugs, antidepressants and convulsants.]

Davet, Aline (2005) MS dissertation in pharmacy, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Brazil. “Estudo Fitoquímico e Biológico do Cacto – Cereus jamacaru DeCandolle, CACTACEAE.”

Davis, Bruce (1989) Journal of Chromatography, 466: 89–218. “Review. Biogenic amines and Their Metabolites in Body Fluids of Normal, Psychiatric and Neurological Subjects”

Davis, D.V. et al. (1983) Analytical Chemistry, 55 (8): 1302–1305. “Identification of Naturally Occurring Quaternary Compounds by Combined Laser Desorption and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.” (D.V. Davis, R.G. Cooks, B.N. Meyer & J.L. McLaughlin)

Davis, E. et al. (1970) Federation Proceedings of the American Society for Experimental Biology (Abstracts) p. 454. “Alteration of Flash-Induced Responses by Intra-carotid Administration of Harmine.”

Davis, E. Wade (1983) Botanical Museum Leaflets. Harvard University, 29 (4): 367–386. “Sacred Plants of the San Pedro Cult.”

Davis, E. Wade (1997) One River. Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest, (First edition in 1996) Touchstone: New York. 537 pages ISBN 0-684-80886-2 (hard)/ 0-684-83496-0 (pbk.)

Davis, E. Wade (1999) Shaman’s Drum, 52: 50–60. “San Pedro, Cactus of the Four Winds.”

Davis, Leslie B. (1961) Studies in Plains Anthropology and History, 1: 1–5. “Peyotism and the Blackfeet Indians of Montana: An Historical Assessment.”

Davis, M. (1987) Psychopharmacology, 93 (3): 286–291. “Mescaline: excitory effects on acoustic startle are blocked by serotonin2 antagonists.”

Davis, Virginia E. & Michael J. Walsh (1970) Science, 167: 1005–1007. “Alcohol, Amines and Alkaloids: A Possible Biochemical Basis for Alcohol Addiction.”

Davis, W.M. et al. (1978) Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 45 (1): 49–62. “Acute Toxicity and Gross Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine, Four Methoxyamphetamines, and Mescaline in Rodents, Dogs and Monkeys.” (W.M. Davis, J.A. Bedford, J.L. Buelke, M.M. Guinn, H.T. Hatoum, I.W. Waters, M.C. Wilson & M.C. Braude)

Dawborne, J.S. (1972) Organic Mass Spectrometry, 6: 211-215. “The electron-impact-induced fragmentation of some methylated histamines.”

Dawider, A.A. & M.B.E. Fayez (1961) J. Chem. United Arab Rep. 4: 145–147. “Identification of β-Sitosterol in Opuntia ficus-indica.” [from 1961 CA 56: 9121g]

de Alarcón, Hernando Ruiz (1892) “Tratado de las
supersticíones y costumbres gentílicas…de esta Nueva
España. Año 1629.
” Museo Nacional, Mexico. 124 pages. See also as de Alarcón, Hernando Ruiz (1898, 1900) Anales del Museo Nacional de Mexico, Volume 6: 123–223. “Tratado de las supersticíones y costumbres gentilicas, 1629.” See also the translation into English by Coe & Whittaker 1982

Deacon, W. & H.V. Marsh Jr. (1971) Phytochemistry, 10: 2915–2924. “Properties of an enzyme from bananas (Musa sapientum) which hydroxylatestyramine to dopamine.”

Dean, R.A. et al. (1980) Life Sciences, 27: 403–413. “A sensitive radioenzymatic assay for the simultaneous determination of salsolinol and dopamine.” (R.A. Dean, D.P. Henry, R.R. Bowsher & R.B. Forney)

Dean, W. et al. (1998) GHB: The Natural Mood Enhancer. The authoritative guide to its responsible use. Smart Publications [www.smart-publications.com] (Ward Dean, MD, John Morgenthaler & Steven Wm. Fowkes] Appropriately billed as “The book the FDA & DEA don’t want you to read!” Buy extra copies and send them to your state and federal representatives.

Decker, Herman & Paul Becker (1913) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 395 (3): 362–377. “Mitteilung VI. Über die quaternären Salze der Alkylidenamine und eine allgemeine Methode der Alkylierung primärer Amine zu sekundären.”

De Cordoba, José (2004) Wall Street Journal (12 May) pages 1 & A10. “Down in Texas Scrub ‘Peyoteros’ Stalk Their Elusive Prey. Rare Cactus Buttons Play Role in Native American Rites: Visions and All-Nighters.”

Deegan, John F. & Leonard Cook (1958) Journal of
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
, 122: 17A. “A study of the anti-mescaline property of a series of CNS active agents in mice.” (Abstract of paper from American Society for
Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Abel
Centennial Meeting, Baltimore, Maryland, Sept. 4–7, 1957.)

de Farias Freire, S.M., et al. (1996) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 48: 624–628. “Sympathomimetic Effects of Scoparia dulcis L. and Catecholamines Isolated from Plant Extracts.” (Sonia Maria de Farias Freire, Luce Maria Brandão Torres, Caden Souccar & Antonia José Lapa)

De Feo, Vincenzo (2000) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 85: 243–256. “Ethnomedical field study on northern Peruvian Andes with particular reference to divination practices.”

De Graffe, Bertha L. (1896) American Journal of Pharmacy,
68: 169–177 plus 1 plate. “Opuntia vulgaris.” (from
Hobschette 1929)

Deimel, Calus (1980) Tarahumara. Syndikat: Frankfurt.

Deimel, Calus (1985) Schreibheft, 25: 155–163. “Die Peyoteheilung der Tarahumara.”

Deimel, Calus (1986) “Der Heilsame Rausch.” pp. 86–87 in Geo Special #2 “Mexico

Deimel, Calus (1996) “Hikuri ba – Peyoteriten der
Tarahumara.
” Niedersächsisches Landesmuseum (Ansichten der Ethnologie 1): Hannover.

Deitrich, R. & V. Erwin (1980) Annual Review of Pharmacology
and Toxicology
, 25: 55–80. “Biogenic Amine-Aldehyde
Condensation Products: Tetrahydroisoquinolines and
Tryptolines (β-Carbolines).”

De Jongh, H.H. (1945) Experimental Catatonia. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkin’s Co.

DeKorne, Jim (1994) Psychedelic Shamanism, Loompanics.

DeKorne, Jim (1996) Ayahuasca Analogs and Plant-based Tryptamines (The Best of the Entheogen Review, 1992–1996) 58 pages. The Entheogen Review, El Rito, NM

DeKorne, Jim (1997) Entheogen Review, 6 (2): 12. “Night-
Blooming Cereus.”

Delay, Jean & H.P. Gerard (1948) L’Encéphale et l’Hygiène Mentale, Paris, 37 (7): 196–235, “L’intoxication mescalinique expérimentale.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1949) Vol. 2, No. 8; entry #2491.]

Delay, Jean & H.P. Gerard (1950) Clin. des Maladies
Mentales et de l’Encéphale à ‘Hóp. Sainte-Anne
, Paris, 39 (1): 55–63, with 1 illustration; “Les Illusions de la mescaline.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII (1951) Vol. 4, No. 2: Entry #732.]

Delay, Jean & Jean Thuillier (1956) Comptes Rendus
Hebdomaires des Séances de L’Académie des Sciences
242: 3138–3140. “Potentialisation de la 5-hydroxytryptamine (sérotonine) par des molécules psychotoniques dérivées de la phényléthylamine.”

Delay, J. et al. (1949)a Annales médico-psychologiques,
2: 427–429. “Les nouvelles chimothérapies de l’alcoolisme.” (J. Delay, P. Pichot & J. Thuillier)

Delay, J. et al. (1949)b Presse Médicale, 57: 1210–1211.
“Illusions et hallucinations de la mescaline.” (J. Delay, H.P. Gerard and D. Hallaix) [From Excerpta Medica. Delay et al. 1950 lists this article as Delay & Gerard (1949) Presse Médicale, 81: 1-210.]

Delay, J. et al. (1950) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 144: 163. “Toxicité aiguë du sulfate de mescaline et antidotisme du succinate de sodium.” (Jean Delay, H.P. Gerard & Jean Thuillier)

Delay, J. et al. (1951) Clin. des Maladies Mentales et de l’Encéphale à ‘Hóp. Sainte-Anne, Paris, 40 (1): 1–10, “Les synthesthésies dans l’intoxication mescalinique.” [Abstract: Excerpta Medica, Section VIII. (1951) Vol. 4, No. 10; entry # 3852.] Journal also listed simply as “l’Encéphale,“ (J. Delay, H.P. Gerard, and P.C. Racamier)

Delay, J. et al. (1956) Comptes Rendus des séances de la Société de Biologie et de ses filiales, 150: 512–513. “Antagonisme de la mescaline et de la chloropromazine.” (J. Delay, P. Deniker, M. Ropert & J. Thuillier)

Delgado Pang, Hildegard (1992) Pre-Columbian Art.

Delphant, J. & M. Lanza (1960) Journal de Physiologie (Paris), 52 (1): 70–71. “Action comparative de la mescaline, du L.S.D. 25 et de la yagéine sur la température centrale du Rat.”

De Melo, A.C. et al. (1973) Ciência e Cultura, 25 (7): 644–647. “Cross-tolerance studies among nutmeg compounds, (-) Δ9— Trans-tetrahydrocannabinol and mescaline.” (A. Cesário De Melo, E.A. Carlini & Jack Peter Green)

Demish, L. & M. Neubauer (1979) Psychopharmacology 64 (3): 361–363. “Stimulation of human prolactin secretion by mescaline.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1955) Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 433–438. “Studies on mescaline III Action in epileptics: Clinical observations and effects on brain wave patterns.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1956) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 124: 74–77. “Studies on mescaline, VII. The role of anxiety in the mescaline-induced state and its influence on the therapeutic result.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1957) “Drug-Induced States resembling Naturally Occurring Psychoses.” pp. 26–35 in Garattini & Ghetti

Denber, Herman C.B. (1958) p. 120 in Max Rinkel & H.C.B. Denber (eds.) Chemical Concepts of Psychoses. McDowell-Obolonsky, NY

Denber, Herman C.B. (1959) “Studies on Mescaline IX: Comparative action of various drugs on the mescaline-induced state.” in J. Masserman (ed.) Biological Psychiatry. Grune and Stratton [from Denber et al. 1962]

Denber, Herman C.B. (1961) Psychiatric Quarterly, 35: 18–48. “Studies on mescaline, XI. Biochemical findings during the mescaline-induced state, with observations on the blocking action of different psychotropic drugs.”

Denber, Herman C.B. (1964) Rivista Neurobiologica, 10: 1157–1168. [Suppl.] “Studies with mescaline.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1954) Psychiatric Quarterly, 28: 635–640. “A note on some therapeutic implications of the mescaline induced state.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)a Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 463–469. “Studies on Mescaline, VI. Therapeutic Aspects of the Mescaline-Chlorpromazine Combination.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)a Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 122 (5): 463–469. “Studies on Mescaline, VI. Therapeutic Aspects of the Mescaline-Chlorpromazine Combination.”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1955)b [or 1956a] Psychiatric Quarterly, 29: 421–429. “Studies on mescaline I: Action in schizophrenic patients [before and after electroconvulsive treatment].”

Denber, Herman C.B. & Sidney Merlis (1956)b “Studies on mescaline IV: Antagonism between mescaline and chlorpromazine.” in Nathan S. Kline (ed.) Psychopharmacology. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Publ. No. 42. Washington, DC.

Denber, Herman C.B. & David N. Teller (1968) Agressologie, (England), 9 (1): 127–136. “Mescaline. XVIII. Effect of Phenothiazines, amphetamine, and amobarbital sodium on uptake into brain and viscera.” [from (1968) CA 68: 113189r]

Denber, Herman C.B. & David N. Teller (1969) Pharmacologist 11: 291.

Denber, Herman C.B. & Max Rinkel (eds.) (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 423–451. “Psychodynamic and Therapeutic Aspects of Mescaline and Lysergic Acid Diethylamide. Round Table.”

Denber, Herman C.B. et al. (1954) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 120 (1): p. 87. “Studies on mescaline: its action on the clinical and brainwave patterns of schizophrenics.” [Abstract of paper presented to the NewYork Neurological Society and NewYork Academy of Medicine, Section on Neurology and Psychiatry. Dec. 8, 1953.] (Herman C.B. Denber, Sidney Merlis and Wallace Hunter)

Denber, Herman C.B. et al. (1962) Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 96 (1): 14–36. “Studies on mescaline. XIII. The effect of prior administration of various psychotropic drugs on different biochemical parameters: a preliminary report.” (Herman C.B. Denber, David N. Teller, Paul Rajotte & Dorothy Kaufman)

Deniker, Pierre (1957) Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 125 (3): 427–431. “Biological changes in man following intravenous administration of mescaline.”

De Nito, G. (1934) Rassegna di Terapia e Patologia Clinica, 6 (10): 577–594. “Richerche tossicologiche e farmacologiche sulla mescalina.” [See also in CA (1937) 31: 39944]

De Nito, G. (1935) Berichte über die gesamte Physiologie und experimentelle Pharmacologie, 84: p. 511. [“Toxicology and Pharmacology of Mescaline.”] [Abstract of De Nito 1934]

Densmore, Frances (1929) Bur. Amer. Ethnol. Bull. 90. “Papago Music.” [from Bruhn 1971b]

Densmore, Frances (1932) Winnebago Songs of the Peyote Ceremony. (US Bureau of American Ethnology, Manuscript 3261).

Densmore, Frances (1936) Southwest Museum Papers, (Los Angeles) 10: 15–23, 82–93. “Cheyenne and Arapahoe Music.”

Densmore, Frances (1938) American Anthropologist, 40: 175–177. “The influence of hymns on the form of Indian songs.”

Densmore, Frances (1941) American Anthropologist, 43: 77–82. “Native songs of two hybrid ceremonies among the American Indians.”

Densmore, Frances (nd) Winnebago Songs. (Bureau of American Ethnology, Manuscript 1971. nd).

De Oliveira, Arildo José Braz & Maria de Fátima Pires Da Silva Machado (2003) Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 104 (2): 149–155. “Alkaloid Production by Callous Tissue Cultures of Cereus peruvianus (Cactaceae)” (In citation indexes as De Oliveira, A.J. & M.F. Machado 2003)

Der Marderosia, Ara (1966) American Journal of Pharmacy 138 (5): 204–212. “Current Status of Hallucinogens in the Cactaceae”

De Salva, S. & R. Evans (1960) Archives Internationales de Pharmacodynamie et de Thérapie, 125: 348–354. “Continuous intravenous infusion of strychnine in rats. II. Antagonism by various drugs.”

De Silva; See under Silva.

DeSmet, A.G.M. Peter (1999) Herbs, Health, Healers. Africa as Ethnopharmacological Treasury. Afrika Museum; Berg en Dal, Netherlands. ISBN 90-71611-09-4. 180 pages

DeSmet, Peter A.G.M. (1996) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 50: 141–146. “Some ethnopharmacological notes on African hallucinogens.”

Desoille, H. (1938) Revue d’oto-neuro ophtalmogie, 16: 136–138. “Remarque sur le mode de formation des hallucinations provoquées par le peyotl (expériences personelles).”

Dessi, Pietro (1950) Farmaco Scienze e Technica, 5: 32–38. “Sul dossagio fotometrico della mescalina e simpanina col reattivo di Richter.”

Dessi, Pietro & C. Rizzoli (1948) Bolletino. Societe Italiano di Biologia Sperimentale, 24: 1250–1254. “Sul dosaggio della 3:4:5:trimetossifenilethamina in soluzioni acquose nell’urina e nel sangue.” [“Testing of 3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine in aqueous solutions, urine and blood.”]

Dessi, Pietro & Giuseppe Labó (1950) La Ricerca Scientifica, 20 (12): 1831–1842. “Contributo allo studio farmacologico delle interazioni dell’aneurina con alcuni farmaci del sistema neurovegetativo.”

Dessi, Pietro & Tullio Franco (1949) Bolletino. Societe Italiano di Biologia Sperimentale, 25: 1368–1370. Applicazione della reazione di Beyer e Skinner al dosaggio fotometrico della mescalina e dell’istamina. – 1) Curve d’assorbimento nel visible.” [“Application of the Beyer and Skinner reaction to photometric determination of mescaline and histamine.”]

Deulofeu, V. (1935) Hoppe-Seyler’s Zeitschrift fur Physiologische Chemie, 237: 171–172. “Adrenaline in the venom of Bufo arenarum.”

Deulofeu, Venancio (1973) Ciência e Cultura, 25 (7): 649–659 “Distribution of indolethylamines and β-carbolines in plants.”

Deulofeu, V. & J.R. Mendive (1938) Justus Liebigs Annalen der Chemie, 534: 288–292. “The poison of an Argentine toad.”

Deulofeu, Venancio & Edmundo A. Rúveda (1971) “The Basic Constituents of Toad Venoms” pp. 475–495, (Ch. 38), in: Wolfgang Bücherl & Eleanor E. Buckley (eds.) Venomous
Animals and their Venoms
. Academic Press/ New York, London.

Devereux, Paul (1997) The Long Trip: A Prehistory of
Psychedelia
. Penguin/ Arkana ISBN 0-14-019540-8. 298 pages.

DeVries, J.X. et al. (1971) Revista Latinoamericana de
Quimica
, 2 (1): 21-23. “Alcaloides de cactos del Uruguay” (Juan X. DeVries, Patrick Moyna, Victor Diaz, Stig Agurell and Jan G. Bruhn) [Have not seen. First three issues missing from our available copy.] [From Mata & McLaughlin 1982, Shulgin & 1971 CA 75: 31357]

Dewhurst , W.G. & E. Marley (1965a) British Journal of Pharmacology, 25: 682–704. “The effects of α-methyl derivatives of noradrenaline, phenethylamine and tryptamine on the central nervous system of the chicken.”

Dewhurst , W.G. & E. Marley (1965b) British Journal of Pharmacology, 25: 705–727. “Action of sympathomimetic and allied amines on the central nervous system in the chicken.”

Dewhurst et al. 1965 in the literature referred to Dewhurst & Marley 1965a

Díaz Medina, E.M. (2007) Food Chemistry, 103: 38–45. “Chemical characterization of Opuntia dillenii and Opuntia ficus indica fruits.” (E.M. Díaz Medina, E.M. Rodríguez Rodríguez C. Díaz Romero)

Díaz, José Luis (1977) Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, 17: 647–675. “Ethnopharmacology of Sacred Hallucinogenic Plants Used by the Indians of Mexican.”

Díaz, José Luis (1979) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 11 (1-2): 71–101. “Ethnopharmacology and Taxonomy of Mexican Psychodysleptic Plants.”

Diaz, P.M. et al. (1968) “Factors modulating brain serotonin turnover.” p. 6 in: Advances in Pharmacology. Part B.
Academic Press. (P.M. Diaz, S.H. Ngai & E. Costa)

Dickson, Darylene (1978) Head, 59–61. “High Profile: The San Pedro Mescaline Cactus.” (Confused T. bridgesii for T. pachanoi)

Digenis, G.A. et al. (1972) Journal of Labelled Compounds, 8 (2): 231-235. “A convenient synthesis of 2-[14C]-hordenine.” (George A. Digenis, J. W. Burkett & V. Mihranian)

Diguet, Léon (1899) Nouvelles archives des missions scientifiques, Vol. IX: pp. 621–625.

Diguet, Léon (1907) Journal de la Société des Américanistes de Paris, 4 (1): 21-29. “Le “peyote” et son usage rituel chez les Indiens du Nayarit.”

Diguet, Léon (1928) Les Cactacées Utiles du Mexique. Paris: Société nationale d’acclimitation de France. 552 pages

Dill, R.E. et al. (1969) Fed. Proc., Fed. Amer. Soc. Exp. Biol. 28: 776 (Abstract) “The action of sympathomimetic amines on the isolated heart of frog.”

Dimayuga, Rosalba Encarnación (1996) Medicina Tradicional y Popular de Baja California Sur. SEP (Secretaría de Educación Pública), Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur, ISBN-10: 9688960675: ISBN-13: 9789688960677, 121 pages

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)a Journal of
Pharmaceutical Sciences.
62 (10): 1663–1666. “Cactus
Alkaloids. XXI. β-Phenethylamines from Dolichothele sphaerica.

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)b Lloydia, 36 (4): 419–421. “Cactus alkaloids. XXII. Dolichothele surculosa and other Dolichothele species.”

Dingerdissen, J.J. & J.L. McLaughlin (1973)c Lloydia,
(Proceedings) 439–440. “Cactus Alkaloids. XXI. β-Phenethylamines from Dolichothele sphaerica.”

Dishotsky, N.I. et al. (1971) Science, 172: 431. “LSD and
genetic damage.” (N.I. Dishotsky, W.D. Loughman, R.E. Mogar & W.R. Lipscomb) [Does not cause damage]

Dittman, Allen T. & Harvey C. Moore (1957) American Anthropologist, 59: 642–649. “Disturbance in Dreams as Related to Peyotism among the Navajo.”

Divry, P. & H. Evard (1935) Psychiatr. Bl. 39: 58-64 [CA (1937) 31: 80252.] also (1935) Ber. ges. Physiol. exptl. Pharmakol. 88: 156. [“Antagonists to bulbocarpine.”]

Dixon, Walter E. (1899–1900) Journal of Physiology, 25: 69–86. “The Physiological Action of the Alkaloids Derived from Anhalonium Lewinii.” [Most often given as Dixon 1899]

Dixon, W.E. & Edmund White (1898) British Medical Journal, 2: 1060–1061. “A Preliminary Note on the Pharmacology of the Alkaloids Derived from the Mescal Plant.”

Djerassi, Carl (1957) “Cactus Triterpenes”, pp. 330–352; in Festschrift Professor Dr. Arthur Stoll. Birkhäuser, Basel. (Paper XXVI in Djerassi’s “Terpenoids” series) [p. 320 in the literature is a typo.]

Djerassi, Carl & A.E. Lippman (1954) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 5780–5781. “Terpenoids. X. The
Triterpenes of the Cactus Lemaireocereus hystrix.”

Djerassi, Carl & A.E. Lippman (1955) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77: 1825–1828. “Terpenoids. XIII. The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Machaeric Acid and Machaerinic Acid.”

Djerassi, Carl & John S. Mills (1958) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 1236–1243. “Terpenoids. XXXII. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Treleasegenic Acid. Ring Conformational Alterations in a Pentacyclic Triterpene.”

Djerassi, Carl & H.G. Monsimer (1957) Journal of the
American Chemical Society
, 79: 2901-2905. “Terpenoids. XXVII. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Myrtillogenic Acid.”

Djerassi, C. & G.H. Thomas (1954) Chemistry & Industry, 1354. “Terpenoids. XII. The Constitution of the Cactus Triterpene Cochalic Acid.”

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 2254–2256. “Terpenoids. I. The Triterpenes of the Cactus Lemaireocereus Thurberi.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 3632–3635. “Alkaloid Studies I. The Isolation of Pilocereine from the Cactus Lophocereus schottii.” (C. Djerassi, N. Frick & L.E. Geller)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1953)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 75: 5940–5942. “Terpenoids. III. The Isolation of Erythrodiol, Oleanolic Acid and a New Triterpene Triol, Longispinogenin, from the Cactus Lemaireocereus longispinus.” (Carl Djerassi, R.M. McDonald & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)a Chemistry and Industry, 161–162. “Terpenoids. IV. “The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Gummosinogenin and Longispinogenin.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 2969–2973. “Terpenoids. VI. Dumortierigenin, a New Triterpene Lactone from the Cactus Lemaireocereus dumortieri.” (Carl Djerassi, Eugene Farkas, A.J. Lemin, J.C. Collins & F. Walls)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76 (12): 3215–3217. “Alkaloid studies. III. Isolation of Pilocereine and Anhalonidine from four cactus species.” (Carl Djerassi, C.R. Smith, S.P. Marfey, R.N. McDonald. A.J. Lemin, S.K. Figdor & H. Estrada)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1954)d Journal of the American Chemical Society, 76: 4089–4091. “Terpenoids. VIII. The Structures of the Cactus Triterpenes Gummosogenin and Longispinogenin.” (Carl Djerassi, L.E. Geller & A.J. Lemin)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77 : 484. “Alkaloid Studies V. Synthesis of 1-Isopropyl and 1-Isobutyl-2-methyl-6,7-dimethoxy-l,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline.” (C. Djerassi, J. J. Beereboom, S. P. Marfey & S. K. Figdor)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)a Chemistry and Industry, 1520–1521. “The Constitution of the Cactus Terpene Queretaroic Acid.” (Carl Djerassi, J.A. Henry, A.J. Lemin & T. Rios) [Terpenoid paper XXI]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77 (5): 1200–1203. “Terpenoids. XI. Investigation of Nine Cactus Species. Isolation of Two New Triterpenes, Stellatogenin and Machaeric Acid” (Carl Djerassi, L.H. Liu, E. Farkas, A.E. Lippman, A.J. Lemin, L.E. Geller, R.N. McDonald & B.J. Taylor)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1955)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 77: 3579–3582. “Terpenoids. XVI. The Constitution of the Cactus Triterpene Cochalic Acid. Partial Reductions of Methyl Diketoechinocystate.” (Carl Djerassi, G.H. Thomas & H. Monsimer)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78 (10): 2312–2315. “Terpenoids. XXII. Triterpenoids from Some Mexican and South American Plants.” (Carl Djerassi, S. Burnstein, H. Estrada, J. Grossman, J. Herrán, A. Manjarrez & S.C. Pakrashi) [Did not report on any alkaloids but did find several species to be alkaloid devoid]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78: 3783–3787. “Terpenoids. XXIV. The Structure of the Cactus Triterpene Queretaroic Acid.” (C. Djerassi, J.A. Henry, A.J. Lemin, T. Rios & G.H. Thomas)

Djerassi et al. (1956)c Journal of the American Chemical Society, 78: 3861–3862. “Alkaloid Studies. XIV.

Djerassi, C. et al. (1956)d Journal of Organic Chemistry, 21: 975–978. “Alkaloid Studies. XII. Synthesis of Substituted 1-Isobutyl-2-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines.” (C. Djerassi, F.X. Markley & R. Ehrlich)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1957)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79: 2203–2210. “Alkaloid Studies. XVII. The Structure of the Cactus Alkaloid Pilocereine.” (Carl Djerassi, S.K. Figdore, J.M. Bobbitt & F.X. Markley)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1957)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 79: 3525–3528. “Terpenoids. XXVIII. The Triterpene Composition of the Genus Myrtillocactus.” (Carl Djerassi, S. Burstein, H. Estrada, A.J. Lemin, A.E. Lippman, A. Manjarrez & H.G. Monsimer)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)a Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 1005–1006. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol Lophenol. A Link in Sterol Biosynthesis.” (Carl Djerassi, J.S. Mills & Richardo Villottii)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)b Journal of the American Chemical Society, 80: 6284–6292. “The Neutral Constituents of the Cactus Lophocereus schotti. The Structure of Lophenol – 4α-Methyl-Δ7-cholesten-3β-ol – A Link in Sterol Biosynthesis.” (C. Djerassi, G.W. Krakower, A.J. Lemin, Liang H. Liu, J.S. Mills & R. Villottii)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1958)c Tetrahedron, 2 (1-2): 58-63. “Alkaloid studies. XX. Isolation and structure of two new cactus alkaloids Piloceredine and Lophocereine” [From Lophocereus schotti.]

Djerassi, C. et al. (1961) Chemical Society (London) Proceedings, 450. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol, Peniocerol (Cholest-8-en-3β,6α-diol.” (Carl Djerassi, R.D.H. Murray & R. Villotti)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1962) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 84: 3210–3212. “Alkaloid Studies XXXVIII. Pilocereine – A Trimeric Cactus Alkaloid.” (Carl Djerassi, H.W. Brewer, C. Clark & L.J. Durham)

Djerassi, C. et al. (1963) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 85 (6): 835. “The Structure of the Cactus Sterol Macdougallin (14α-Methyl-Δ8-cholestene-3β,6α-diol) – A Novel Link in Sterol Biogenesis.” (Carl Djerassi, J.C. Knight & D. I. Wilkinson)

Dobbie, J.J. & C.K. Tinkler (1904) J. Chem. Soc. 85: 1007.

Dobkin de Rios 1984 was the first edition of Dobkin de Rios 1990

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1969) Mesa Redonda de Ciencias Prehistoricas y Anthropologias. Lima 1: 139–149. “Curandismo psicodélico en el Perú: continuidad y cambio.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1973) Psychiatry: Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress of Psychiatry. Vol. 2. (Ramon de la Fuente & Maxwell N. Weisman (eds.) (Mexico City) pp. 1187–1198. “Peruvian Hallucinogenic Folk Healing: An Overview.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1977) Economic Botany, 31 (2): 189–203. “Plant Hallucinogens and the Religion of the Mochica – An Ancient Peruvian People.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1982) Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 14 (1-2): 81–90. “Plant Hallucinogens, Sexuality and Shamanism in the Ceramic Art of Ancient Peru.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1986) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 15 (3): 297–304. “Enigma of Drug-Induced Altered States of Consciousness Among the !Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert.”

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene (1990) Hallucinogens: Cross Cultural Perspectives. Prism Press. ISBN 1-85327-061-X. (First published 1984 University of New Mexico Press)

Dobkin de Rios, Marlene & Mercedes Cárdenas (1980) Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 2 (3): 233–246. “Plant hallucinogens, shamanism and Nazca ceramics.”

Dobkin, Marlene (1968)a International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 15: 23–32. “Folk Curing with a Psychedelic Cactus in Northern Peru.”

Dobkin, Marlene (1968)b Economic Botany, 22 (2): 194–199. “Trichocereus pachanoi— A Mescaline Cactus Used in Folk Healing in Peru.”

Doetsch, P.W. et al. (1980) Journal of Chromatography, 189: 79–85. “Cactus Alkaloids XL. Identification of Mescaline and Other β-Phenethylamines in Pereskia, Pereskiopsis and Islaya by Use of Fluorescamine Conjugates.” (Paul W. Doetsch, John M. Cassady & Jerry L. McLaughlin)

Dogin (1976) Federal Register, 41: 4015 “Peyote”

Doig, Federico Kauffmann (1979) Sexual Behavior in Ancient Peru. [Kompaktos S.C.R.L. Lima] (from Cané 1988)

Dok-Go, H. et al. (2003) Brain Research, 965 (1-2): 130–136. “Neuroprotective effects of antioxidative flavonoids, quercetin, (+)-dihydroquercetin and quercetin 3-methyl ether, isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.” (Hyang Dok-Go , Kwang Heun Lee, Hyoung Ja Kim, Eun Ha Lee, Jiyong Lee, Yun Seon Song, Yong-Ha Lee, Changbae Jin, Yong Sup Lee & Jungsook Cho)

Domínguez, X.A. & O. Pugliese C. (1967) Planta Medica, 15 (4): 401–403. “A Chemical Study of Mammillaria Runyoni. The isolation of acetovanillone and a new triterpenoid, mamillarol.”

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1968) Planta Medica, 16 (2): 182–183. “Chemical study of the cactus Ariocarpus retusus.” (Xorge Alejandro Domínguez, Rafael H. Ramírez, Olga Lock Ugaz, Jesús García D. & Roger Ketcham)

Dominguez, X.A. et al. (1968)b Planta Medica, 16: 458–461. “The Constituents of Thelocactus bicolor. Part I. The isolation of itesmol, a new steroid and eisacol, a new pentacyclic triterpenoid.” (Xorge Alejandro Domínguez, Víctor A. Barragán, Joaquín O. León V., Lothar Krause S., Gloria A. Bravo & Josefina Morales G.)

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1969) Rev. Soc. Quim. Mex. 13 (1): 8A-12A. “Estudio químico preliminar de 31 cactáceas.” (X.A. Domínguez, P. Rojas, M. Gutiérrez, N, Armenta & G. de Lara)

Domínguez, X.A. et al. (1970) Planta Medica, 18 (4)): 315–317. “Chemical Studies of Cacti. V. Constituents of the Coryphantha palmeri Britton-Rose and Echinocereus grandis Rose” (Xorge A. Domínguez, Saúl Escarria and Carlos Pérez E.)

Don, N.S. et al. (1998) Phytomedicine, 5 (2): 87–96. “Effects of Ayahuasca on the human EEG.” (Norm S. Don, B.E. McDonough, G. Moura, C.A. Warren, K. Kawanishi, H. Tomita, Y. Tachibana, M. Böhlke & N.R. Farnsworth)

Donike, M. 1974 Chromatographie 7: 651

Donnan, Christopher B. (1976) Moche Art and Iconography. UCLA Latin American Center. 146 pp.

Donnan, Christopher B. & Carol J. Mackey (1978) Ancient Burial Patterns of the Moche Valley, Peru. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70329-5.

Dornan, S.S. (1927–1930) Bantu Studies, 3: 185 (From Watt 1967)

Dornow, Alfred & Günther Petsch (1951) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 284 (56) 4: 160–163. “Notiz Darstellung des β-oxy β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Oxymescalin”), de Bis-[β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Dimezcalin”) und des β-(3,4,5-trimethoxy-phenyl)-äthylamins (“Mezcalin”).”

Dornow, Alfred & Günther Petsch (1952) Archiv der Pharmazie, und Berichte der Deutschen Pharmazeutischen Gesellschaft, 285: 323–326. “Über die Darstellung des Oxymezcalins und Mezcalins. 2. Mitteilung.”

Dorrance, D.L. et al. (1975) Journal of the American Medical Association, 234 (3): 299–302. “Effect of peyote on human chromosomes. Cytogenetic study of the Huichol Indians of Northern Mexico” (David L. Dorrance, Oscar Janiger & Raymond L. Teplitz)

Dowson, Thomas A. (1992) Rock Engravings of Southern Africa. Witwaterstrand University Press: Johannesburg.

DPFT News (Drug Policy Forum of Texas), 888 W. Sam Houston Pkwy. S., Suite 2248, Houston, TX 77042–1909 (Monthly newsletter) Membership $25, students $7 & newsletter subscription only is $5.

Dragendorff, George (1898) Die Heilpflanzen der Verschiedenen Völker und Zeiten. Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart. [Reprinted in 1967 by Werner Fritsch: München (Munich).]

Dreiding, André S. (1961) “The Betacyanins, A Class of Red Pigments in the Centrospermae.” p. 194[-?] in W.D. Ollis (ed) Recent Developments in the Chemistry of Natural Phenolic Compounds. [From Miller et al. 1968 & Wohlpart & Mabry 1968]

Drill, V.A. (1954) Pharmacology in Medicine. Chapter 19; page 14. McGraw-Hill Book Co. [Said to quote unpublished observations of Woods et al. [From Fischer 1958 and Kapadia & Fayez 1970]

Dronfield, Jeremy (1995)a Oxford Journal of Archaeology ,14 (3): 261-275. “Migraine, Light and Hallucinogens: The Neurocognitive Basis of Irish Megalithic Art.”

Drost (1961) Diss. Pharm (Poland) 13: 167; 1962 BA 37: 7361

Drost-Karbowska (1977) Acta Pol. Pharm. 34: 421 [CA 88: 117814b]

Drujan, B.D. et al. (1959) Canadian Journal of Biochemistry & Physiology, 37: 1153–1159. “The differential determination of catecholamines in urine.” (B.D. Drujan, T.L. Sourkes & )

Duc, C. (1936) Bolletino di oculistica, 15: 745–760. “Sintomi visivi nell’ intossicazione mescalina.”

Duke, James A. (1972) Isthmian ethnobotanical dictionary. Self-published.

Duke (no date) came from the online reference site below.

Duke, James A. (1985) CRC Handbook of Medicinal Herbs. ISBN 0-8493-3630-9. [For folk uses of San Pedros: Duke cited J. A. Duke & K.K. Wain (1981) Medicinal Plants of the World (Computer Index with over 85,000 entries. 3
volumes; 1,654 pages) This one of Duke’s primary references for his published claims but it is very poorly to awkwardly referenced. Duke often cites himself as a primary reference even when it is clear that the material was actually derived from elsewhere in the published literature.

See in “Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical
Databases
.” at www.ars-grin.gov/duke. Duke’s comment on that site’s reference page might be found illuminating: “Please note that this is far from a complete list of references used by the database, and many more will be documented as time is allotted for such weighty matters.

Duncan, C. & R.A. Deitrich (1978) Fed. Proc. 37: 420 (Abstract) “Role of tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloids in alcohol preference.”

Durand, E. et al. (1962) Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology, 14: 562–566. “Simple hypotensive and hypertensive principles from some West Indian medicinal plants.” (E. Durand, E.V. Ellington, P.C. Feng, L.J. Haynes, K.E. Magnus & N. Philip)

Durant, G.J. et al. (1976) Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, 19: 923–928. “Potential histamine H2-receptor agonists. 3. Methylhistamines.” (G.J. Durant, J.C. Emmett, C.R. Ganellin, A.M. Roe & R.A. Slater)

Durden, D.A. et al. (1976) Adv. Mass Spec. Biochem. Med. 2: 597–606. “The analysis of tetrahydroisoquinoline and tetrahydro-(beta)-carboline alkaloids as their dansyl derivatives.” (D.A. Durden, T.J. Danielson and A.A. Boulton)

Durrum, L. (1950) Journal of the American Chemical Society, 72: 2943

Dustin, C. Burton (1962) Peyotism and New Mexico. Eigenverlag: Albuquerque.

Dyumaev, K.M. & I.S. Belostotskaya (1962) Zhurnal Obschei Khimii 32 (3): 2661-2663. [Also in (1962) Journal of General Chemistry of USSR (English translation) 32 (3): 2620–2622.] “Synthesis of trisubstituted phenethylamines by catalytic reduction of w-nitrostyrenes.”